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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Blood-brain barrier permeability and physical exercise

Fig. 1

A low-grade systemic inflammation observed in metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia and obesity contributes to BBB damage via pro-inflammatory cytokines inducing kynurenine pathway leading to neurotoxic process on BBB and its permeability. In inflammatory states, ROS are also produced and may impair TJs structure and function causing the direct damage of BBB. RAA system activation due to the systemic inflammation increases the destruction of TJs and production of ROS leading to further damage of TJs and BBB. Physical exercise counteracts obesity and diminishes the low-grade systemic inflammation, production of ROS and changes kynurenine pathway metabolism course into neuroprotective agents as well as downregulates brain RAA system, which all leads to BBB protection. BBB blood-brain barrier, ROS reactive oxygen species, TJs tight junctions, RAA renin-angiotensin-aldosterone

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