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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Activin A increases phagocytosis of Escherichia coli K1 by primary murine microglial cells activated by toll-like receptor agonists

Fig. 4

Release of proinflammatory cytokines and NO by microglial cells treated with phagocytosis-enhancing concentrations of activin A and different TLR agonists. Comparison of concentrations of TNF-α (pg/ml) (ac), IL-6 (pg/ml) (df), CXCL1 (pg/ml) (gi), and NO (μM) (jl) in the supernatants of microglial cells after treatment with activin A in concentrations of 0.13, 1.3, and 13 ng/ml in combination with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 (P3C; 0.1 μg/ml; a, d, g, j), the TLR4 agonist LPS (0.01 μg/ml; b, e, h / 0.003 μg/ml; k) and the TLR9 agonist CpG (1 μg/ml; c, f, i / 0.1 μg/ml; l) and of microglial cells treated with the respective TLR agonist alone [ac: n = 8–28 from up to 6 experiments; di: n = 8–17 from up to four experiments; jl: n = 3 from one single experiment]. Data are presented as medians with interquartile ranges and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison test. No significant differences were detected. Please mind the interrupted y-axis in and gi

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