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Table 2 Differences of microRNA (miRNA) expression in ASD subjects with high, normal, and low IL-1ß/IL-10 ratio

From: MicroRNA expression changes in association with changes in interleukin-1ß/interleukin10 ratios produced by monocytes in autism spectrum disorders: their association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and comorbid conditions (observational study)

  miRNA numbers miRNA numbers
Upregulated Downregulated
Comparison between ASD samples
High ratioa,b vs. low ratio 21 0
  > 4-fold higher 3a  
> 3-fold higher 3  
High ratio vs. normal ratio 19 0
  > 4-fold higher 4  
> 3-fold higher 2  
Low ratio vs. normal ratio 0 0
Comparison with normal controls
High ratio vs. controls 7 0
  > 3-fold higher 2  
Low ratios vs. controls 1 2
   > 3-fold lower 1
Normal ratios vs. controls 0 1
All ASD samples vs. controls 0 0
  1. aHigh, normal, and low IL-1ß/IL-10 ratio groups were defined in the 1st paragraph of the “Results” section
  2. bNumbers of ASD samples submitted for miRNA sequencing are the following: high ratio group (N = 43), low ratio group (N = 18), and normal ratio group (N = 47). Among non-ASD control cells (N = 27), 23 samples revealed normal IL-1ß/IL-10 ratios, 2 samples revealed high ratios with > + 1 SD in 2 culture conditions, and 2 samples had low ratios with < − 1 SD in 2 culture conditions. Thus, ASD samples examined in this study revealed much higher frequency of high/low IL-1ß/IL-10 ratios, as compared to non-ASD control cells (p < 0.0005 by Fisher’s exact test)