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  1. The carotid bodies and baroreceptors are sensors capable of detecting various physiological parameters that signal to the brain via the afferent carotid sinus nerve for physiological adjustment by efferent pat...

    Authors: Aidan Falvey, Fabrice Duprat, Thomas Simon, Sandrine Hugues-Ascery, Silvia V. Conde, Nicolas Glaichenhaus and Philippe Blancou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:368

    Content type: Research

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  2. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes damage to the brain’s white matter underpinning vascular cognitive impairment. Inflammation and oxidative stress have been proposed as key pathophysiological mechanisms of...

    Authors: Emma Sigfridsson, Martina Marangoni, Giles E. Hardingham, Karen Horsburgh and Jill H. Fowler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:367

    Content type: Research

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  3. The ability to distinguish resident microglia from infiltrating myeloid cells by flow cytometry-based surface phenotyping is an important technique for examining age-related neuroinflammation. The most commonl...

    Authors: Pedram Honarpisheh, Juneyoung Lee, Anik Banerjee, Maria P. Blasco-Conesa, Parisa Honarpisheh, John d’Aigle, Abdullah A. Mamun, Rodney M. Ritzel, Anjali Chauhan, Bhanu P. Ganesh and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:366

    Content type: Research

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  4. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a devastating brain injury affecting premature infants, is the most common cause of cerebral palsy. PVL is caused by hypoxia ischemia (HI) and is characterized by white matt...

    Authors: Nahla Zaghloul, Dalibor Kurepa, Mohammad Y. Bader, Nadia Nagy and Mohamed N. Ahmed

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:365

    Content type: Research

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  5. Secondary brain damage caused by the innate immune response and subsequent proinflammatory factor production is a major factor contributing to the high mortality of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Nucleotide-...

    Authors: Miao Wang, Xinchun Ye, Jinxia Hu, Qiuchen Zhao, Bingchen Lv, Weijing Ma, Weiwei Wang, Hanhan Yin, Qi Hao, Chao Zhou, Tao Zhang, Weifeng Wu, Yan Wang, Mingyue Zhou, Cong-hui Zhang and Guiyun Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:364

    Content type: Research

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  6. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating autoimmune disease affecting the CNS. Recent studies have indicated that intestinal alterations play key pathogenic roles in the development of autoimmune dis...

    Authors: Beatriz Gutierrez, Isabel Gallardo, Lorena Ruiz, Yolanda Alvarez, Victoria Cachofeiro, Abelardo Margolles, Marita Hernandez and Maria Luisa Nieto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:363

    Content type: Research

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  7. Secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by a cascade of events including hemorrhage, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation which increase the lesion size which can influence th...

    Authors: Nicolas Pelisch, Jose Rosas Almanza, Kyle E. Stehlik, Brandy V. Aperi and Antje Kroner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:362

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:87

  8. Activation of NF-kappaB RelA deacetylated at the lysine residues, except the lysine 310, drives pro-apoptotic transcription in noxious brain ischemia. We showed that the sinergistic combination of the histone ...

    Authors: Mariana Mota, Vanessa Porrini, Edoardo Parrella, Marina Benarese, Arianna Bellucci, Sina Rhein, Markus Schwaninger and Marina Pizzi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:361

    Content type: Research

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  9. Inflammation and particularly interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a pro-inflammatory cytokine highly secreted by activated immune cells during early AMD pathological events, contribute significantly to retinal neurodegene...

    Authors: Rabah Dabouz, Colin W. H. Cheng, Pénélope Abram, Samy Omri, Gael Cagnone, Khushnouma Virah Sawmy, Jean-Sébastien Joyal, Michel Desjarlais, David Olson, Alexander G. Weil, William Lubell, José Carlos Rivera and Sylvain Chemtob

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:359

    Content type: Research

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  10. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD) involving the macula is a major cause of visual impairment despite high surgical success rate, mainly because of cone death. RD causes the infiltration of activated immun...

    Authors: Jean-Baptiste Conart, Guillaume Blot, Sébastien Augustin, Géraldine Millet-Puel, Christophe Roubeix, Fanny Beguier, Hugo Charles-Messance, Sara Touhami, José-Alain Sahel, Jean-Paul Berrod, Thierry Léveillard, Xavier Guillonneau, Cécile Delarasse and Florian Sennlaub

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:358

    Content type: Research

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  11. T helper (Th) 17 cells are a highly plastic subset of T cells, which in the context of neuroinflammation, are able to acquire pathogenic features originally attributed to Th1 cells (resulting in so called ex-T...

    Authors: Julia Loos, Samantha Schmaul, Theresa Marie Noll, Magdalena Paterka, Miriam Schillner, Julian T. Löffel, Frauke Zipp and Stefan Bittner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:357

    Content type: Research

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  12. The existence of the neural control of mast cell functions has long been proposed. Mast cells (MCs) are localized in association with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the brain, where they are closely a...

    Authors: Huaping Xu, Xiaoyun Shi, Xin Li, Jiexin Zou, Chunyan Zhou, Wenfeng Liu, Huming Shao, Hongbing Chen and Linbo Shi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:356

    Content type: Review

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  13. Macular fibrosis causes irreparable vision loss in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) even with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Inflammation is known to play an importa...

    Authors: Karis Little, Maria Llorián-Salvador, Miao Tang, Xuan Du, Stephen Marry, Mei Chen and Heping Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:355

    Content type: Research

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  14. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Yi-wei Wang, Qin Zhou, Xiang Zhang, Qing-qing Qian, Jia-wen Xu, Peng-fei Ni and Yan-ning Qian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:353

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:233

  15. This article has been retracted. Please see the Retraction Notice for more detail: https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12974-020-02034-6

    Authors: Kun Hou, Guichen Li, Jinchuan Zhao, Baofeng Xu, Yang Zhang, Jinlu Yu and Kan Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:352

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:46

  16. Air pollution has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the underlying neuroimmune mechanisms remain poorly understood. TREM2 is a myeloid cell membrane receptor th...

    Authors: Hendrik J. Greve, Christen L. Mumaw, Evan J. Messenger, Prasada R. S. Kodavanti, Joyce L. Royland, Urmila P. Kodavanti and Michelle L. Block

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:351

    Content type: Research

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  17. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders characterized by gradual memory loss and neuropsychiatric symptoms. We have previously demonstrated that the 2-({3-[2-(1-cycloh...

    Authors: Hyeon Joo Ham, Yong Sun Lee, Jaesuk Yun, Dong Ju Son, Hee Pom Lee, Sang-Bae Han and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:350

    Content type: Research

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  18. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that damages myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). We investigated the profile of CCN3, a known regulator of immune function and a potential mediator...

    Authors: Michelle Naughton, Jill Moffat, George Eleftheriadis, Nira de la Vega Gallardo, Andrew Young, John Falconer, Kristen Hawkins, Ben Pearson, Bernard Perbal, Andrew Hogan, Paul Moynagh, Sam Loveless, Neil P. Robertson, Bruno Gran, Rachael Kee, Stella Hughes…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:349

    Content type: Research

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  19. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ferdinand Althammer, Hildebrando Candido Ferreira-Neto, Myurajan Rubaharan, Ranjan K. Roy, Atit A. Patel, Anne Murphy, Daniel N. Cox and Javier E. Stern

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:348

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:221

  20. The R1441G mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene results in late-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). Peripheral inflammation and gut microbiota are closely associated with the pathogenesis of P...

    Authors: Yu-Kun Feng, Qiong-Li Wu, Yan-Wen Peng, Feng-Yin Liang, Hua-Jing You, Yi-Wei Feng, Ge Li, Xue-Jiao Li, Shu-Hua Liu, Yong-Chao Li, Yu Zhang and Zhong Pei

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:347

    Content type: Research

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  21. Glioblastoma is the most common and deadly form of primary brain cancer, accounting for more than 13,000 new diagnoses annually in the USA alone. Microglia are the innate immune cells within the central nervou...

    Authors: Jee-Wei Emily Chen, Jan Lumibao, Sarah Leary, Jann N. Sarkaria, Andrew J. Steelman, H. Rex Gaskins and Brendan A. C. Harley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:346

    Content type: Research

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  22. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and opiates cause long-term inflammatory insult to the central nervous system (CNS) and worsen disease progression and HIV-1-related neuropathology. The combination ...

    Authors: Douglas J. Hermes, Ian R. Jacobs, Megan C. Key, Alexis F. League, Barkha J. Yadav-Samudrala, Changqing Xu, Virginia D. McLane, Sara R. Nass, Wei Jiang, Rick B. Meeker, Bogna M. Ignatowska-Jankowska, Aron H. Lichtman, Zibo Li, Zhanhong Wu, Hong Yuan, Pamela E. Knapp…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:345

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Farina J. Mahmud, Yong Du, Elizabeth Greif, Thomas Boucher, Robert F. Dannals, William B. Mathews, Martin G. Pomper, Polina Sysa-Shah, Kelly A. Metcalf Pate, Claire Lyons, Bess Carlson, Maria Chacona and Amanda M. Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:344

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:273

  24. The activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pyroptosis has been shown to play a vital role in the pathology of manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity. Sodium para-aminosalicylic ...

    Authors: Dongjie Peng, Junyan Li, Yue Deng, Xiaojuan Zhu, Lin Zhao, Yuwen Zhang, Zhaocong Li, Shiyan Ou, Shaojun Li and Yueming Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:343

    Content type: Research

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  25. Smad3 signaling is indicated to regulate microglia activity. Parkinson’s disease (PD) neurodegeneration is shown to be associated with aging and neuroinflammation. However, it remains unclear about the relatio...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Lijia Yu, Yaling Xu, Xiaohui Tang and Xijin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:342

    Content type: Research

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  26. Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) commonly causes vision loss from aberrant angiogenesis, termed choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that are necessary for...

    Authors: Steven Droho, Benjamin R. Thomson, Hadijat M. Makinde, Carla M. Cuda, Harris Perlman and Jeremy A. Lavine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:341

    Content type: Research

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  27. Interferon α (IFNα) is a cytokine whose production is increased endogenously in response to viral infection and in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An elevated IFNα signature has...

    Authors: Ernest Aw, Yingying Zhang and Michael Carroll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:340

    Content type: Research

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  28. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common pathological condition that presently lacks a specific pharmacological treatment. Adenosine levels rise following TBI, which is thought to be neuroprotective against se...

    Authors: Susan A. Farr, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Emanuela Esposito, Michela Campolo, Michael L. Niehoff, Timothy M. Doyle and Daniela Salvemini

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:339

    Content type: Research

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  29. This exploratory study investigated the time-course of lectin complement pathway (LCP) initiators in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), as well as their relati...

    Authors: Jeppe Sillesen Matzen, Charlotte Loumann Krogh, Julie Lyng Forman, Peter Garred, Kirsten Møller and Søren Bache

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:338

    Content type: Research

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  30. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to neuroinflammation. Pinocembrin has been shown to have neuroprotective effects, while the therapeutic functions under IH condition are ...

    Authors: Lin-Jing Gong, Xin-Yuan Wang, Wen-Yu Gu and Xu Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:337

    Content type: Research

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  31. The risk of glaucoma increases significantly with age and exposure to elevated intraocular pressure, two factors linked with neuroinflammation. The complement cascade is a complex immune process with many bioa...

    Authors: Jeffrey M. Harder, Pete A. Williams, Catherine E. Braine, Hongtian S. Yang, Jocelyn M. Thomas, Nicole E. Foxworth, Simon W. M. John and Gareth R. Howell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:336

    Content type: Research

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  32. Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs) occur frequently after surgery and worsen patient outcome. How C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL) 13 and its sole receptor CXCR5 contribute to PNDs remains poorly unders...

    Authors: Yanan Shen, Yuan Zhang, Lihai Chen, Jiayue Du, Hongguang Bao, Yan Xing, Mengmeng Cai and Yanna Si

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:335

    Content type: Research

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  33. Air pollution has been recently identified as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. Aim of this study was to investigate the immunological mechanism underlying the clinical association between air pollution, n...

    Authors: Andrea Cortese, Luca Lova, Patrizia Comoli, Elisabetta Volpe, Silvia Villa, Giulia Mallucci, Sabrina La Salvia, Alfredo Romani, Diego Franciotta, Valentina Bollati, Sabrina Basso, Ilaria Guido, Giuseppe Quartuccio, Luca Battistini, Cristina Cereda and Roberto Bergamaschi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:334

    Content type: Research

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  34. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated demyelinated disease of the central nervous system. Activation of microglia is involved in the pathogenesis of myelin loss.

    Authors: Man Chen, Lin-Lin Yang, Zi-Wei Hu, Chuan Qin, Luo-Qi Zhou, Ya-ling Duan, Dale B. Bosco, Long-Jun Wu, Ke-Bin Zhan, Sha-Bei Xu and Dai-Shi Tian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:333

    Content type: Research

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  35. After decades of research recognizing it as a complex multifactorial disorder, sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (sAD) still has no known etiology. Adding to the myriad of different pathways involved, bacterial neu...

    Authors: Diana F. Silva, Emanuel Candeias, A. Raquel Esteves, João D. Magalhães, I. Luísa Ferreira, Daniela Nunes-Costa, A. Cristina Rego, Nuno Empadinhas and Sandra M. Cardoso

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:332

    Content type: Research

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  36. Periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis produce several metabolites, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and n-butyric acid (BA). Past work suggested that periodontal infection may cause cogniti...

    Authors: Takamitsu Tsukahara, Atsushi Toyoda, Takahiro Kawase, Shin-ichi Nakamura and Kuniyasu Ochiai

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:331

    Content type: Research

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  37. Inflammatory response has been recognized as a pivotal pathophysiological process during cerebral ischemic stroke. NLRP3 inflammasome, involved in the regulation of inflammatory cascade, can simultaneously lea...

    Authors: Rui Sun, Mengna Peng, Pengfei Xu, Feihong Huang, Yi Xie, Juanji Li, Ye Hong, Hongquan Guo, Qian Liu and Wusheng Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:330

    Content type: Research

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  38. Neuroinflammation is the major pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Microglia are activated and polarized to either the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, which act as a critical me...

    Authors: Tingting He, Wanlu Li, Yaying Song, Zongwei Li, Yaohui Tang, Zhijun Zhang and Guo-Yuan Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:329

    Content type: Research

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  39. Traumatic brain injury leads to cellular damage which in turn results in the rapid release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that prompt resident cells to release cytokines and chemokines. These ...

    Authors: Aftab Alam, Eric P. Thelin, Tamara Tajsic, Danyal Z. Khan, Abdelhakim Khellaf, Rickie Patani and Adel Helmy

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:328

    Content type: Review

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  40. Repetitive, mild traumatic brain injuries (RmTBIs) are increasingly common in adolescents and encompass one of the largest neurological health concerns in the world. Adolescence is a critical period for brain ...

    Authors: Eric Eyolfson, Asher Khan, Richelle Mychasiuk and Alexander W. Lohman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:326

    Content type: Review

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  41. Bacterial meningitis is still a cause of severe neurological disability. The brain is protected from penetrating pathogens by the blood-brain barrier and the innate immune system. The invading pathogens are re...

    Authors: Marvin Rüger, Eugenia Kipp, Nadine Schubert, Nicole Schröder, Thomas Pufe, Matthias B. Stope, Markus Kipp, Christian Blume, Simone C. Tauber and Lars-Ove Brandenburg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:325

    Content type: Research

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  42. Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation, oligodendrocytes loss, demyelination, and damaged axons. Tyro3, Axl, and MerTK belong to a fa...

    Authors: Juwen C. DuBois, Alex K. Ray, Peter Davies and Bridget Shafit-Zagardo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:324

    Content type: Research

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  43. The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (CLN diseases) are fatal lysosomal storage diseases causing neurodegeneration in the CNS. We have previously shown that neuroinflammation comprising innate and adaptive immun...

    Authors: Kristina Berve, Brian L. West, Rudolf Martini and Janos Groh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:323

    Content type: Research

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  44. In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin 43 (Cx43) is mainly expressed in astrocytes and regulates astrocytic network homeostasis. Similar to Cx43 overexpression, abnormal excessive opening of Cx43 hemich...

    Authors: Hailong Yu, Xiang Cao, Wei Li, Pinyi Liu, Yuanyuan Zhao, Lilong Song, Jian Chen, Beilei Chen, Wenkui Yu and Yun Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:322

    Content type: Research

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  45. Microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI), which severely influences the quality of life during long-term survival. Recently, irradiated microglia were specula...

    Authors: Anan Xu, Rong Li, Anbang Ren, Haifeng Jian, Zhong Huang, Qingxing Zeng, Baiyao Wang, Jieling Zheng, Xiaoyu Chen, Naiying Zheng, Ronghui Zheng, Yunhong Tian, Mengzhong Liu, Zixu Mao, Aimin Ji and Yawei Yuan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:321

    Content type: Research

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  46. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis is an important pathological feature of sepsis-associated encephalopathy. In the current study, we examined the potential role of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) sex-determini...

    Authors: Jialin Yin, Yanan Shen, Yanna Si, Yuan Zhang, Jiayue Du, Xiajuan Hu, Mengmeng Cai, Hongguang Bao and Yan Xing

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:320

    Content type: Research

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  47. We previously found that high-dose methylprednisolone increased the incidence of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) and mortality in rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI), whereas l...

    Authors: Bin Zhang, Miao Bai, Xiaojian Xu, Mengshi Yang, Fei Niu, Fei Gao and Baiyun Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:318

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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