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Fig. 1 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 1

From: Type I interferon (IFN)-inducible Absent in Melanoma 2 proteins in neuroinflammation: implications for Alzheimer’s disease

Fig. 1

Aim2 protein-mediated modulation of AD-related inflammation. Mouse microglia express detectable basal levels of Aim2 protein. Detection of low levels of cytosolic DNA, released in the brain due to traumatic brain injury (TBI), pyroptosis (caused by activation of inflammasomes), and brain infections, by cGAS activates the IFN-stimulatory DNA (ISD) pathway and the T1 IFN response, resulting in upregulation of the Aim2 gene expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The IL-10 suppresses neuroinflammation. Detection of increased levels of cytosolic DNA by macrophages/microglia activates the Aim2 inflammasome, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-18) and cell death by pyroptosis. The activation of the Aim2 inflammasome and pyroptosis contributes to AD-related inflammation and associated neurotoxicity, resulting in neurodegeneration. Cell death by pyroptosis inhibits the ISD pathway and the production of IL-10

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