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Table 1 Neural inflammation initiated due to other neurological pathologiesᅟ

From: The role of inflammation in the development of epilepsy

Neurological disorders Inflammatory contribution to epilepsy development
Traumatic brain injury Damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) stimulation of immune system
Significant CCL2 increase
Neutrophil recruitment —> BBB damage
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release —> activate vascular endothelium —> T cell infiltration of BBB
Status epilepticus Elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 transcript levels
Albumin extravasation <—>BBB breakdown
EP2-COX2 upregulation
TLR pathways stimulated [138]
Multiple sclerosis Increased oxidative stress and ROS
Activation of microglia
Recruitment of T-cells, B-cells, and macrophages [139]
GBM IL-8 up-regulation via EGFRvIII
IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation
IL-1β-dependent activation of NF-κB, p38 MAPK and JNKs pathways [140]
Stroke TNF-α, IL-1Β, IL-6 upregulation
ICAM and VCAM upregulation
MMP-9 increase
MCP-1,(MIP-1α), fractalkine (CX3CL1) increase [141]
Alzheimer’s disease MCP-1, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), CXCL8, CCL5 increase
Deposition of Aβ generates ROS
Activation of the complement cascade [142]