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Table 4 Cytokine production by purified ASD PBMo with high, normal, or low IL-1ß/IL-10 ratios

From: MicroRNA expression changes in association with changes in interleukin-1ß/interleukin10 ratios produced by monocytes in autism spectrum disorders: their association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and comorbid conditions (observational study)

Cytokine measured Stimulant ASD—high (N = 43) IL-1β/IL-10 ratio ASD—normal (N = 47) ASD—low (N = 18) Non-ASD cells (N = 27)
IL-1ßa Medium 628.7 ± 455.9 420.8 ± 210.2 206.0 ± 191.2 306.2 ± 199.3
  LPS 2518.0 ± 1012.0 1968.0 ± 460.2 1407.2 ± 586.7 1968.2 ± 460.2
  Zymosan 2640.2 ± 958.0 2205.6 ± 715.2 1682.6 ± 951.3 1872.0 ± 692.1
  CL097 3470.2 ± 917.0 3008.8 ± 848.0 2836.2 ± 1126.3 2257.1 ± 1040.7
  ß-lactam 2452.2 ± 1056.3 2108.3 ± 713.6 1725.3 ± 924.6 1726.2 ± 566.9
IL-6b Medium 3701.5 ± 1746.2 3784.4 ± 1137.18 2829.1 ± 1197j 2892.2 ± 1258.0
  LPS 23,478.1 ± 9649.6 22,071.3 ± 10,171.0 24,177.8 ± 10,285.6 18,459.5 ± 10,120.8
  Zymosan 4945.1 ± 1406.1 5064.0 ± 841.9 5147.9 ± 1705.8 5050.3 ± 1068.3
  CL097 4025.3 ± 1335.0 4382.5 ± 988.2 5180.6 ± 2170.4 4111.3 ± 1556.5
  ß-lactam 4842.3 ± 1238.1 4780.5 ± 1048.8 5130.9 ± 1935.2 4641.6 ± 1184.9
TNF-αc Medium 95.7 ± 100.2 101.3 ± 139.3 49.0 ± 70.0i 73.7 ± 114.3
  LPS 478.9 ± 373.9 509.5 ± 411.5 196.8 ± 194.9i 363.8 ± 399.7
  Zymosan 716.4 ± 463.4 731.0 ± 546.0 309.0 ± 241.86 774.4 ± 587.8
  CL097 1148.1 ± 900.3 1304.7 ± 843.2 889.4 ± 534.9e 859.6 ± 685.2
  ß-lactam 1200.5 ± 859.9 1136.5 ± 681.8 689.2 ± 440.36 1061.2 ± 565.5
IL-10a Medium 678.5 ± 411.1 789.6 ± 319.98 741.8 ± 447.7 533.4 ± 301.8
  LPS 1195.0 ± 338.7 1444.9 ± 325.28 1556.6 ± 465.58 1239.8 ± 358.0
  Zymosan 851.9 ± 388.4 1144.6 ± 339.18 1166.0 ± 545.08 874.5 ± 381.1
  CL097 235.3 ± 197.5 683.4 ± 408.58 924.8 ± 549.08 491.4 ± 294.7
  ß-lactam 674.1 ± 345.9 994.7 ± 355.58 1126.5 ± 549.08 740.7 ± 412.0
TGF-ßd Medium 300.8 ± 232.5 452.5 ± 341.8 418.2 ± 232.6 421.1 ± 263.1
  LPS 301.3 ± 232.3 424.0 ± 332.3 407.2 ± 253.9 432.4 ± 266.6
  Zymosan 257.8 ± 212.2 360.1 ± 302.0 366.1 ± 216.7 375.5 ± 225.5
  CL097 192.0 ± 127.7 363.3 ± 316.4 370.1 ± 300.1 397.5 ± 280.7
  ß-lactam 245.0 ± 199.6 314.3 ± 201.4 403.7 ± 308.6 331.6 ± 182.7
  1. aAs expected, IL-1ß and IL-10 levels differ among the ASD cell groups with high, normal, and low IL-1ß/IL-10 ratios and non-ASD control cells (p < 0.005 by one-way ANOVA with the use of log-transformed data)
  2. bIL-6 level production without stimuli differed among the groups tested, reflecting a higher IL-6 production by ASD cells with high and normal IL-1ß/IL-10 ratios (p < 0.05 by one-way ANOVA with the use of log-transformed data)
  3. cNF-α levels differed among groups under LPS- and CL097-stimulated cultures by one-way ANOVA with the use of log-transformed data (p < 0.01 for LPS and p < 0.05 for CL097)
  4. dTGF-ß levels differed among groups under cultures without stimuli (p < 0.05) and under CL097-stimulated cultures (p < 0.005) by one-way ANOVA with the use of log-transformed data