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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Decreased microglial activation through gut-brain axis by prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics effectively restored cognitive function in obese-insulin resistant rats

Fig. 3

Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics on hippocampal plasticity. a Percentage normalized fEPSP slope of electrical-induced LTP by extracellular recording. b Mean fEPSP slope from 50 to 60 mins of electrical-induced LTP. c Representative images of Dil immunofluorescent under confocal microscopy (bar = 5 μm). d Mean dendritic spine density. ND: 24-week-normal diet-fed rats; HFD: 24-week high fat-fed rats; V: rats receiving PBS as vehicle; PE: rats receiving prebiotics; PO: rats receiving probiotics; C: rats receiving combination of prebiotics and probiotics as synbiotics (N = 6 of each group) *p < 0.05 in comparison with the ND-fed rats; †p < 0.05 in comparison with the HFD-fed rats receiving vehicle

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