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Fig. 7 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 7

From: Activated STAT3 signaling pathway by ligature-induced periodontitis could contribute to neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in rats

Fig. 7

Effects of ligature-induced periodontitis on astrocytes in the hippocampus and cortex. Histopathological analysis of brain sections was performed using immunohistochemistry. The detected regions were illustrated in sagittal section of the brain. Activated astrocytes (with irregular protrusions) were attenuated by pre-treatment of CTS. Astrocytes were labeled by GFAP (a) (red arrows). Quantification of GFAP levels in the hippocampus and cortex were shown: b GFAP-positive cells in the hippocampus (number/field) (F = 21.940, p = 0.0003), c GFAP-positive cells in the cortex (number/field) (F = 9.016, p = 0.0060). The example cells (d) and quantification of microglia were shown: e endpoints in the hippocampus (F = 15.080, p = 0.0012), f process lengths in hippocampus (F = 13.760, p = 0.0016), g endpoints in the cortex (F = 7.640, p = 0.0098), h process lengths in the cortex (F = 16.080, p = 0.0009), (100× and 400×, bar = 200 μm and 50 μm, respectively). (n = 3 per group, one-way ANOVA, *p < 0.05 and **p < 0.01 compared to the control group; #p < 0.05 and ##p < 0.01 compared to the CP group)

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