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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Inhibiting HMGB1-RAGE axis prevents pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia polarization and affords neuroprotection after spinal cord injury

Fig. 6

Inhibiting HMGB1or RAGE reduced the numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia after SCI. Quantification of pro-inflammatory mRNA of iNOS (a), IL-12 (b), CD86 (c), and TNFα (d) in saline-, glycyrrhizin-, or FPS-ZM1-treated rats at 14 dpi. Results are presented as mean ± SEM. N = 3/group, *P < 0.05. e Representative images of double-staining of iNOS and Iba-1 in saline- or FPS-ZM1-treated rats at 14 dpi. Scale bar = 80 μm. f Quantification of iNOS-positive microglia/macrophages in the bilateral areas 200 μm rostral and caudal to the lesion site. Notice the decrease of iNOS-positive microglia/macrophages in FPS-ZM1-treated rats. Results are mean ± SEM. N = 5/group, *P < 0.05. gi Quantification of the expression levels of iNOS and CD86 in sham group, saline-, or FPS-ZM1-treated rats at 14 days after SCI. N = 5/goup, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01

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