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Table 4 Ultrastructural analysis of microglial processes in healthy (APP-H), dystrophic (APP-D), and plaque and dystrophy (APP-P) containing regions of APPSwe-PS1Δe9 mice

From: Ultrastructural evidence of microglial heterogeneity in Alzheimer’s disease amyloid pathology

  APP-H APP-D APP-P
Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM Mean ± SEM
Area (μm2) 0.361 ± 0.026 0.451 ± 0.033 0.485 ± 0.037
Perimeter (μm) 3.333 ± 0.197 3.575 ± 0.2 3.317 ± 0.209
Circularity (a.u.) 0.486 ± 0.016 0.501 ± 0.017 0.488 ± 0.018
Roundness (a.u.) 0.485 ± 0.014 0.527 ± 0.014 0.492 ± 0.016
Solidity (a.u.) 0.768 ± 0.012 0.789 ± 0.012 0.775 ± 0.125
Lipidic inclusion (n) 0.295 ± 0.050 0.225 ± 0.046 0.487 ± 0.07##
Fibrillar materials inclusion (n) 0 0 0.047 ± 0.027~#
Phagocytic process (%) 0.2 ± 0.028 0.255 ± 0.031 0.24 ± 0.035
Total inclusion (n) 0.295 ± 0.046 0.4 ± 0.056 0.38 ± 0.687
Non-empty inclusion (n) 0.115 ± 0.029 0.19 ± 0.038 0.193 ± 0.041
Empty inclusion (n) 0.18 ± 0.035 0.21 ± 0.04 0.147 ± 0.038
ER dilation (n) 0.025 ± 0.011 0.05 ± 0.154 0.033 ± 0.0175
Extracellular debris (n) 0.24 ± 0.04 0.255 ± 0.039 0.24 ± 0.047
Total lysosome (n) 0.005 ± 0.005 0.002 ± 0.01 0.0933 ± 0.04~
Primary lysosome (n) 0 0.02 ± 0.016 0
Secondary lysosome (n) 0.005 ± 0.005 0.01 ± 0.007 0.06 ± 0.027~
Tertiary lysosome (n) 0 0.01 ± 0.007 0.033 ± 0.024
Encircled Aβ (n) 0 0 0.047 ± 0.027~#
Encircled synaptic element (n) 0.345 ± 0.067 0.215 ± 0.049 0.14 ± 0.038~
Encircled dendritic spine (n) 0.185 ± 0.038 0.115 ± 0.028 0.08 ± 0.026
Encircled axonal terminal (n) 0.155 ± 0.028 0.09 ± 0.024 0.053 ± 0.018
Encircled degraded structure (n) 0.025 ± 0.013 0.04 ± 0.017 0.006 ± 0.006
  1. a.u. arbitrary unit, n number per microglial process. ~ significant difference from APP-H; # significant difference from APP-D