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Fig. 5 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 5

From: Differential and paradoxical roles of new-generation antidepressants in primary astrocytic inflammation

Fig. 5

Effects of antidepressants on CytoM-induced signaling activation in primary astrocytes. Cells were pretreated with or without 10 μM of paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, fluvoxamine, and venlafaxine for 30 min followed by stimulation of CytoM for 0 to 60 min. A Western blot analyses of STAT3, p38, JNK1/2, and ERK1/2 activation. BD Levels of p-STAT3 (B), p-JNK (C), and p-p38 (D) were quantified and normalized to their respective total levels. Values were expressed relative to the one stimulated with CytoM alone for 30 min, which was set as 100. Data are means ± SE, n = 3. Statistical comparisons were performed using two-way ANOVA. Asterisk between the indicated groups represents p < 0.05. Differences within each time point were compared and indicated by one type of letters, that is, English capital for 0 min, English lowercase for 30 min, and Greek lowercase for 60 min. Different letters of the same type represent p < 0.05. E Representative images and quantification of p65 immunostaining following CytoM stimulation for 30 min. Values were expressed relative to the one stimulated with CytoM alone, which was set as 100. Data are means ± SE, n = 3. Statistical comparisons were performed using one-way ANOVA. Different letters indicate p < 0.05. Green, GFAP; red, p65; blue, nuclei; bar size, 200 μm

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