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  1. Content type: Research

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) afflict more than half of HIV-1-positive individuals. The transactivator of transcription (Tat) produced by HIV virus elicits inflammatory process and is a major...

    Authors: Feng Zhou, Xiaomei Liu, Lin Gao, Xinxin Zhou, Qianwen Cao, Liping Niu, Jing Wang, Dongjiao Zuo, Xiangyang Li, Ying Yang, Minmin Hu, Yinghua Yu, Renxian Tang, Bong Ho Lee, Byoung Wook Choi, Yugang Wang…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:71

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  2. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in Figure 4 as the wrong figure was used.

    Authors: Marc A. Russo, Nathan T. Fiore, Caryn van Vreden, Dominic Bailey, Danielle M. Santarelli, Helen M. McGuire, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth and Paul J. Austin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:70

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:63

  3. Content type: Research

    Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is u...

    Authors: Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D. Petrescu, Elaina Williams, Brandi Jefferson, Alison Thomas, Ankita Brahmaroutu and Sharon DeMorrow

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:69

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  4. Content type: Research

    Immunity has been suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of dementia. However, the contribution of innate versus adaptive immunity in the development of dementia is not clear. In this study, we aimed to...

    Authors: Kimberly D. van der Willik, Lana Fani, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Silvan Licher, Jesse Fest, Sanne B. Schagen, M. Kamran Ikram and M. Arfan Ikram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:68

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  5. Content type: Research

    Patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or fibromyalgia experience chronic pain. Concomitantly, the rat model of CFS exhibits microglial activation in the lumbar spinal cord and pain behavior wi...

    Authors: Masaya Yasui, Yuki Menjyo, Kyohei Tokizane, Akiko Shiozawa, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue and Hiroshi Kiyama

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:67

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  6. Content type: Research

    Microglia are important for secreting chemical mediators of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1β secreted by glial cells support neuronal functions, but the relat...

    Authors: Yi Sun, Jiangjun Ma, Dongfang Li, Pinggan Li, Xiaolin Zhou, Yu Li, Zhanwen He, Lijun Qin, Liyang Liang and Xiangyang Luo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:66

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  7. Content type: Research

    Neurokine signaling via the release of neurally active cytokines arises from glial reactivity and is mechanistically implicated in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies such as chronic pain, trauma, neurode...

    Authors: Lindsay M. Parker, Nima Sayyadi, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Ashish Shrestha, Mark R. Hutchinson and Nicolle H. Packer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:65

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  8. Content type: Research

    Orexins (hypocretins, Hcrt) A and B are GPCR-binding hypothalamic neuropeptides known to regulate sleep/wake states and feeding behavior. A few studies have shown that orexin A exhibits anti-inflammatory and neur...

    Authors: Laurine Becquet, Catalina Abad, Mathilde Leclercq, Camille Miel, Laetitia Jean, Gaëtan Riou, Alain Couvineau, Olivier Boyer and Yossan-Var Tan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:64

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  9. Content type: Research

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition where trauma to a limb results in devastating persistent pain that is disproportionate to the initial injury. The pathophysiology of CRPS remai...

    Authors: Marc A. Russo, Nathan T. Fiore, Caryn van Vreden, Dominic Bailey, Danielle M. Santarelli, Helen M. McGuire, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth and Paul J. Austin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:63

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:70

  10. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation, and impaired neurogenesis. Urolithin A (UA), a gut-m...

    Authors: Zhuo Gong, Jingyi Huang, Biao Xu, Zhenri Ou, Le Zhang, Xiaohong Lin, Xiujuan Ye, Xuejian Kong, Dahong Long, Xiangdong Sun, Xiaosong He, Liping Xu, Qingqing Li and Aiguo Xuan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:62

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  11. Content type: Research

    Microglia play a central role in most neurological disorders, but the impact of microgliosis on brain environment and clinical functions is not fully understood. Mice lacking multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), ...

    Authors: Lien Beckers, Ivana Geric, Stijn Stroobants, Sander Beel, Philip Van Damme, Rudi D’Hooge and Myriam Baes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:61

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  12. Content type: Research

    While NF-κB p50 function is impaired in central nervous system disease, aging in non-CNS tissues, and response to reactive oxygen species, the role of NF-κB p50 in aging-associated microglial pro-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Thomas Taetzsch, Savannah Benusa, Shannon Levesque, Christen L. Mumaw and Michelle L. Block

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:60

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  13. Content type: Research

    Long-term outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) depends on early treatment. In patients with acute optic neuritis (ON), an early inflammatory event, we investigated markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may...

    Authors: M. N. Olesen, K. Soelberg, B. Debrabant, A. C. Nilsson, S. T. Lillevang, J. Grauslund, I. Brandslund, J. S. Madsen, F. Paul, T. J. Smith, S. Jarius and N. Asgari

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:59

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  14. Content type: Research

    Corticosteroids dominate in the treatment of chronic autoimmune neuropathies although long-term use is characterized by devastating side effects.

    Authors: Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Melissa Sgodzai, Thomas Grüter, Hussein Bachir, Jeremias Motte, Björn Ambrosius, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Min-Suk Yoon and Ralf Gold

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:58

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  15. Content type: Research

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (herein called NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that can be initiated by binding of immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG) to aquaporin-4 on astrocytes, ...

    Authors: Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Tianjiao Duan, Michael R. Yeaman and Alan S. Verkman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:57

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  16. Content type: Research

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a high morbidity and mortality. The peripheral immune system and cross-talk between peripheral blood and brain have been implicated in the ICH immune response. Thus, we delin...

    Authors: Marc Durocher, Bradley P. Ander, Glen Jickling, Farah Hamade, Heather Hull, Bodie Knepp, Da Zhi Liu, Xinhua Zhan, Anh Tran, Xiyuan Cheng, Kwan Ng, Alan Yee, Frank R. Sharp and Boryana Stamova

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:56

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  17. Content type: Research

    Glia are key regulators of inflammatory responses within the central nervous system (CNS) following infection or trauma. We have previously demonstrated the ability of activated glia to rapidly produce pro-inf...

    Authors: Amanda R. Burmeister, M. Brittany Johnson, Jessica J. Yaemmongkol and Ian Marriott

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:55

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  18. Content type: Research

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system characterized by a response directed against certain myelin prot...

    Authors: Laurent Kremer, Omar Taleb, Nelly Boehm, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Elisabeth Trifilieff, Jérôme de Seze and Susana Brun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:54

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  19. Content type: Review

    Development of central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by both intrinsic and peripheral signals. Previous studies have suggested that environmental factors affect neurological activities under both physiolog...

    Authors: Qianquan Ma, Changsheng Xing, Wenyong Long, Helen Y. Wang, Qing Liu and Rong-Fu Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:53

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  20. Content type: Research

    Amlexanox (ALX), a TBK1 inhibitor, can modulate immune responses and has anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate its role in regulating the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), ...

    Authors: Mo-Yuan Quan, Xiu-Juan Song, Hui-Jia Liu, Xiao-Hong Deng, Hui-Qing Hou, Li-Ping Chen, Tian-Zhao Ma, Xu Han, Xin-Xin He, Zhen Jia and Li Guo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:52

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  21. Content type: Research

    Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS; also termed Schilder’s disease) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterised by demyelination of vast areas of the white matt...

    Authors: S. Jarius, J. Haas, F. Paul and B. Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:51

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  22. Content type: Research

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are recognized as important contributors to Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis. As such, genetic variability in these pathways could have a role in susceptibility for the diseas...

    Authors: Sara Redenšek, Dušan Flisar, Maja Kojović, Milica Gregorič Kramberger, Dejan Georgiev, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Maja Trošt and Vita Dolžan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:50

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  23. Content type: Research

    Quinoline-3-carboxamides, such as laquinimod, ameliorate CNS autoimmunity in patients and reduce tumor cell metastasis experimentally. Previous studies have focused on the immunomodulatory effect of laquinimod...

    Authors: Martina Ott, Erika Avendaño-Guzmán, Evelyn Ullrich, Carolin Dreyer, Judith Strauss, Markus Harden, Margarete Schön, Michael P. Schön, Günter Bernhardt, Christine Stadelmann, Christiane Wegner, Wolfgang Brück and Stefan Nessler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:49

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  24. Content type: Research

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) are characterized by progressive neuronal loss but differ in their unde...

    Authors: Nienke M. de Wit, Sandra den Hoedt, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Annemieke J. Rozemuller, Monique T. Mulder and Helga E. de Vries

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:48

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  25. Content type: Research

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening subtype of stroke with high mortality and disabilities. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) has been shown to be neuroprotective against ischemia/reperfusion injury. T...

    Authors: Yuchun Zuo, Lei Huang, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Weilin Xu, Ocak Umut, Zachary D. Travis, Guangyu Zhang, Jiping Tang, Fei Liu and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:47

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  26. Content type: Research

    Neuronal and glial cell interaction is essential for synaptic homeostasis and may be affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal and glia markers along the AD continuum...

    Authors: Kaja Nordengen, Bjørn-Eivind Kirsebom, Kristi Henjum, Per Selnes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Marianne Wettergreen, Silje Bøen Torsetnes, Gøril Rolfseng Grøntvedt, Knut K. Waterloo, Dag Aarsland, Lars N. G. Nilsson and Tormod Fladby

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:46

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  27. Content type: Research

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and the toll-like receptor ...

    Authors: John D. Lee, Ning Liu, Samantha C. Levin, Lars Ottosson, Ulf Andersson, Helena E. Harris and Trent M. Woodruff

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:45

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  28. Content type: Research

    1-42 peptide abnormal production is associated with the development and maintenance of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in brains from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Suppression of neuroinflammation may...

    Authors: Giuseppa Mudò, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Pietro Scaduto, Fulvio Plescia, Maria F. Massenti, Marta Di Carlo, Carla Cannizzaro, Giovanni Cassata, Luca Cicero, Maria Ruscica, Natale Belluardo and Luigi M. Grimaldi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:44

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  29. Content type: Research

    Ligand-driven modulation of the mitochondrial translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) was recently described to dampen the neuroinflammatory response of microglia in a retinal light damage model resulting in protec...

    Authors: Kristin Mages, Felix Grassmann, Herbert Jägle, Rainer Rupprecht, Bernhard H. F. Weber, Stefanie M. Hauck and Antje Grosche

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:43

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  30. Content type: Research

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections including encephalitis, meningitis, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Neurological complications occur frequently de...

    Authors: Liza Lind, Kristina Eriksson and Anna Grahn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:42

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  31. Content type: Research

    Excessive iron contributes to oxidative stress after central nervous system injury. NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes are upregulated in microglia after pro-inflammatory activation and contribute to oxidative stress...

    Authors: Young J. Yauger, Sara Bermudez, Kasey E. Moritz, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan Stoica and Kimberly R. Byrnes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:41

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  32. Content type: Research

    Ischemic stroke results in a robust inflammatory response within the central nervous system. As the immune-inhibitory CD200-CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) signaling axis is a known regulator of immune homeostasis,...

    Authors: Rodney M. Ritzel, Abdullah Al Mamun, Joshua Crapser, Rajkumar Verma, Anita R. Patel, Brittany E. Knight, Nia Harris, Nickolas Mancini, Meaghan Roy-O’Reilly, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Fudong Liu and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:40

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  33. Content type: Research

    Circulating endotoxins including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cause brain responses such as fever and decrease of food and water intake, while pre-injection of endotoxins attenuates these responses. This phenomen...

    Authors: Shoko Morita-Takemura, Kazuki Nakahara, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Ayami Isonishi, Kouko Tatsumi, Hiroaki Okuda, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Masahiro Kitabatake, Toshihiro Ito and Akio Wanaka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:39

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  34. Content type: Research

    Ureaplasma species (spp.) are commonly regarded as low-virulent commensals but may cause invasive diseases in immunocompromised adults and in neonates, including neonatal meningitis. The interactions of Ureaplasm...

    Authors: Christine Silwedel, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Christian P. Speer and Kirsten Glaser

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:38

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  35. Content type: Research

    High white blood cell (WBC) count and high blood glucose level are risk factors for mortality and pneumonia after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We investigated the combined effect of high WBC count and high blo...

    Authors: Shoujiang You, Zhijie Ou, Wei Zhang, Danni Zheng, Chongke Zhong, Xiaofeng Dong, Chenhong Qiu, Taosheng Lu, Yongjun Cao and Chun-Feng Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:37

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  36. Content type: Research

    This study investigated whether therapeutic hypercapnia (TH) ameliorated blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage and improved the neurologic outcome in a rat model of lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), and explor...

    Authors: Wan-Chao Yang, Qi Wang, Lai-Ting Chi, Yue-Zhen Wang, Hong-Ling Cao and Wen-Zhi Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:36

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  37. Content type: Research

    Extracellular accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is one of pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and contributes to the neuronal loss. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF...

    Authors: Shengchun Xu, Zemin Di, Yufeng He, Runjie Wang, Yuyang Ma, Rui Sun, Jing Li, Tao Wang, Yujun Shen, Shengyun Fang, Lijie Feng and Yuxian Shen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:35

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  38. Content type: Research

    Chronic pain is a major clinical problem with limited treatment options. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate neuropathic ...

    Authors: Hong-Chun Xiang, Li-Xue Lin, Xue-Fei Hu, He Zhu, Hong-Ping Li, Ru-Yue Zhang, Liang Hu, Wen-Tao Liu, Yi-Lin Zhao, Yang Shu, Hui-Lin Pan and Man Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:34

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  39. Content type: Research

    Human gliomas are highly fatal tumors with a significant feature of immune suppression. The association of the immune system in gliomas is gradually revealed, and immunotherapy is expected to improve the survi...

    Authors: Enshan Feng, Tingyu Liang, Xiaoyong Wang, Juan Du, Kai Tang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Fang Wang and Gan You

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:33

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  40. Content type: Research

    The inflammatory process has been described as a crucial mechanism in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) represents an interesting target in the reg...

    Authors: Alexandre D. Gimenes, Bruna F. D. Andrade, José Victor P. Pinotti, Sonia M. Oliani, Orfa Y. Galvis-Alonso and Cristiane D. Gil

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:32

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  41. Content type: Correction

    In the version of this article that was originally published [1]; some information in the “Author’s contributions” section was omitted.

    Authors: Veronika E. Neubrand, Irene Forte-Lago, Marta Caro and Mario Delgado

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:31

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:343

  42. Content type: Research

    Studies showed that upregulation of Nav1.6 increased the neuronal excitability and participated in neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Nav1.6 upregu...

    Authors: Huan-Huan Ding, Su-Bo Zhang, You-You Lv, Chao Ma, Meng Liu, Kui-Bo Zhang, Xiang-Cai Ruan, Jia-You Wei, Wen-Jun Xin and Shao-Ling Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:29

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  43. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury remains a significant cause of death and disability in the USA. Currently, there are no effective therapies to mitigate disability except for surgical interventions necessitating a need ...

    Authors: Stephanie W. Lee, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Jessie S. Truettner, W. Dalton Dietrich and Robert W. Keane

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:27

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  44. Content type: Research

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. The neovascular (wet) form of AMD can be treated with intravitreal injections of different anti-vascular endotheli...

    Authors: Carsten Balser, Anne Wolf, Marc Herb and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:26

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  45. Content type: Research

    Chimeric mouse models generated via adoptive bone marrow transfer are the foundation for immune cell tracking in neuroinflammation. Chimeras that exhibit low chimerism levels, blood-brain barrier disruption an...

    Authors: A. Saam Youshani, Samuel Rowlston, Claire O’Leary, Gabriella Forte, Helen Parker, Aiyin Liao, Brian Telfer, Kaye Williams, Ian D. Kamaly-Asl and Brian W. Bigger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:25

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  46. Content type: Research

    Previous studies had showed that Apelin 13 could protect against apoptosis induced by ischemic/reperfusion (I/R). However, the mechanisms whereby Apelin 13 protected brain I/R remained to be elucidated. The pr...

    Authors: Jialin Duan, Jia Cui, Zhifu Yang, Chao Guo, Jinyi Cao, Miaomiao Xi, Yan Weng, Ying Yin, Yanhua Wang, Guo Wei, Boling Qiao and Aidong Wen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:24

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  47. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS. Although recent studies suggest the neur...

    Authors: Yuan Yue, Milos Stanojlovic, Yifeng Lin, Gerard Karsenty and Wensheng Lin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:23

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  48. Content type: Research

    The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) is on the rise in the USA. Concussions, or mild TBIs without skull fracture, account for about 75% of all TBIs. Mild TBIs (mTBIs) lead to memory and cognitive d...

    Authors: Xingjuan Chen, Natalie N. Taylor-Nguyen, Ashley M. Riley, B. Paul Herring, Fletcher A. White and Alexander G. Obukhov

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:21

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