Skip to main content


Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: Protective and therapeutic role of 2-carba-cyclic phosphatidic acid in demyelinating disease

Fig. 2

Structure and effect of 2ccPA on CoCl2-induced apoptosis. Structure of 2ccPA 18:1. 2ccPA is the compound in which one of the phosphate oxygen is replaced with a methylene group at the sn-2 position (a). Chemically synthesized cPA derivative, 2ccPA, used for the present experiments. Light microscopic undifferentiated MO3.13 cells (b) and differentiated MO3.13 cells (c). Scale bar = 100 μm. The protein levels of MBP, Olig1, GFAP, GS, and GAPDH determined by Western blot analysis (d). Protein levels of MBP (e), Olig1 (f), and GS (g). Data are presented as the mean ± SEM, n = 6. Statistical analysis were performed using a student’s t test. (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01 vs. control). MO3.13 cells were incubated with 500 μm CoCl2 in the presence of 10 μm 2ccPA. Cell viability of MO3.13 cells were evaluated using MTT assay (h). The protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2, phosphorylated-p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK), phosphorylated-JNK (p-JNK), and GAPDH were determined by Western blot analysis (i). The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was determined using a densitometer, and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was calculated (j). Protein levels of p-p38MAPK (k) and p-JNK (l). Data are mean ± SEM, n = 6. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Newman-Keuls test (***p < 0.001 vs. control; ### p < 0.001 vs. CoCl2)

Back to article page