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Table 1 Effect of genetic depletion of prodynorphin on MA-induced changes in activity in enzymatic antioxidants

From: Ginsenoside Re protects methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice via upregulation of dynorphin-mediated κ-opioid receptor and downregulation of substance P-mediated neurokinin 1 receptor

A
SOD (units/mg protein) Saline MA
1 h 3 h 6 h 12 h 1 day 3 days
Dorsal striatum WT 6.1 ± 0.6 7.5 ± 0.5 8.4 ± 0.7*’‡ 12 ± 0.4**‡ 11.1 ± 0.8**‡ 10.0 ± 0.3**‡ 6.5 ± 0.4
DYN KO 6.0 ± 0.3 15.5 ± 0.7**,# 12.9 ± 0.3**,#
NAc WT 5.0 ± 0.3 5.6 ± 0.5 6.7 ± 0.3* 6.3 ± 0.3** 7.1 ± 0.6* 6.8 ± 0.4* 5.7 ± 0.4
DYN KO 4.8 ± 0.4 11.1 ± 0.5**,# 9.1 ± 0.5**,#
Ventral midbrain WT 5.8 ± 0.4 6.5 ± 0.4 7.4 ± 0.3*,& 9.7 ± 0.6**,& 8.4  ± 0.5**,& 7.9 ± 0.4**,& 6.3 ± 0.5
DYN KO 5.9 ± 0.6 12 ± 0.6**,# 10.2 + 0.4
B
Catalase (units/mg protein) Saline MA
1 h 3 h 6 h 12 h 1 day 3 days
Dorsal striatum WT 1.7 ± 0.09 2.0 ± 0.16 2.1 ± 0.07*,† 2.4 ± 0.14**,† 2.6 ± 0.19**,‡ 2.5 ± 0.13**,‡ 1.9 ± 0.09
DYN KO 1.6 ± 0.08 2.4 ± 0.06** 2.2 ± 0.08*
NAc WT 1.4 ± 0.06& 1.5 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.08* 1.7 ± 0.08 1.9 ± 0.06** 1.8 ± 0.11* 1.6 ± 0.07*
DYN KO 1.2 ± 0.05 1.8 ± 0.08* 1.6 ± 0.09*
Ventral midbrain WT 1.6 ± 0.09 1.7 ± 0.32 1.8 ± 0.12 1.9 ± 0.09* 2.2 ± 0.13**,& 2.1 ± 0.11**,& 1.8 ± 0.09
DYN KO 1.3 ± 0.07 2 ± 0.09* 1.8 ± 0.09*
C
GPx (nmole NADPH/min/mg protein) Saline MA
1 h 3 h 6 h 12 h 1 day 3 days
Dorsal striatum WT 9.9 + 0.3 8.5 ± 0.8 7.4 ± 0.4* 4.9 ± 0.5**,† 5.4 ± 0.3**,† 5.6 ± 0.4**,† 8.4 ± 0.6
DYN KO 9.3 ± 0.5 3.9 ± 0.5**,# 5.3 ± 0.4**,#
NAc WT 8.7 ± 0.4 8.3 ± 0.3 7.3 ± 0.3* 6.3 ± 0.3** 6.7 ± 0.2** 7.1 ± 0.5** 8.3 ± 0.2
DYN KO 8.2 ± 0.4 4.9 ± 0.3**,# 6.1 ± 0.4**,#
Ventral midbrain WT 9.2 ± 0.6 8.7 ± 0.3 7.8 ± 0.5* 6.7 ± 0.3** 6.7 ± 0.5** 7.0 ± 0.4** 8.6 ± 0.3
DYN KO 8.9 ± 0.4 5.1 ± 0.5**,# 6.3 ± 0.5**,#
  1. SOD superoxide dismutase, GPx glutathione peroxidase, Sal saline, MA methamphetamine 35 mg/kg, i.p, WT wild-type mice, DYN KO prodynorphin knockout mice. Each value is the mean ± SEM of six animals [two-way ANOVA (time points × brain regions) followed by Fisher’s LSD pairwise comparisons. Additional two-way ANOVA (time points × gene) with Fisher’s LSD pairwise comparisons was done to examine the effect of DYN KO 6 h and 1 day after MA]. *p < 0.05,**p < 0.01 vs. corresponding Saline.#p < 0.05,##p < 0.01 vs. corresponding MA/WT. p < 0.05, p < 0.01 vs. corresponding NAc or ventral midbrain. &p < 0.05 vs. corresponding NAc