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Fig. 9 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 9

From: Combined effect of BCG vaccination and enriched environment promote neurogenesis and spatial cognition via a shift in meningeal macrophage M2 polarization

Fig. 9

BCG vaccination enhances expression of hippocampal BDNF and IGF-1; this effect could be partially prevented by minocycline and anti-IL-10 antibody treatment (60 μg/mouse, BD Bioscience). ad Representative confocal images of astrocytes (GFAP+) lining brain borders secreting BDNF (green), 3V, third ventricle. d1d3 Single channels of image (d) are presented. e Quantitative analysis by immunoreactivity of BDNF expression of the PBS-Reg group, BCG-Reg group, PBS-Enr group, and the BCG-Enr group. f, g Quantitative analyses by RT-PCR of BDNF (e) and IGF-1 (f) mRNA levels from the BCG-Enr group treated with minocycline or PBS and the BCG-Enr group treated with anti-IL-10 or IgG isotype antibodies. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 between the indicated groups by Student’s t test (n = 6 per group). Scale bars 20 μm in ad. The data are presented as the means ± SEMs

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