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Fig. 6 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 6

From: Transient neuroinflammation following surgery contributes to long-lasting cognitive decline in elderly rats via dysfunction of synaptic NMDA receptor

Fig. 6

Glycyrrhizin reversed NMDAR downregulation and dysfunction and rescued the spatial recognition memory deficit. a Graphic illustration of the experimental protocol. b Representative immunoblots and corresponding densitometry analysis of c NR2A, d NR2B, and e NR1 protein levels in the total dHPC homogenate on postoperative days 1, 6, and 13 (n = 6 rats per group). f Graphic illustration of the experimental protocol. g Representative immunoblots and corresponding densitometry analysis of h NR2A, i NR2B, and j NR1 protein levels in the total dHPC homogenate, TxS, and TxP on postoperative day 13 (n = 6 rats per group). k Graphic illustration of the experimental protocol. lo Representative immunoblots and corresponding densitometry analysis of Rac1–GTP, total Rac1, phospho-Cofilin, Cofilin, and Arp3 protein levels in the dHPC on postoperative day 14 following behavioral training (n = 6 rats per group). p Representative images of the secondary branch of apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the dHPC on postoperative day 14 captured with a 100 × objective. q Quantitative analysis of the total spine, mushroom-shaped spine, thin-shaped spine, filopodia-shaped spine, and stubby-shaped spine densities in the dHPC (n = 24 neurons from 4 rats per group). r Discrimination ratio and s total time spent exploring objects in the OLM during sample and test sessions on postoperative day 14 (Control-saline, n = 8, Surgery-saline, n = 8, Control-glycyrrhizin, n = 9, Surgery-glycyrrhizin, n = 10). GLY glycyrrhizin, OLM object location memory, H homogenate, TxS Triton X-100-soluble, TxP Triton X-100-insoluble. Data are presented as means ± SEM and statistical analyzed by a one-way ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s test (c, d, e, h, i, j, m, n, o, q, r, and s). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, and ***p < 0.001 compared with Control-saline; #p < 0.05 and ###p < 0.001 compared with Surgery-saline

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