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Fig. 2 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 2

From: ZIKV infection activates the IRE1-XBP1 and ATF6 pathways of unfolded protein response in neural cells

Fig. 2

ZIKV infection upregulates the expression of phospho-IRE1, XBP1, and ATF6 in the mouse brain. Three-week-old AG6 mice were infected with 1 × 105 PFU/mouse (each dose, N = 3) via intraperitoneal injection. a, b, c Sections of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and mesocephalon were obtained at 5 dpi, and anti-phospho-IRE1 antibody (a), anti-XBP1 antibody (recognizing both non-spliced and spliced isoforms of XBP1) (b), and anti-ATF6 antibody (recognizing both cleaved and full forms of ATF6) (c) were used for immunohistochemistry assay. Purple dots represent the cell nucleus. Brown spots represent the ZIKV envelope protein. A representative of three independent experiments is shown. Positive cells marked by white squares were magnified nine times and showed on the top-right corner. d, e, f Aperio ImageScope viewing software was used to analyze the percentage of positivity (algorithm, positive pixel count). Data represented three independent experiments and error bars indicate mean ± SD. Statistical analyses were performed using multiple t tests (N = 3) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01)

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