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  1. Content type: Research

    Activated microglia play an essential role in inflammatory responses elicited in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are suggested to be involved in propagation of ...

    Authors: Yiyi Yang, Antonio Boza-Serrano, Christopher J. R. Dunning, Bettina Hjelm Clausen, Kate Lykke Lambertsen and Tomas Deierborg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:168

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  2. Content type: Research

    A wealth of evidence implicates both central and peripheral immune changes as contributing to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). It is critical to better understand this aspect of PD given that it i...

    Authors: C. H. Williams-Gray, R. S. Wijeyekoon, K. M. Scott, S. Hayat, R. A. Barker and J. L. Jones

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:166

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  3. Content type: Research

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic cell loss and inflammation in the substantia nigra (SN) leading to motor deficits but also to hippocampus-associated non-motor symptoms such as spatial...

    Authors: Elisabeth G. Hain, Maria Sparenberg, Justyna Rasińska, Charlotte Klein, Levent Akyüz and Barbara Steiner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:162

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  4. Content type: Research

    Acute-phase response is a systemic reaction to environmental/inflammatory insults and involves production of acute-phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a master regulator of...

    Authors: Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Morena Zusso, Stephen D. Skaper and Pietro Giusti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:164

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  5. Content type: Research

    Over the past 30 years, evidence has been accumulating for an immunological component to schizophrenia etiology, including genetic links to the major histocompatibility complex, microglia activation, and dysre...

    Authors: Tyler A. Lesh, Milo Careaga, Destanie R. Rose, A. Kimberley McAllister, Judy Van de Water, Cameron S. Carter and Paul Ashwood

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:165

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  6. Content type: Research

    The gold standard in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell immunophenotyping is flow cytometry. Nevertheless, the small amount of CSF cells and the invasive character of lumbar puncture limit the spectrum of possible...

    Authors: Martin W. Hümmert, Sascha Alvermann, Stefan Gingele, Catharina C. Gross, Heinz Wiendl, Anja Mirenska, Christian Hennig and Martin Stangel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:160

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  7. Content type: Research

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is recognized to mainly contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) has been proved to be beneficial for health with a ...

    Authors: Yanzhen Zhou, Guoqing Wang, Daidi Li, Yanying Wang, Qin Wu, Jingshan Shi and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:161

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  8. Content type: Research

    Because of their low levels of expression and the inadequacy of current research tools, CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2R) have been difficult to study, particularly in the brain. This receptor is especially releva...

    Authors: Alicia López, Noelia Aparicio, M. Ruth Pazos, M. Teresa Grande, M. Asunción Barreda-Manso, Irene Benito-Cuesta, Carmen Vázquez, Mario Amores, Gonzalo Ruiz-Pérez, Elena García-García, Margaret Beatka, Rosa M. Tolón, Bonnie N. Dittel, Cecilia J. Hillard and Julián Romero

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:158

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  9. Content type: Research

    Pyrethroids, such as bifenthrin (BF), are among the most widely used class of insecticides that pose serious risks to human and wildlife health. Pyrethroids are proposed to affect astrocytic functions and to c...

    Authors: Brahim Gargouri, Nizar M. Yousif, Michèle Bouchard, Hamadi Fetoui and Bernd L. Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:159

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  10. Content type: Research

    Severe hypoglycemia induces brain edema by upregulating aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression and by degrading tight junctions. Acute severe hypoglycemia induces a proinflammatory environment that may contribute to a ...

    Authors: Fei Zhao, Jiangshan Deng, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengya Cao, Kaili Lu, Dawei Li, Xiaojuan Cheng, Xiuzhe Wang and Yuwu Zhao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:157

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  11. Content type: Research

    Atypical chemokine receptor 3 (ACKR3, synonym CXCR7) is increasingly considered relevant in neuroinflammatory conditions, in which its upregulation contributes to compromised endothelial barrier function and m...

    Authors: Christine Silwedel, Christian P. Speer, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Mathias Buttmann and Kirsten Glaser

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:156

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  12. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) begins with the application of mechanical force to the head or brain, which initiates systemic and cellular processes that are hallmarks of the disease. The pathological cascade of...

    Authors: Rachel K. Rowe, Jordan L. Harrison, Hongtao Zhang, Adam D. Bachstetter, David P. Hesson, Bruce F. O’Hara, Mark I. Greene and Jonathan Lifshitz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:154

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  13. Content type: Research

    Immune activation, specifically activation of macrophages and resident microglia, leading to inflammation is a key component in the progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). Macrophages/microglia exist in two s...

    Authors: Shun Xu, Wei Zhu, Minghao Shao, Fan Zhang, Ji Guo, Haocheng Xu, Jianyuan Jiang, Xiaosheng Ma, Xinlei Xia, Xiuling Zhi, Ping Zhou and Feizhou Lu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:155

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  14. Content type: Research

    Microglia play key roles in neuron–glia interaction, neuroinflammation, neural repair, and neurotoxicity. Currently, various microglial in vitro models including primary microglia derived from distinct isolati...

    Authors: Yingbo He, Xiang Yao, Natalie Taylor, Yuchen Bai, Timothy Lovenberg and Anindya Bhattacharya

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:153

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  15. Content type: Research

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine ...

    Authors: Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang and Wen-Ning Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:152

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  16. Content type: Research

    Microglial polarization with M1/M2 phenotype shifts and the subsequent neuroinflammatory responses are vital contributing factors for spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced secondary injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB...

    Authors: Shoubo Chen, Jingfang Ye, Xiangrong Chen, Jinnan Shi, Wenhua Wu, Wenping Lin, Weibin Lin, Yasong Li, Huangde Fu and Shun Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:150

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Rheumatoid meningitis (RM) is a rare disorder that often develops during a remission phase of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This is the first study to demonstrate differences in regard to immunological disturbanc...

    Authors: Miki Oono, Yoshimasa Fujita, Nobuaki Uchida, Ukichiro Kawai, Michiyo Fujita-Nakata, Megumi Nakanishi, Mitsuru Sanada, Shigemi Nagayama and Makoto Matsui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:151

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  18. Content type: Review

    Our knowledge of the pathophysiology about traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still limited. Neutrophils, as the most abundant leukocytes in circulation and the first-line transmigrated immune cells at the sites ...

    Authors: Yang-Wuyue Liu, Song Li and Shuang-Shuang Dai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:146

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  19. Content type: Research

    Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without ...

    Authors: Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong and Raymond Chuen Chung Chang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:147

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  20. Content type: Research

    Activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) occurs after stroke and leads to an exacerbation of brain injury. TAK1 is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but it has diver...

    Authors: Anjali Chauhan, Jacob Hudobenko, Abdullah Al Mamun, Edward C. Koellhoffer, Anthony Patrizz, Rodney M. Ritzel, Bhanu P. Ganesh and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:148

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  21. Content type: Research

    Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that...

    Authors: Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning and Eng H. Lo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:143

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  22. Content type: Review

    Epilepsy, a neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures, is often associated with a history of previous lesions in the nervous system. Impaired regulation of the activation and resolution of infla...

    Authors: Amna Rana and Alberto E. Musto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:144

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  23. Content type: Research

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to promote antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor remissions. However, certain tumors are refractory to current immunotherapy. These negative results encourag...

    Authors: Peng-fei Wang, Hong-qing Cai, Chuan-bao Zhang, Yan-Michael Li, Xiang Liu, Jing-hai Wan, Tao Jiang, Shou-wei Li and Chang-Xiang Yan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:145

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  24. Content type: Research

    Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral ...

    Authors: Justin R. Piro, Georgette L. Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M. O’Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A. Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D. Bell and Tarek A. Samad

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:142

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