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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical findings of AQP4-IgG+ patients, MOG-IgG+ patients and healthy controls

From: Serum GFAP and NfL as disease severity and prognostic biomarkers in patients with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

  AQP4-IgG+ MOG-IgG+a Healthy Controls SMD for AQP4-IgG+ vs. MOG-IgG+ SMD for AQP4-IgG+ vs. HC
Number, n 33 16b 38
age, years, mean (SD) 50 (14) 46 (15) 42 (13) 0.27 0.60
Female/male, n/n (% female) 30/3 (91) 10/6 (63) 31/7 (82) 0.71 0.27
Time from disease onset to baseline visit, months, median (IQR) 79 (52–108) 50 (10–148) n.a. 0.04
Time from last attack prior to baseline visit to baseline visit, months, median (IQR) 26 (11–56) 8 (4–24) n.a. 0.53
≥ 1 attack during previous year, n (%) 11 (33) 11 (69) n.a. 0.76
Type of last attack, n (%)c 0.65
 Optic neuritis 12 (36) 10 (63) n.a.   
 Myelitis 19 (58) 6 (37) n.a.   
 Brainstem encephalitis 1 (3) 0 (0) n.a.   
EDSS, median (IQR) 4.0 (2.0–5.0) 2.5 (2.0–3.0) n.a. 0.63
MSFC, mean (SD) − 0.03 (0.69) 0.25 (0.58) n.a. 0.44
9-HPT score, mean (SD) 0.0484 (0.0084) 0.0483 (0.0084) n.a. 0.01
T25-FW, s, median (IQR) 5.3 (4.2– 6.2) 4.1 (3.1– 4.9) n.a. 0.92
PASAT, median (IQR) 51 (33– 55) 54 (42– 58) n.a. 0.31
Immunotherapy, n (%) No: 4 (12) Any: 29 (88) No: 4 (25) Any: 12 (75) n.a. 0.34
RTX: 20 (61) AZA: 6 (18) RTX: 8 (50) AZA: 1 (6) n.a.
MMF: 1 (3) BEL: 1 (3) TCZ: 1 (3) MMF: 1 (6) GLC: 2 (13) n.a.
sGFAP (pg/ml), median (IQR) 109.2 (63.1– 154.8) 81.1 (58.2–116.9) 67.7 (56.6–90.7) 0.03 0.86
sNfL (pg/ml), median (IQR) 21.9 (16.6–41.4) 26.6 (15.9– 43.7) 19.2 (13.7– 29.4) 0.23 0.45
  1. aIn all MOG-IgG+ patients, presence of MOG-IgG+ was confirmed in at least two different assays
  2. bOf the 16 MOG-IgG+ patients, 4 met the Wingerchuk 2015 criteria for AQP4-IgG- NMOSD [7]
  3. cOne AQP4-IgG+ patient had sudden-onset gait impairment as leading symptom at last attack, not clearly attributable to either a brainstem or a myelon lesion
  4. 9-HPT 9-Hole Peg Test, AQP4-IgG aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G, AZA azathioprine, BEL belimumab, EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale, GLC glucocorticosteroids, IQR inter quartile range, MMF mycophenolate mofetil, MOG-IgG myelin oligodendrocyte protein immunoglobulin G, MSFC multiple sclerosis functional composite, n number, n.a. not applicable, NMOSD neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, PASAT paced auditory serial addition test, RTX rituximab, s seconds, SD standard deviation, sGFAP serum glial fibrillary acidic protein, SMD standardized mean difference, sNfL serum neurofilament light chain protein, T25-FW timed 25-foot walk, TCZ tocilizumab