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Fig. 8 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 8

From: Metformin reduces morphine tolerance by inhibiting microglial-mediated neuroinflammation

Fig. 8

Metformin inhibits phosphorylation of c-fos and CGRP in the STN. a Metformin reduces morphine-induced phosphorylation of NR1 and PKCγ in vivo (n = 4). b, c Immunofluorescence analysis data show CGRP expression and c-fos-immunoreactive neurons number. The CGRP and c-fos level were significantly increased by morphine; metformin (200 mg/kg) suppressed the increase of CGRP expression and attenuated the increase of c-fos-immunoreactive neurons number. n = 5, five images per animal. Significant difference was revealed following one-way analysis of variance (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; Bonferroni’s post hoc tests)

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