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  1. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and microglia elicit neural inflammation and clear debris for subsequent tissue repair and remodeling. The role of infiltrating MDMs in the injured brain, however, has been ...

    Authors: Hyunwoo Ju, Keun Woo Park, Il-doo Kim, John W. Cave and Sunghee Cho
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:190
  2. Nafamostat mesylate (nafamostat, NM) is an FDA-approved serine protease inhibitor that exerts anti-neuroinflammation and neuroprotective effects following rat spinal cord injury (SCI). However, clinical transl...

    Authors: Chenxi Zhao, Tiangang Zhou, Xiaoqing Zhao, Yilin Pang, Wenxiang Li, Baoyou Fan, Ming Li, Xinjie Liu, Lei Ma, Jiawei Zhang, Chao Sun, Wenyuan Shen, Xiaohong Kong, Xue Yao and Shiqing Feng
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:189
  3. There is growing evidence that neuroinflammation may contribute to schizophrenia neuropathology. Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines are evident in the midbrain from schizophrenia subjects, findings that are d...

    Authors: A. Petty, L. J. Glass, D. A. Rothmond, T. Purves-Tyson, A. Sweeney, Y. Kondo, S. Kubo, M. Matsumoto and C. Shannon Weickert
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:188
  4. In chronic myelogenous leukemia, reciprocal translocation between chromosome 9 and chromosome 22 generates a chimeric protein, Bcr-Abl, that leads to hyperactivity of tyrosine kinase-linked signaling transduct...

    Authors: Jieun Kim, Hyun-ju Lee, Jin-Hee Park, Byung-Yoon Cha and Hyang-Sook Hoe
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:187
  5. Depression is a recurrent and devastating mental disease that is highly prevalent worldwide. Prolonged exposure to stressful events or a stressful environment is detrimental to mental health. In recent years, ...

    Authors: Zhuang Peng, Sha Peng, Kangguang Lin, Bin Zhao, Lai Wei, Qinhui Tuo, Duanfang Liao, Tifei Yuan and Zhe Shi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:186
  6. The incidence of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), one of the main risk factors for predicting neurodegenerative disorders, is increasing; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. As su...

    Authors: Dong Wang, Shishuang Zhang, Xintong Ge, Zhenyu Yin, Meimei Li, Mengtian Guo, Tianpeng Hu, Zhaoli Han, Xiaodong Kong, Dai Li, Jing Zhao, Lu Wang, Qiang Liu, Fanglian Chen and Ping Lei
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:185
  7. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) often promote acute brain injury after stroke, but their roles in the recovery phase have not been well studied. We tested the hypothesis that ROS activity mediated by NADPH oxida...

    Authors: Ye Yingze, Jian Zhihong, Jin Tong, Li Yina, Zeng Zhi, Zhang Xu, Xiong Xiaoxing and Gu Lijuan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:184
  8. We previously reported higher plasma levels of complement fragments C3a and C5a in neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration (nAMD) patients with macular fibrosis. This study aimed to understand whether com...

    Authors: María Llorián-Salvador, Eimear M. Byrne, Manon Szczepan, Karis Little, Mei Chen and Heping Xu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:182
  9. Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs) are considered the most common postoperative complication in geriatric patients. However, its pathogenesis is not fully understood. Surgery-triggered neuroinflamma...

    Authors: Bo Chen, Guangcheng Qin, Jingyu Xiao, Xiaoyuan Deng, Aolei Lin and Hongliang Liu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:181
  10. Studies have suggested that many down-regulated miRNAs identified in the brain tissue or serum of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients were involved in the formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles....

    Authors: Pengcheng Xia, Jing Chen, Yingchao Liu, Xiaolin Cui, Cuicui Wang, Shuai Zong, Le Wang and Zhiming Lu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:180
  11. Peripheral nerve injuries stimulate the regenerative capacity of injured neurons through a neuroimmune phenomenon termed the conditioning lesion (CL) response. This response depends on macrophage accumulation ...

    Authors: Aaron D. Talsma, Jon P. Niemi, Joel S. Pachter and Richard E. Zigmond
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:179
  12. The complement system is part of the innate immune system that clears pathogens and cellular debris. In the healthy brain, complement influences neurodevelopment and neurogenesis, synaptic pruning, clearance o...

    Authors: Klebea Carvalho, Nicole D. Schartz, Gabriela Balderrama-Gutierrez, Heidi Y. Liang, Shu-Hui Chu, Purnika Selvan, Angela Gomez-Arboledas, Tiffany J. Petrisko, Maria I. Fonseca, Ali Mortazavi and Andrea J. Tenner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:178
  13. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a primary mechanical injury and a secondary injury associated with neuroinflammation, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neurodegeneration. We have develo...

    Authors: Carmen Navarrete, Adela García-Martín, Alejandro Correa-Sáez, María E. Prados, Francisco Fernández, Rafael Pineda, Massimiliano Mazzone, Marina Álvarez-Benito, Marco A. Calzado and Eduardo Muñoz
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:177
  14. Metabolic dysregulation and disruption of immune homeostasis have been widely associated with perioperative complications including perioperative ischemic stroke. Although immunometabolite S-2-hydroxyglutarate...

    Authors: Faqiang Zhang, Mu Niu, Kaikai Guo, Yulong Ma, Qiang Fu, Yanhong Liu, Zeguo Feng, Weidong Mi and Long Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:176
  15. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space is convoluted. CSF flow oscillates with a net flow from the ventricles towards the cerebral and spinal subarachnoid space. This flow is influenced by heartbeats, breath, hea...

    Authors: Marija Djukic, Peter Lange, Frank Erbguth and Roland Nau
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:174
  16. Adult microglia rely on self-renewal through division to repopulate and sustain their numbers. However, with aging, microglia display morphological and transcriptional changes that reflect a heightened state o...

    Authors: Berke Karaahmet, Linh Le, Monique S. Mendes, Ania K. Majewska and M. Kerry O’Banion
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:173
  17. Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau along with glial cell-mediated neuroinflammation are prominent pathogenic hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In recent years, impairment of autop...

    Authors: Kiara Freitag, Nele Sterczyk, Sarah Wendlinger, Benedikt Obermayer, Julia Schulz, Vadim Farztdinov, Michael Mülleder, Markus Ralser, Judith Houtman, Lara Fleck, Caroline Braeuning, Roberto Sansevrino, Christian Hoffmann, Dragomir Milovanovic, Stephan J. Sigrist, Thomas Conrad…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:172
  18. After traumatic brain injury (TBI), peripheral monocytes infiltrate into the central nervous system due to disruption of the blood–brain barrier, and play an important role in neuroinflammation. However, the m...

    Authors: Huayang Wang, Qibing Huang, Zhijie Zhang, Jian Ji, Tao Sun and Donghai Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:171
  19. Animals rely heavily on their nervous and immune systems to perceive and survive within their environment. Despite the traditional view of the brain as an immunologically privileged organ, these two systems in...

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Levraud, John F. Rawls and Anne E. Clatworthy
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:170
  20. Gut microbiota has been found involved in neuronal functions and neurological disorders. Whether and how gut microbiota impacts chronic somatic pain disorders remain elusive.

    Authors: Pingchuan Ma, Rufan Mo, Huabao Liao, Chengjie Qiu, Genhao Wu, Caixia Yang, Yunxiao Zhang, Yiran Zhao and Xue-Jun Song
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:169
  21. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), a member of the bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) protein family, plays a crucial role in regulating inflammation and oxidative stress that are tightly relate...

    Authors: Lei Liu, Changjun Yang, Bianca P. Lavayen, Ryland J. Tishko, Jonathan Larochelle and Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:168
  22. Stress-induced mental illnesses (mediated by neuroinflammation) pose one of the world’s most urgent public health challenges. A reliable in vivo chemical biomarker of stress would significantly improve the cli...

    Authors: Melinda Hersey, Melissa Reneaux, Shane N. Berger, Sergio Mena, Anna Marie Buchanan, Yangguang Ou, Navid Tavakoli, Lawrence P. Reagan, Claudia Clopath and Parastoo Hashemi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:167
  23. Little is known about how the obesogenic environment influences emotional states associated with glial responses and neuronal function. Here, we investigated glial reactivation and neuronal electrophysiologica...

    Authors: Gang Yu, Feng Cao, Tingting Hou, Yunsheng Cheng, Benli Jia, Liang Yu, Wanjing Chen, Yanyan Xu, Mingming Chen and Yong Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:166
  24. A major challenge in spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is timely diagnosis, but no specific predictive biomarkers are known.

    Authors: Yinqing Wang, Yongjie Ma, Chengbin Yang, Xiahe Huang, Kun Yang, Fei Lan, Jingxuan Fu, Zihao Song, An Tian, Yueshan Feng, Tianqi Tu, Haifeng Li, Tao Hong, Yingchun Wang and Hongqi Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:165
  25. The pathogenesis of neuropathic pain and the reasons for the prolonged unhealing remain unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that sex oestrogen differences play a role in pain sensitivity, but few studies hav...

    Authors: Zhenzhen Xu, Wanli Xie, Yiqi Feng, Yanting Wang, Xia Li, Jie Liu, Yue Xiong, Yuyao He, Lu Chen, Guoyang Liu and Qingping Wu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:164
  26. Hydrocephalus is a severe complication of intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension (ICH-IVH) and causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulation. The choroid plexus epithelium plays an important role ...

    Authors: Zhaoqi Zhang, Qiang Tan, Peiwen Guo, Suna Huang, Zhengcai Jia, Xin Liu, Hua Feng and Yujie Chen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:163
  27. Peripheral nerve inflammation or lesion can affect contralateral healthy structures, and thus result in mirror-image pain. Supraspinal structures play important roles in the occurrence of mirror pain. The ante...

    Authors: Qiao-Yun Li, Shao-Xia Chen, Jin-Yu Liu, Pei-Wen Yao, Yi-Wen Duan, Yong-Yong Li and Ying Zang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:162
  28. An aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a devastating event. To establish an effective therapeutic strategy, its pathogenesis must be clarified, particularly the pathophysiology of brain harboring intracrania...

    Authors: Eiji Shikata, Takeshi Miyamoto, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Izumi Yamaguchi, Hiroshi Kagusa, Daiki Gotoh, Kenji Shimada, Yoshiteru Tada, Kenji Yagi, Keiko T. Kitazato, Yasuhisa Kanematsu and Yasushi Takagi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:161
  29. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating neurological damage, including secondary injuries dominated by neuroinflammation. The role of Apelin, an endogenous ligand that binds the G protein-coupled receptor ...

    Authors: Qing Liu, Shuai Zhou, Xiao Wang, Chengxu Gu, Qixuan Guo, Xikai Li, Chunlei Zhang, Naili Zhang, Luping Zhang and Fei Huang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:160
  30. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Approximately one-third of MB patients remain incurable. Understanding the molecular mechanism of MB tumorigenesis is, therefore, crit...

    Authors: Biao Gong, Duancheng Guo, Chaonan Zheng, Zhen Ma, Jie Zhang, Yanghui Qu, Xinhua Li, Gen Li, Li Zhang and Yuan Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:159
  31. Immune activation, neuroinflammation, and cell death are the hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS), which is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is well-documented that t...

    Authors: Debolina D. Biswas, Rebecca K. Martin, LaShardai N. Brown, Karli Mockenhaupt, Angela S. Gupta, Michael J. Surace, Anuj Tharakan, Jessie W. Yester, Reetika Bhardwaj, Daniel H. Conrad and Tomasz Kordula
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:158
  32. Multiple sclerosis (MS), as an autoimmune neurological disease with both genetic and environmental contribution, still lacks effective treatment options among progressive patients, highlighting the need to re-...

    Authors: Haojun Yu, Shuwei Bai, Yong Hao and Yangtai Guan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:157
  33. The choroid plexus is a tissue located in the lateral ventricles of the brain and is composed mainly of choroid plexus epithelium cells. The main function is currently thought to be the secretion of cerebrospi...

    Authors: Yijian Yang, Jian He, Yuchang Wang, Chuansen Wang, Changwu Tan, Junbo Liao, Lei Tong and Gelei Xiao
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:156
  34. Vagus nerve stimulation has been suggested to affect immune responses, partly through a neuronal circuit requiring sympathetic innervation of the splenic nerve bundle and norepinephrine (NE) release. Molecular...

    Authors: David J. Brinkman, Thomas Simon, Anne S. ten Hove, Konstantina Zafeiropoulou, Olaf Welting, Patricia H. P. van Hamersveld, Rose A. Willemze, Andrew Y. F. Li Yim, Caroline Verseijden, Theodorus B. M. Hakvoort, Misha D. Luyer, Margriet J. Vervoordeldonk, Philippe Blancou and Wouter J. de Jonge
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:155
  35. Neuropathic pain (NP) is characterized by abnormal activation of pain conducting pathways and manifests as mechanical allodynia and thermal hypersensitivity. Peripheral nerve stimulation is used for treatment ...

    Authors: Chia-En Wong, Chia-Ying Hu, Po-Hsuan Lee, Chi-Chen Huang, Han-Wei Huang, Chih-Yuan Huang, Hsin-Tien Lo, Wentai Liu and Jung-Shun Lee
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:153
  36. Inflammation is a potential risk factor of mental disturbance. FKBP5 that encodes FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51), a negative cochaperone of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), is a stress-inducible gene and has been...

    Authors: Yu-Ling Gan, Chen-Yu Wang, Rong-Heng He, Pei-Chien Hsu, Hsin-Hsien Yeh, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Hui-Ching Lin, Ming-Yen Cheng, Chung-Jiuan Jeng, Ming-Chyi Huang and Yi-Hsuan Lee
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:152
  37. The risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is modulated by genetic and environmental factors. Early-life stress (ELS) exposure during critical periods of brain development can impact later brain function ...

    Authors: S. Bachiller, I. Hidalgo, M. G. Garcia, A. Boza-Serrano, A. Paulus, Q. Denis, C. Haikal, O. Manouchehrian, O. Klementieva, J. Y. Li, C. J. Pronk, G. K. Gouras and T. Deierborg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:151
  38. Postoperative neurocognitive dysfunction remains a significant problem in vulnerable groups such as the elderly. While experimental data regarding its possible pathogenic mechanisms accumulate, therapeutic opt...

    Authors: Yan Liu, John Man Tak Chu, You Ran, Yan Zhang, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang and Gordon Tin Chun Wong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:150
  39. The emergence of the novel, pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global health emergency. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has a high mortality rate in severe...

    Authors: Rui-Cheng Yang, Kun Huang, Hui-Peng Zhang, Liang Li, Yu-Fei Zhang, Chen Tan, Huan-Chun Chen, Mei-Lin Jin and Xiang-Ru Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:149
  40. Under inflammatory conditions, the activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor has been shown to inhibit pain through opioid peptide release from immune cells or neurons. CRF’s effects on human...

    Authors: Shaaban A. Mousa, Baled I. Khalefa, Mohammed Shaqura, Mohammed Al-Madol, Sascha Treskatsch and Michael Schäfer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:148
  41. Microglia are the endogenous immune cells of the brain and act as sensors of pathology to maintain brain homeostasis and eliminate potential threats. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), toxic amyloid beta (Aβ) accumu...

    Authors: Henna Jäntti, Valeriia Sitnikova, Yevheniia Ishchenko, Anastasia Shakirzyanova, Luca Giudice, Irene F. Ugidos, Mireia Gómez-Budia, Nea Korvenlaita, Sohvi Ohtonen, Irina Belaya, Feroze Fazaludeen, Nikita Mikhailov, Maria Gotkiewicz, Kirsi Ketola, Šárka Lehtonen, Jari Koistinaho…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:147
  42. Neonatal stroke is a devastating insult that can lead to life-long impairments. In response to hypoxic–ischaemic injury, there is loss of neurons and glia as well as a neuroinflammatory response mediated by re...

    Authors: Clara Bourget, Kelsey V. Adams and Cindi M. Morshead
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:146
  43. Exposure to sunlight may decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and visible and near infrared light have been proposed as a possible therapeutic strategy for AD. Here, we investigated the ef...

    Authors: Qingyong Li, Jun Peng, Yuelian Luo, Jiaxin Zhou, Tailin Li, Lin Cao, Shuling Peng, Zhiyi Zuo and Zhi Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:145
  44. The adaption of brain region is fundamental to the development and maintenance of nervous system disorders. The prelimbic cortex (PrL) participates in the affective components of the pain sensation. However, w...

    Authors: Yu-Ting Zhao, Jie Deng, He-Ming Liu, Jia-You Wei, Hai-Ting Fan, Meng Liu, Ting Xu, Ting-Feng Chen, Jing-Yi He, Wei-Ming Sun, Tao-Yu Jia, Xue-Qin Zhang and Wen-Jun Xin
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:144
  45. Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant that leads to hippocampal neurodegeneration. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in maintaining the immune balance in the central nervous system (CNS)...

    Authors: Seon-Young Park, HyeJin Yang, Minsook Ye, Xiao Liu, Insop Shim, Young-Tae Chang and Hyunsu Bae
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:143
  46. It has been demonstrated that reactive astrocytes can be polarized into pro-inflammatory A1 phenotype or anti-inflammatory A2 phenotype under neurotoxic and neurodegenerative conditions. Microglia have been su...

    Authors: Yeonggwang Hwang, Hyoung-Chun Kim and Eun-Joo Shin
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:142
  47. Inflammation and coagulation are linked and pathogenic in neuroinflammatory diseases. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) can be activated both by thrombin, inducing increased inflammation, and activated prot...

    Authors: Valery Golderman, Marina Ben-Shimon, Nicola Maggio, Amir Dori, Shany Guly Gofrit, Shani Berkowitz, Lamis Qassim, Avital Artan-Furman, Talya Zeimer, Joab Chapman and Efrat Shavit-Stein
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2022 19:138

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