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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane

Fig. 6

Hyperammonemia impairs and sulforaphane restores spatial learning in the radial maze. Spatial learning ability in the radial maze was assessed in control (C) and hyperammonemic (HA) rats, treated with vehicle (V) or sulforaphane (SFN). Values are the mean ± SEM of seven rats per group. a Learning index was calculated as indicated in the Methods section. b Shows the number of trails needed to reach a learning criterion set at 10 points of learning index. c Shows for each day the number of rats that have reached the criterion. Values significantly different from control rats or hyperammonemic rats are indicated by asterisks or a, respectively. *p < 0.05,**p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001, aa p < 0.01

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