Most expressed cytokines at disease onset in humans and macaques. Cytokines IL6, G-CSF, IL8, and IFNγ were found mostly elevated in the plasma and the CSF of human ADS and macaque EAE. a No significant differences are observed in levels of the four cytokines in plasma of patients with ADS MOG− (gray circles, ADS−) or ADS MOG+ (black squares, ADS+) at onset of disease. b In the CSF of patients with ADS MOG+, IL6 and G-CSF are significantly increased as compared to that in patients with ADS MOG−. c In macaque plasma at EAE onset, cytokine levels are not significantly different than that measured before immunization. d In the CSF of macaques at onset of EAE, IL6, G-CSF, IL8, and IFNγ were found significantly increased as compared to the baseline. Statistics, Mann-Whitney test two tailed. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01.