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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Metformin inhibits intracranial aneurysm formation and progression by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switching via the AMPK/ACC pathway

Fig. 4

AMPK phosphorylation stimulates contractility-related gene expression and decreases the levels of inflammatory mediators in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. A Representative images and quantitative analysis of α-SMA (red) and SM22α (green) expression in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs treated with 5, 50, or 500 μM metformin and compound C. (a, b) Representative images of α-SMA and SM22α immunofluorescence in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs (a) and quantitative analysis of mean fluorescence intensity (b). BG qRT-PCR analysis of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-3, MMP-9, iNOS, and TNF-α expression in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs treated as indicated. H, I qRT-PCR analysis of α-SMA and SM22α levels. J Western blot analysis of total AMPK, p-AMPK, α-SMA, SM22α, and GAPDH in VSMCs treated as indicated. (a, b) Representative immunoblot (a) and quantification (b).*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs control group; #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 vs 500 μM metformin group. Scale bar = 50 μM

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