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Table 1 Summary of receptors of microglia involved in viral encephalitis

From: The role of microglia in viral encephalitis: a review

Articles Recognition Receptors’ classification Location Effects
Paludan et al. [19] DNA sensors TLR3/9; cGAS Endosomes; cytoplasm Leading to activation of IRFs and induction of IFNsStimulating autophagy and different types of cell death
Activating the inflammatory NF-kB and inflammasome pathways
Mogensen [21] RNA sensors; surface glycoproteins (GP) sensors TLR7/8RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5); TLR2/4 Endosome/cytoplasm; cell surface Resulting in an antiviral response mediated by type I IFN and cytokine production
Sperlagh et al. [11] ATP/adenosine sensors P2X7/P2X4; A1/A2A/A3 adenosine receptors Cell surface Involved in secretion of various factors, such as IL–1β, IL–6, and TNF-α, mediating apoptosis
Regulating the proliferation/survival of microglia
Fekete et al. [9] ATP P2Y12 Cell surface Microglia are recruited around the infected neurons via P2Y12 signaling
P2Y12 is essential for microglia to exert phagocytic activity.
Vasek et al. [52] Complement C3 and C3 cleavage products C3R Cell surface Damaging of presynaptic ends and resulting in visual-spatial processing disorders and impaired memory function