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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Metformin inhibits intracranial aneurysm formation and progression by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype switching via the AMPK/ACC pathway

Fig. 6

Metformin modulates VSMC switching phenotype via AMPK/ACC signaling. A Representative images and quantitative analysis of α-SMA (red) and p-AMPK (green) expression in control, ND-646, and ND-646 + metformin groups following PDGF-BB induction. (a) Representative immunofluorescence images of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. (b, c) Quantitative analysis of mean fluorescence intensity of α-SMA (b) and p-AMPK (c). BG qRT-PCR analysis of IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-3, MMP-9, iNOS, and TNF-α expression in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs treated as indicated. H, I qRT-PCR analysis of α-SMA and SM22α mRNA levels. J Western blot analysis of total AMPK, p-AMPK, ACC, p-ACC, α-SMA, SM22α, and GAPDH expression in VSMCs treated as indicated. (a, b) Representative western blot (a) and quantification (b).*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs control group; #P < 0.05 vs ND-646 group. Scale bar = 50 μM

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