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  1. Research

    Analysis of plasma multiplex cytokines and increased level of IL-10 and IL-1Ra cytokines in febrile seizures

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever generation involves many cytokines, including both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Some of these cytokines also induce febrile seizu...

    Kyungmin Kim, Byung Ok Kwak, Aram Kwon, Jongseok Ha, Soo-Jin Kim, Sun Whan Bae, Jae Sung Son, Soo-Nyung Kim and Ran Lee

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:200

    Published on: 10 October 2017

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:226

  2. Research

    Role of microglial amylin receptors in mediating beta amyloid (Aβ)-induced inflammation

    Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unle...

    Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk and Jack Jhamandas

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:199

    Published on: 6 October 2017

  3. Research

    Agonists for G-protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) alter cellular morphology and motility but do not induce pro-inflammatory responses in microglia

    Several G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to be important signaling mediators between neurons and glia. In our previous screening for identification of nerve injury-associated GPCRs, G-protei...

    Li Wei, Kyohei Tokizane, Hiroyuki Konishi, Hua-Rong Yu and Hiroshi Kiyama

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:198

    Published on: 3 October 2017

  4. Research

    Bazedoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, reduces cerebral aneurysm rupture in Ovariectomized rats

    Estrogen deficiency is thought to be responsible for the higher frequency of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in post- than premenopausal women. Estrogen replacement therapy appears to reduce this risk but i...

    Hidetsugu Maekawa, Yoshiteru Tada, Kenji Yagi, Takeshi Miyamoto, Keiko T. Kitazato, Masaaki Korai, Junichiro Satomi, Tomoki Hashimoto and Shinji Nagahiro

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:197

    Published on: 2 October 2017

  5. Research

    Acute maternal oxidant exposure causes susceptibility of the fetal brain to inflammation and oxidative stress

    Maternal exposure to environmental stressors poses a risk to fetal development. Oxidative stress (OS), microglia activation, and inflammation are three tightly linked mechanisms that emerge as a causal factor ...

    Feroz Akhtar, Christopher A. Rouse, Gabriel Catano, Marcus Montalvo, Sarah L. Ullevig, Reto Asmis, Kusum Kharbanda and Shivani K. Maffi

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:195

    Published on: 30 September 2017

  6. Research

    The contribution of the acute phase response to the pathogenesis of relapse in chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis models of multiple sclerosis

    Increased relapse rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) as a consequence of peripheral immune system activation, owing to infection for example, have been widely reported, but the mechanism remains unclear. Acute b...

    Silvy Mardiguian, Emma Ladds, Roberta Turner, Hazel Shepherd, Sandra J. Campbell and Daniel C. Anthony

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:196

    Published on: 30 September 2017

  7. Research

    Effects of surgery and propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anesthesia on cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of inflammation, Alzheimer’s disease, and neuronal injury in humans: a cohort study

    Surgery and anesthesia have been linked to postoperative cognitive disturbance and increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. It is not clear by which mechanisms this increased risk for cognitive disease is mediat...

    Andreas Pikwer, Markus Castegren, Sijal Namdar, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg and Niklas Mattsson

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:193

    Published on: 29 September 2017

  8. Research

    αVβ3 Integrin regulates astrocyte reactivity

    Neuroinflammation involves cytokine release, astrocyte reactivity and migration. Neuronal Thy-1 promotes DITNC1 astrocyte migration by engaging αVβ3 Integrin and Syndecan-4. Primary astrocytes express low levels ...

    Raúl Lagos-Cabré, Alvaro Alvarez, Milene Kong, Francesca Burgos-Bravo, Areli Cárdenas, Edgardo Rojas-Mancilla, Ramón Pérez-Nuñez, Rodrigo Herrera-Molina, Fabiola Rojas, Pascal Schneider, Mario Herrera-Marschitz, Andrew F. G. Quest, Brigitte van Zundert and Lisette Leyton

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:194

    Published on: 29 September 2017

  9. Research

    Anti-inflammatory effects of astroglial α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are mediated by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the Nrf2 pathway

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system and are reported to have neuroprotective properties. α7 nAChRs are expressed on astrocytes, which are ...

    Hiral Patel, Jessica McIntire, Sarah Ryan, Anthone Dunah and Ralph Loring

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:192

    Published on: 26 September 2017

  10. Research

    Increased frequency of IL-6-producing non-classical monocytes in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that preferentially affects the optic nerves, spinal cord, and area postrema. A series of evid...

    Byung Soo Kong, Yeseul Kim, Ga Young Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, Su-Hyun Kim, Aeran Jeong and Ho Jin Kim

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:191

    Published on: 25 September 2017

  11. Research

    Lentivirus-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) knock-down in the hippocampus alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Recent evidence has suggested that peripheral inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play an important role in neuropsychiatric dysfunction in rodents. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflam...

    Mengmeng Li, Chenli Li, Hanjie Yu, Xiongxiong Cai, Xinbei Shen, Xin Sun, Jinting Wang, Yanhua Zhang and Chuang Wang

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:190

    Published on: 20 September 2017

  12. Research

    Primary cilia modulate TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses in hippocampal neurons

    The primary cilium is an organelle that can act as a master regulator of cellular signaling. Despite the presence of primary cilia in hippocampal neurons, their function is not fully understood. Recent studies...

    Hyunjung Baek, Hyo Jung Shin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Nara Shin, Sena Kim, Min-Hee Yi, Enji Zhang, Jinpyo Hong, Joon Won Kang, Yonghyun Kim, Cuk-Seong Kim and Dong Woon Kim

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:189

    Published on: 19 September 2017

  13. Research

    Homocysteine exaggerates microglia activation and neuroinflammation through microglia localized STAT3 overactivation following ischemic stroke

    Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been indicated as a strong and modifiable risk factor of ischemic stroke; the previous studies have shown that exposure to Hcy activates cultured microglia. Howev...

    Shuang Chen, Zhiping Dong, Man Cheng, Yaqian Zhao, Mengying Wang, Na Sai, Xuan Wang, Huan Liu, Guowei Huang and Xumei Zhang

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:187

    Published on: 18 September 2017

  14. Research

    Using blood cytokine measures to define high inflammatory biotype of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

    Increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines are found in the brain and blood of people with schizophrenia. However, increased cytokines are not evident in all people with schizophrenia, but are found in a subset. ...

    Danny Boerrigter, Thomas W. Weickert, Rhoshel Lenroot, Maryanne O’Donnell, Cherrie Galletly, Dennis Liu, Martin Burgess, Roxanne Cadiz, Isabella Jacomb, Vibeke S. Catts, Stu G. Fillman and Cynthia Shannon Weickert

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:188

    Published on: 18 September 2017

  15. Research

    Fluoxetine-enhanced autophagy ameliorates early brain injury via inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the innate immune inflammatory response by activating caspase-1 and subsequent IL-1β and IL-18. Fluoxetine has been shown to have the anti-inflam...

    Jian-ru Li, Hang-zhe Xu, Sheng Nie, Yu-cong Peng, Lin-Feng Fan, Zhi-jiang Wang, Cheng Wu, Feng Yan, Jing-yin Chen, Chi Gu, Chun Wang, Jing-sen Chen, Lin Wang and Gao Chen

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:186

    Published on: 13 September 2017

  16. Research

    Activation of dorsal horn cannabinoid CB2 receptor suppresses the expression of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors in neuropathic pain rats

    More evidence suggests that dorsal spinal cord microglia is an important site contributing to CB2 receptor-mediated analgesia. The upregulation of P2Y12 and P2Y13 purinoceptors in spinal dorsal horn microglia is ...

    Juan Niu, Dujuan Huang, Rui Zhou, MingXia Yue, Tao Xu, Junna Yang, Li He, Hong Tian, XiaoHong Liu and Junwei Zeng

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:185

    Published on: 12 September 2017

  17. Short Report

    Impact of combined sodium chloride and saturated long-chain fatty acid challenge on the differentiation of T helper cells in neuroinflammation

    There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) in the last decades which is most likely driven by a change in environmental factors. Here, growing evidenc...

    Anna Hammer, Anne Schliep, Stefanie Jörg, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Markus Kleinewietfeld, Dominik N. Müller and Ralf A. Linker

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:184

    Published on: 12 September 2017

  18. Research

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma: potential molecular therapeutic target for HIV-1-associated brain inflammation

    Despite the use of combination antiretroviral therapy for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, cognitive impairments remain prevalent due to persistent viral replication and associated brain inflammation. Primary...

    Amila Omeragic, Md Tozammel Hoque, U-yeong Choi and Reina Bendayan

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:183

    Published on: 8 September 2017

  19. Research

    Priming astrocytes with TNF enhances their susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and creates a self-sustaining inflammatory milieu

    In conditions of immunosuppression, the central nervous sty 5ystem (CNS) is the main target tissue for the reactivation of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In experimental T....

    Andrea Alice Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Silva, Daniel Gibaldi, Rafael Meyer Mariante, Jessica Brandão dos Santos, Isabela Resende Pereira, Otacílio Cruz Moreira and Joseli Lannes-Vieira

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:182

    Published on: 6 September 2017

  20. Research

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency is associated with augmented inflammation and microvascular degeneration in the retina

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor in multiple metabolic processes and plays an essential role in maintaining the inflammatory and neurovascular homeostasis. In this study, we have investigated...

    José Carlos Rivera, Baraa Noueihed, Ankush Madaan, Isabelle Lahaie, Jingyi Pan, Jaques Belik and Sylvain Chemtob

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:181

    Published on: 6 September 2017

  21. Research

    Functional changes in hippocampal synaptic signaling in offspring survivors of a mouse model of intrauterine inflammation

    Recent evidence suggests that exposure to intrauterine inflammation causes acute fetal brain injury and is linked to a spectrum of neurobehavioral disorders. In a rodent model of intrauterine inflammation indu...

    Melissa H. Kelley, Wendy W. Wu, Jun Lei, Michael McLane, Han Xie, Kyle D. Hart, Leonardo Pereira, Irina Burd and James Maylie

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:180

    Published on: 5 September 2017

  22. Review

    Bridging Autism Spectrum Disorders and Schizophrenia through inflammation and biomarkers - pre-clinical and clinical investigations

    In recent years, evidence supporting a link between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been mounting. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia share some clinical similarities which we hy...

    Joana Prata, Susana G. Santos, Maria Inês Almeida, Rui Coelho and Mário A. Barbosa

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:179

    Published on: 4 September 2017

  23. Research

    Brain ureido degenerative protein modifications are associated with neuroinflammation and proteinopathy in Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular disease

    Brain degenerative protein modifications (DPMs) are associated with the apparition and progression of dementia, and at the same time, Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular disease (AD + CVD) is the most pre...

    Xavier Gallart-Palau, Aida Serra, Benjamin Sian Teck Lee, Xue Guo and Siu Kwan Sze

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:175

    Published on: 2 September 2017

  24. Research

    Inhibition of hypothalamic leukemia inhibitory factor exacerbates diet-induced obesity phenotype

    The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats can trigger an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus and contribute to the dysfunctional control of caloric intake and energy expenditure commonly present i...

    Milena Fioravante, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F. Ramalho, Nathalia R. Dragano, Joseane Morari, Carina Solon, Natalia Tobar, Celso D. Ramos and Licio A. Velloso

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:178

    Published on: 2 September 2017

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