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Table 2 Comparison between expected additive effects and measured effects of TLR ligand interactions in embryonic ENS culture

From: TLR2 and TLR9 modulate enteric nervous system inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide

Cytokine TLR ligand combination Expected additive effect (%) Measured effect (%) N P
TNF-α Pam2CSK4 + LPS 53.9 ± 8.5 52.1 ± 7.8 5 0.744
ODN 1826 + LPS 51.9 ± 8.5 100 ± 20.4 5 0.02
IL-6 Pam2CSK4 + LPS 43.7 ± 5.7 45 ± 8.5 5 0.729
ODN 1826 + LPS 42.3 ± 5.9 100 ± 24.8 5 0.048
MCP-1 Pam2CSK4 + LPS 91.5 ± 3.6 85.2 ± 5.3 5 0.102
ODN 1826 + LPS 88.2 ± 4.3 100 ± 5.4 5 0.02
  1. The mean production of TNF-α, IL-6 or MCP-1 elicited by ODN 1826 + LPS was considered as 100 % effect. The expected additive effect of the combination of two ligands was calculated according to the model of functional interaction, represented by the equation E(ODN+LPS)expected = E(ODN)measured + E(LPS)measured – E(ODN)measured * E(LPS)measured. Statistical comparisons were performed by means of randomised block design analysis to minimise the random effects due to intrinsic culture responsiveness