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  1. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a severe neuropathological disorder caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Brain TBEV infection is characterized by extensive pathological neuroinflammation. The mecha...

    Authors: Petra Pokorna Formanova, Martin Palus, Jiri Salat, Vaclav Hönig, Michal Stefanik, Pavel Svoboda and Daniel Ruzek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:205

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Chronic pain often occurs in the elderly, particularly in the patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although studies indicate that chronic pain correlates with cognitive d...

    Authors: Song Cao, Daniel W. Fisher, Tain Yu and Hongxin Dong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:204

    Content type: Review

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  3. Retinal optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a clinical and research tool in multiple sclerosis, where it has shown significant retinal nerve fiber (RNFL) and ganglion cell (RGC) layer thinning, while postmor...

    Authors: Andrés Cruz-Herranz, Michael Dietrich, Alexander M. Hilla, Hao H. Yiu, Marc H. Levin, Christina Hecker, Andrea Issberner, Angelika Hallenberger, Christian Cordano, Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Lisanne J. Balk, Orhan Aktas, Jens Ingwersen, Charlotte von Gall, Hans-Peter Hartung, Scott S. Zamvil…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:203

    Content type: Research

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  4. The thymus plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). In patients with MG, natural regulatory T cells (nTreg), a subpopulation of T cells that maintain tolerance to self-antigens, a...

    Authors: Peng Zhang, Ru-Tao Liu, Tong Du, Chun-Lin Yang, Yu-Dong Liu, Meng-Ru Ge, Min Zhang, Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Ying-Chun Dou and Rui-Sheng Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:202

    Content type: Research

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  5. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including those with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, have higher rates of psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety; however, the mechanism o...

    Authors: Kohei Takahashi, Osamu Nakagawasai, Wataru Nemoto, Takayo Odaira, Wakana Sakuma, Hiroshi Onogi, Hiroaki Nishijima, Ryuji Furihata, Yukio Nemoto, Hiroyuki Iwasa, Koichi Tan-No and Takeshi Tadano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:201

    Content type: Research

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  6. Neuroinflammation can modulate brain development; however, the influence of an acute peripheral immune challenge on neuroinflammatory responses in the early postnatal brain is not well characterized. To addres...

    Authors: Matthew Bruce, Karin M. Streifel, Casey A. Boosalis, Luke Heuer, Eduardo A. González, Shuyang Li, Danielle J. Harvey, Pamela J. Lein and Judy Van de Water

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:200

    Content type: Research

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  7. Macrophage-derived high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein, plays a key role in the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) caused by pa...

    Authors: Maho Tsubota, Ryotaro Fukuda, Yusuke Hayashi, Takaya Miyazaki, Shin Ueda, Rika Yamashita, Nene Koike, Fumiko Sekiguchi, Hidenori Wake, Shuji Wakatsuki, Yuka Ujiie, Toshiyuki Araki, Masahiro Nishibori and Atsufumi Kawabata

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:199

    Content type: Research

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  8. Epilepsy, a common multifactorial neurological disease, affects about 69 million people worldwide constituting nearly 1% of the world population. Despite decades of extensive research on understanding its unde...

    Authors: Chitra Rawat, Samiksha Kukal, Ujjwal Ranjan Dahiya and Ritushree Kukreti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:197

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  9. The involvement of non-neuronal cells and the cells of innate immunity has been attributed to the initiation and progression of ALS. TDP-43 pathology is observed in a broad spectrum of ALS cases and is one of ...

    Authors: Javier H. Jara, Mukesh Gautam, Nuran Kocak, Edward F. Xie, Qinwen Mao, Eileen H. Bigio and P. Hande Özdinler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:196

    Content type: Research

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  10. IL-10 knockout (KO) mice are protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with low-dose estrogen (E2) treatment similar to wild-type (WT) mice. Previous studies have demonstrated a decrease i...

    Authors: Hilary A. Seifert, Grant Gerstner, Gail Kent, Arthur A. Vandenbark and Halina Offner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:195

    Content type: Research

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  11. Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy causes life-long morbidity and premature mortality in term neonates. Therapies in addition to whole-body cooling are under development to treat the neonate at risk for HI e...

    Authors: Nozha Borjini, Sandra Sivilia, Alessandro Giuliani, Mercedes Fernandez, Luciana Giardino, Fabrizio Facchinetti and Laura Calzà

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:194

    Content type: Research

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  12. Patients with pre-existing neurodegenerative disease commonly experience fractures that require orthopedic surgery. Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND), including delirium and postoperative cognitive ...

    Authors: Patrick Miller-Rhodes, Cuicui Kong, Gurpreet S. Baht, Priyanka Saminathan, Ramona M. Rodriguiz, William C. Wetsel, Harris A. Gelbard and Niccolò Terrando

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:193

    Content type: Research

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  13. Neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption are two vital mechanisms of secondary brain injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r) activation by Nl...

    Authors: Xuan Wu, Siming Fu, Yun Liu, Hansheng Luo, Feng Li, Yiying Wang, Meng Gao, Yuan Cheng and Zongyi Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:192

    Content type: Research

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  14. Targeting angiogenesis has been and continues to be an attractive therapeutic modality in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, GBM rapidly becomes refractory to anti-VEGF therapies. Myeloid cell infiltration is ...

    Authors: Aurélie Soubéran, Sophie Brustlein, Caroline Gouarné, Lionel Chasson, Aurélie Tchoghandjian, Marie Malissen and Geneviève Rougon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:191

    Content type: Research

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  15. The FDA-approved small-molecule drug dasatinib is currently used as a treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, the effects of dasatinib on microglial and/or astrocytic neuroinflammatory responses...

    Authors: Ka-Young Ryu, Hyun-ju Lee, Hanwoong Woo, Ri-Jin Kang, Kyung-Min Han, HyunHee Park, Sang Min Lee, Ju-Young Lee, Yoo Joo Jeong, Hyun-Wook Nam, Youngpyo Nam and Hyang-Sook Hoe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:190

    Content type: Research

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  16. Prostatodynia is the main symptom of chronic prostatitis and the main reason that patients go to the hospital for treatment. Although a variety of factors, including inflammatory immune response, nervous syste...

    Authors: Guo-Chuang Deng, Ming Lu, Ya-Yu Zhao, Ying Yuan and Gang Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:189

    Content type: Research

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  17. The glial response in multiple sclerosis (MS), especially for recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), predicts the success of remyelination of MS plaques and return of funct...

    Authors: Tianci Chu, Yi Ping Zhang, Zhisen Tian, Chuyuan Ye, Mingming Zhu, Lisa B. E. Shields, Maiying Kong, Gregory N. Barnes, Christopher B. Shields and Jun Cai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:188

    Content type: Research

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  18. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by environmental agonists and dietary tryptophan metabolites for the immune response and cell cycle regulation. Emerging...

    Authors: Wan-Ci Chen, Li-Hsin Chang, Shiang-Suo Huang, Yu-Jie Huang, Chun-Lien Chih, Hung-Chih Kuo, Yi-Hsuan Lee and I-Hui Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:187

    Content type: Research

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  19. Blood markers indicative of neurodegeneration (neurofilament light chain; NFL), Alzheimer’s disease amyloid pathology (amyloid-β; Aβ), and neuroinflammation (kynurenine pathway; KP metabolites) have been inves...

    Authors: Pratishtha Chatterjee, Henrik Zetterberg, Kathryn Goozee, Chai K. Lim, Kelly R. Jacobs, Nicholas J. Ashton, Abdul Hye, Steve Pedrini, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Tejal Shah, Prita R. Asih, Preeti Dave, Kaikai Shen, Kevin Taddei, David B. Lovejoy, Gilles J. Guillemin…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:186

    Content type: Research

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  20. Oxidative stress and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation influence intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation and progression. Oxidative stress plays an important role in phenotype switching, an...

    Authors: Yuan Shi, Sichen Li, Yaying Song, Peixi Liu, Zixiao Yang, Yingjun Liu, Kai Quan, Guo Yu, Zhiyuan Fan and Wei Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:185

    Content type: Research

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  21. Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previ...

    Authors: Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein and Meredith Gregory-Ksander

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:184

    Content type: Research

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  22. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known for activating the innate immune system; however, it is also highly expressed in adaptive immune cells, such as CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, which play a key role in mu...

    Authors: Xuebin Qu, Jingjing Han, Ying Zhang, Xingqi Wang, Hongbin Fan, Fang Hua and Ruiqin Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:183

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Since HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) occur in up to half of HIV-positive individuals, even with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), adjunctive therapies are needed. Chronic CNS inflammatio...

    Authors: Christina Gavegnano, Woldeab B. Haile, Selwyn Hurwitz, Sijia Tao, Yong Jiang, Raymond F. Schinazi and William R. Tyor

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:182

    Content type: Research

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  24. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) initiates endogenous protective pathways in the brain from a distance and represents a new, promising paradigm in neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I...

    Authors: Weidong Liang, Chunshui Lin, Liuqing Yuan, Li Chen, Peipei Guo, Ping Li, Wei Wang and Xin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:181

    Content type: Research

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  25. The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration is the hypothesis that endotoxin causes or contributes to neurodegeneration. Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), constituting much of the outer membrane of gr...

    Authors: Guy C. Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:180

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  26. We previously reported that Vδ2+Vγ9+ γδ T cells were significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients without disease-modifying therapies (untreated MS) and were negatively correlated with Expanded Dis...

    Authors: Guzailiayi Maimaitijiang, Mitsuru Watanabe, Koji Shinoda, Noriko Isobe, Yuri Nakamura, Katsuhisa Masaki, Takuya Matsushita, Yasunobu Yoshikai and Jun-ichi Kira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:179

    Content type: Research

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  27. Ischemic stroke is the third cause of death in the developed countries and the main reason of severe disability. Brain ischemia leads to the production of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by neuron...

    Authors: Sylwia Dabrowska, Anna Andrzejewska, Barbara Lukomska and Miroslaw Janowski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:178

    Content type: Review

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  28. Until the end of the twentieth century, Zika virus (ZIKV) was thought to cause a mostly mild, self-limiting disease in humans. However, as the geographic distribution of ZIKV has shifted, so too has its pathog...

    Authors: Emina Hayashida, Zheng Lung Ling, Thomas M. Ashhurst, Barney Viengkhou, So Ri Jung, Pattama Songkhunawej, Phillip K. West, Nicholas J. C. King and Markus J. Hofer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:177

    Content type: Research

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  29. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors opted to correct the following mistakes. According to the title and our results, the conclusions in the abstract and at the end of the discussion ...

    Authors: Tobias J. Krämer, Nathalia Hack, Till J. Brühl, Lutz Menzel, Regina Hummel, Eva-Verena Griemert, Matthias Klein, Serge C. Thal, Tobias Bopp and Michael K. E. Schäfer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:176

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:163

  30. Regulation of neural inflammation is considered as a vital therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a potent immune modulator, has raised interest in the field of stroke therapy. ...

    Authors: Wei Cai, Julie Wang, Mengyan Hu, Xiao Chen, Zhengqi Lu, Joseph A. Bellanti and Song Guo Zheng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:175

    Content type: Research

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  31. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. ER stress results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins ...

    Authors: Desislava Doycheva, Ningbo Xu, Jiping Tang and John Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:174

    Content type: Research

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  32. Disturbances in clock genes affect almost all patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as evidenced by their altered sleep/wake cycle, thermoregulation, and exacerbation of cognitive impairment. As microglia-me...

    Authors: Junjun Ni, Zhou Wu, Jie Meng, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Hong Qing and Hiroshi Nakanishi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:173

    Content type: Research

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  33. Systemic inflammation has been implicated in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases and may be an important driver of the disease. Dementia and cognitive decline progress more rapidly following acu...

    Authors: Sarah K. Baker, Zu-Lin Chen, Erin H. Norris and Sidney Strickland

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:172

    Content type: Research

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  34. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial chronic disease of the eye. Several candidate pathways have been hypothesized to play a role in AMD pathogenesis. Our work and those of others suggest...

    Authors: Jiangyuan Gao, Jing Z. Cui, Aikun Wang, Hao Hang Rachel Chen, Alison Fong and Joanne A. Matsubara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:171

    Content type: Research

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  35. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1) is in the spotlight because its synthetic antagonist has been under clinical trials for lung fibrosis and psoriasis. Targeting LPA1 might also be a therapeutic strategy for...

    Authors: Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Arjun Sapkota, Mi-Ryoung Song and Ji Woong Choi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Environmental factors are critical in the development of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. A western diet (WD) can cause nutrient deficiency and inflammation that could impact cognition directly. It ...

    Authors: Hongtian Yang, Leah C. Graham, Alaina M. Reagan, Weronika A. Grabowska, William H. Schott and Gareth R. Howell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:169

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Functions of astrocytes in the rehabilitation after ischemic stroke, especially their impacts on inflammatory processes, remain controversial. This study uncovered two phenotypes of astrocytes, of which one wa...

    Authors: Nan Zhao, Xiaomeng Xu, Yongjun Jiang, Jie Gao, Fang Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Yi Xie, Juanji Li, Rongrong Li, Qiushi Lv, Qian Liu, Qiliang Dai, Xinfeng Liu and Gelin Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:168

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Although effective in reducing relapse rate and delaying progression, current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) do not completely halt disease progression. T cell autoimmunity to myelin antigens is conside...

    Authors: Judith Derdelinckx, María José Mansilla, Maxime De Laere, Wai-Ping Lee, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Inez Wens, Irene Nkansah, Jasmijn Daans, Hans De Reu, Aneta Jolanta Keliris, Johan Van Audekerke, Verdi Vanreusel, Zoë Pieters, Annemie Van der Linden, Marleen Verhoye, Geert Molenberghs…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:167

    Content type: Research

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  39. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease, the most common, multifactorial form of dementia, characterized by anomalous amyloid accumulation in the brain. Growing evidence p...

    Authors: Giulia Di Benedetto, Chiara Burgaletto, Anna R. Carta, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Giovanna Mulas, Carla Loreto, Renato Bernardini and Giuseppina Cantarella

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The association of gut microbiota and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis (MS), has attracted much attention. Although a previous analysis of MS gut microbiota revealed a...

    Authors: Tong Chen, Daisuke Noto, Yasunobu Hoshino, Miho Mizuno and Sachiko Miyake

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Astrocytes respond to central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease by transforming to a reactive astrogliosis cell state that can contribute to either CNS dysfunction or repair. Neuroinflammation is a power...

    Authors: Qiong Zhou, Coralie Viollet, Anastasia Efthymiou, Guzal Khayrullina, Kasey E. Moritz, Matthew D. Wilkerson, Gauthaman Sukumar, Clifton L. Dalgard and Martin L. Doughty

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:164

    Content type: Research

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  42. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. T cells were shown to infiltrate the brain during the first days after injury and to exacerbate tissue damage. The objective of this study...

    Authors: Tobias J. Krämer, Nathalia Hack, Till J. Brühl, Lutz Menzel, Regina Hummel, Eva-Verena Griemert, Matthias Klein, Serge C. Thal, Tobias Bopp and Michael K. E. Schäfer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:176

  43. The spectrum of classical and non-classical HLA genes related to the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in the Japanese population has not been studied in detail...

    Authors: Kotaro Ogawa, Tatsusada Okuno, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Akiko Hosokawa, Jun Hirata, Ken Suzuki, Saori Sakaue, Makoto Kinoshita, Yoshihiro Asano, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Ituro Inoue, Susumu Kusunoki, Yukinori Okada and Hideki Mochizuki

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:162

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is firmly established that overactivation of the p65 (RelA) nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription f...

    Authors: Angela S. Gupta, Debolina D. Biswas, La Shardai N. Brown, Karli Mockenhaupt, Michael Marone, Andrew Hoskins, Ulrich Siebenlist and Tomasz Kordula

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic trauma accompanied by intralesional bleeding and neuroinflammation. Recently, there is increasing interest in tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic drug, which ...

    Authors: Shingo Yoshizaki, Ken Kijima, Masamitsu Hara, Takeyuki Saito, Tetsuya Tamaru, Masatake Tanaka, Dai-jiro Konno, Yasuharu Nakashima and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:160

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. It has become increasingly evident that the immune and nervous systems are closely intertwined, relying on one another during regular homeostatic conditions. Prolonged states of imbalance between neural and im...

    Authors: Timothy French, Henning Peter Düsedau, Johannes Steffen, Aindrila Biswas, Norus Ahmed, Susanne Hartmann, Thomas Schüler, Björn H. Schott and Ildiko Rita Dunay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease characterized by both inflammatory demyelination and impaired remyelination. Studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signa...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Wasko, Meghan Horne Kulak, Debayon Paul, Alexandra M. Nicaise, Stephen T. Yeung, Frank C. Nichols, Kamal M. Khanna, Stephen Crocker, Joel S. Pachter and Robert B. Clark

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:158

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. To decipher the role of monocyte-derived macrophages (Mφs) in vascular remodeling of the occluded vein following experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).

    Authors: Christophe Roubeix, Elisa Dominguez, William Raoul, Xavier Guillonneau, Michel Paques, José-Alain Sahel and Florian Sennlaub

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:157

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  49. Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high risk of neurological sequelae such as cognitive impairment and hearing loss. These sequelae are due to parenchymal brain and inner ear damage primarily induced b...

    Authors: Lukas Muri, Ngoc Dung Le, Jonas Zemp, Denis Grandgirard and Stephen L. Leib

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:156

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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