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  1. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) and virally induced demyelinating disease are two major experimental model systems used to study human multiple sclerosis. Although endothelin-1 level elevation was p...

    Authors: Young-Hee Jin, Bongsu Kang, Hyun S. Kang, Chang-Sung Koh and Byung S. Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:307

    Content type: Research

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  2. Neuroinflammation is a principal element in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, so anti-inflammation may be a promising therapeutic strategy. Forsythoside B (FTS•B), a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from Fo...

    Authors: Fan’ge Kong, Xue Jiang, Ruochen Wang, Siyu Zhai, Yizhi Zhang and Di Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:305

    Content type: Research

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  3. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls numerous physiological processes both in basal and neuroinflammatory conditions, including the inflammatory response to experimental autoimmune ence...

    Authors: Paula Sanchis, Olaya Fernández-Gayol, Gemma Comes, Kevin Aguilar, Anna Escrig, Mercedes Giralt, Richard D. Palmiter and Juan Hidalgo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:304

    Content type: Research

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  4. Glycine is the smallest nonessential amino acid and has previously unrecognized neurotherapeutic effects. In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of glycine (Gly) against...

    Authors: Rahat Ullah, Myeung Hoon Jo, Muhammad Riaz, Sayed Ibrar Alam, Kamran Saeed, Waqar Ali, Inayat Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ikram and Myeong Ok Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:303

    Content type: Research

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  5. Glial activation and neuroinflammation play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated signaling pathway is...

    Authors: Bo Ding, Chengheng Lin, Qian Liu, Yingying He, John Bosco Ruganzu, Hui Jin, Xiaoqian Peng, Shengfeng Ji, Yanbing Ma and Weina Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:302

    Content type: Research

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  6. Polyamine catabolism plays a key role in maintaining intracellular polyamine pools, yet its physiological significance is largely unexplored. Here, we report that the disruption of polyamine catabolism leads t...

    Authors: Kamyar Zahedi, Marybeth Brooks, Sharon Barone, Negah Rahmati, Tracy Murray Stewart, Matthew Dunworth, Christina Destefano-Shields, Nupur Dasgupta, Steve Davidson, Diana M. Lindquist, Christine E. Fuller, Roger D. Smith, John L. Cleveland, Robert A. Casero Jr and Manoocher Soleimani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:301

    Content type: Research

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  7. Non-invasive imaging of the activation status of microglia and the ability to identify a pro- or anti-inflammatory environment can provide valuable insights not only into pathogenesis of neuro-inflammatory and...

    Authors: Wissam Beaino, Bieneke Janssen, Esther Kooijman, Ricardo Vos, Robert C. Schuit, James O’Brien-Brown, Michael Kassiou, Bert van het Hof, Danielle J. Vugts, Helga E. de Vries and Albert D. Windhorst

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:300

    Content type: Research

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  8. Cytoplasmic inclusions of transactive response DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) in neurons and astrocytes are a feature of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ...

    Authors: Shinrye Lee, Seyeon Kim, Ha-Young Kang, Hye Ryeong Lim, Younghwi Kwon, Myungjin Jo, Yu-Mi Jeon, Sang Ryong Kim, Kiyoung Kim, Chang Man Ha, Seongsoo Lee and Hyung-Jun Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:299

    Content type: Research

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  9. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive degeneration and loss of neurons in specific regions of the central nervous system. Chronic activation of the immune c...

    Authors: Chiara Burgaletto, Antonio Munafò, Giulia Di Benedetto, Cettina De Francisci, Filippo Caraci, Rosaria Di Mauro, Claudio Bucolo, Renato Bernardini and Giuseppina Cantarella

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:298

    Content type: Review

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  10. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a class of evolutionary conserved, non-coding small RNAs with regulatory functions on gene expression. They negatively affect the expression of target genes by promoting either RNA...

    Authors: Qin Ma, Atsuko Matsunaga, Brenda Ho, Jorge R. Oksenberg and Alessandro Didonna

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:297

    Content type: Research

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  11. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, and behavioral alterations including addiction. Alcohol-induced neuroinflammation is characterized by increased expression of ...

    Authors: Patrick P. Lowe, Caroline Morel, Aditya Ambade, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Erica Kwiatkowski, Abhishek Satishchandran, Istvan Furi, Yeonhee Cho, Benedek Gyongyosi, Donna Catalano, Eric Lefebvre, Laurent Fischer, Star Seyedkazemi, Dorothy P. Schafer and Gyongyi Szabo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:296

    Content type: Research

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  12. Spinal cord injury (SCI) favors a persistent pro-inflammatory macrophages/microglia-mediated response with only a transient appearance of anti-inflammatory phenotype of immune cells. However, the mechanisms co...

    Authors: Hong Fan, Hai-Bin Tang, Zhe Chen, Hu-Qing Wang, Lei Zhang, Yu Jiang, Tao Li, Cai-Feng Yang, Xiao-Ya Wang, Xia Li, Sheng-Xi Wu and Gui-Lian Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:295

    Content type: Research

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  13. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease mainly mediated by autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. The thymus is the effector organ, and its removal ...

    Authors: Mélanie A. Cron, Cloé A. Payet, Odessa-Maud Fayet, Solène Maillard, Frédérique Truffault, Elie Fadel, Julien Guihaire, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Adrian Liston and Rozen Le Panse

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:294

    Content type: Research

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  14. Pneumococcal meningitis (PM) remains a global public health concern and affects all age groups. If acquired during infancy or childhood, permanent neurofunctional deficits including cognitive impairment, cereb...

    Authors: Ngoc Dung Le, Lukas Muri, Denis Grandgirard, Jens Kuhle, David Leppert and Stephen L. Leib

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:293

    Content type: Research

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  15. Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is an early and frequent event of infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) is linked to neuroinflammation and inflam...

    Authors: Guang-Ping Lang, Bernadin Ndongson-Dongmo, Trim Lajqi, Michael Brodhun, Yingying Han, Reinhard Wetzker, Martin G. Frasch and Reinhard Bauer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:292

    Content type: Research

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  16. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that affects 2.5 million people worldwide. Growing evidence suggests that perturbation of the gut microbiota, the dense collection of microorgan...

    Authors: John Michael S. Sanchez, Daniel J. Doty, Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, D. Garrett Brown, Rickesha Bell, Kendra A. Klag, Amanda Truong, Jane E. Libbey, June L. Round and Robert S. Fujinami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:291

    Content type: Research

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  17. Evidence shows significant heterogeneity in astrocyte gene expression and function. We previously demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exerts protective effects on whole brain primary cul...

    Authors: Julieta Saba, Federico López Couselo, Juan Turati, Lila Carniglia, Daniela Durand, Andrea de Laurentiis, Mercedes Lasaga and Carla Caruso

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:290

    Content type: Research

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  18. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits especially forgetting recent information, recall ability impairment, and loss of t...

    Authors: Shaghayegh Sadeghmousavi, Mahsa Eskian, Farzaneh Rahmani and Nima Rezaei

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:289

    Content type: Review

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  19. Growing evidence has shown that alterations in the gut microbiota composition were associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. However, whether such associations reflect causality remains unknown...

    Authors: Zhenhuang Zhuang, Ruotong Yang, Wenxiu Wang, Lu Qi and Tao Huang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:288

    Content type: Research

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  20. Current methods to repair ablation-type peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) using peripheral nerve allografts (PNAs) often result in poor functional recovery due to immunological rejection as well as to slow and ...

    Authors: Tyler A. Smith, Cameron L. Ghergherehchi, Haley O. Tucker and George D. Bittner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:287

    Content type: Research

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  21. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious pathogen that is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Similar to ot...

    Authors: Abbas Jarrahi, Meenakshi Ahluwalia, Hesam Khodadadi, Evila da Silva Lopes Salles, Ravindra Kolhe, David C. Hess, Fernando Vale, Manish Kumar, Babak Baban, Kumar Vaibhav and Krishnan M. Dhandapani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:286

    Content type: Review

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  22. Hypothalamic dysfunction occurs early in the clinical course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), likely contributing to disturbances in feeding behavior and metabolic function that are often observed years prior to t...

    Authors: Lisa S. Robison, Olivia J. Gannon, Melissa A. Thomas, Abigail E. Salinero, Charly Abi-Ghanem, Yannick Poitelon, Sophie Belin and Kristen L. Zuloaga

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:285

    Content type: Research

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  23. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is considered to be the medically most important arthropod-borne virus in Europe. The symptoms of an infection range from subclinical to mild flu-like disease to lethal enc...

    Authors: Richard Lindqvist, Ebba Rosendal, Elvira Weber, Naveed Asghar, Sarah Schreier, Annasara Lenman, Magnus Johansson, Gerhard Dobler, Malena Bestehorn, Andrea Kröger and Anna K. Överby

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:284

    Content type: Research

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  24. Neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions containing TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are a neuropathological feature of several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotempor...

    Authors: Frank Zamudio, Anjanet R. Loon, Shayna Smeltzer, Khawla Benyamine, Nanda K. Navalpur Shanmugam, Nicholas J. F. Stewart, Daniel C. Lee, Kevin Nash and Maj-Linda B. Selenica

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:283

    Content type: Research

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  25. Alterations in the immune system are a complication of spinal cord injury (SCI) and have been linked to an excessive sympathetic outflow to lymphoid organs. Still unknown is whether these peripheral immune cha...

    Authors: Susana Monteiro, Andreia G. Pinho, Mara Macieira, Cláudia Serre-Miranda, Jorge R. Cibrão, Rui Lima, Carina Soares-Cunha, Natália L. Vasconcelos, José Lentilhas-Graça, Sara Duarte-Silva, Alice Miranda, Margarida Correia-Neves, António J. Salgado and Nuno A. Silva

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:282

    Content type: Research

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  26. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, late-onset dementia with no effective treatment available. Recent studies suggest that AD pathology is driven by age-related changes in metabolism. Alterations in met...

    Authors: Daniel C. Shippy, Connor Wilhelm, Patel A. Viharkumar, Thomas J. Raife and Tyler K. Ulland

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:280

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Microglia, the primary resident myeloid cells of the brain, play critical roles in immune defense by maintaining tissue homeostasis and responding to injury or disease. However, microglial activation and dysfu...

    Authors: Lindsay A. Hohsfield, Allison R. Najafi, Yasamine Ghorbanian, Neelakshi Soni, Edna E. Hingco, Sung Jin Kim, Ayer Darling Jue, Vivek Swarup, Mathew A. Inlay and Kim N. Green

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:279

    Content type: Research

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  28. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important human pathogen that can cause the serious illness tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Patients with clinical symptoms can suffer from severe meningoencephalitis ...

    Authors: Angela D. A. Cornelius, Shirin Hosseini, Sarah Schreier, David Fritzsch, Loreen Weichert, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse, Markus Fendt and Andrea Kröger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:278

    Content type: Research

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  29. Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a type of GM2-gangliosidosis, is a progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the α subunit of the lysosomal β-hexosaminidase enzyme. This disease is ...

    Authors: Seçil Akyıldız Demir, Zehra Kevser Timur, Nurselin Ateş, Luis Alarcón Martínez and Volkan Seyrantepe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:277

    Content type: Research

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  30. In human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, activation of astrocytes induces imbalance in physiological functions due to perturbed astrocytic functions that unleashes toxicity on neurons. This leads t...

    Authors: Priyanka, Renu Wadhwa, Rituparna Chaudhuri, Tapas Chandra Nag and Pankaj Seth

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:276

    Content type: Research

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  31. B cells play a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS) through production of injurious antibodies, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and antigen presentation. The therapeutic success of monoclonal antib...

    Authors: Marc Y. Stevens, Haley C. Cropper, Katherine L. Lucot, Aisling M. Chaney, Kendra J. Lechtenberg, Isaac M. Jackson, Marion S. Buckwalter and Michelle L. James

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:275

    Content type: Research

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  32. Elevated blood homocysteine levels, termed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), is a prevalent risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in elderly populations. While dietary supplementation of B-vitamins is a generall...

    Authors: David J. Braun, Edgardo Dimayuga, Josh M. Morganti and Linda J. Van Eldik

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:274

    Content type: Research

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  33. Osteopontin (OPN) as a secreted signaling protein is dramatically induced in response to cellular injury and neurodegeneration. Microglial inflammatory responses in the brain are tightly associated with the ne...

    Authors: Farina J. Mahmud, Yong Du, Elizabeth Greif, Thomas Boucher, Robert F. Dannals, William B. Mathews, Martin G. Pomper, Polina Sysa-Shah, Kelly A. Metcalf Pate, Claire Lyons, Bess Carlson, Maria Chacona and Amanda M. Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:273

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:344

  34. Microglial function is vital for maintaining the health of the brain, and their activation is an essential component of neurodegeneration. There is significant research on factors that provoke “reactive” or “i...

    Authors: Na Li, Tessandra Stewart, Lifu Sheng, Min Shi, Eugene M. Cilento, Yufeng Wu, Jau-Syong Hong and Jing Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:272

    Content type: Research

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  35. Increased physical exercise improves cognitive function and reduces pathology associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise in AD on the level ...

    Authors: Irina Belaya, Mariia Ivanova, Annika Sorvari, Marina Ilicic, Sanna Loppi, Hennariikka Koivisto, Alessandra Varricchio, Heikki Tikkanen, Frederick R. Walker, Mustafa Atalay, Tarja Malm, Alexandra Grubman, Heikki Tanila and Katja M. Kanninen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:271

    Content type: Research

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  36. Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death globally. The narrow time window for administering effective thrombolytic therapy motivates the search for alternative prevention strategies. Microglia and ...

    Authors: Min Liu, Zhipeng Xu, Long Wang, Lixia Zhang, Yi Liu, Jiangbei Cao, Qiang Fu, Yanhong Liu, Hao Li, Jingsheng Lou, Wugang Hou, Weidong Mi and Yulong Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:270

    Content type: Research

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  37. Chronic hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation in cerebellum, with glial activation and enhanced activation of the TNFR1-NF-kB-glutaminase-glutamate-GABA pathway. Hyperammonemia also increases glycinergic ne...

    Authors: Yaiza M. Arenas, Andrea Cabrera-Pastor, Nora Juciute, Eloy Mora-Navarro and Vicente Felipo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:269

    Content type: Research

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  38. Interleukin (IL)-33 is expressed in a healthy brain and plays a pivotal role in several neuropathologies, as protective or contributing to the development of cerebral diseases associated with cognitive impairm...

    Authors: Flora Reverchon, Vidian de Concini, Vanessa Larrigaldie, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sylvain Briault, Dieudonnée Togbé, Bernhard Ryffel, Valérie F. J. Quesniaux and Arnaud Menuet

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:268

    Content type: Research

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  39. Excessive inflammation might activate and injure the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a common feature of many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We previously developed an in vitro BBB injury model in which th...

    Authors: Hila Israelov, Orly Ravid, Dana Atrakchi, Daniel Rand, Shirin Elhaik, Yael Bresler, Rachel Twitto-Greenberg, Liora Omesi, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Fabien Gosselet, Michal Schnaider Beeri and Itzik Cooper

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:267

    Content type: Research

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  40. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used and clinically relevant murine model for human multiple sclerosis (MS), a demyelinating autoimmune disease characterized by mononuclear...

    Authors: Nathalia Bernardes Teixeira, Gisele Picolo, Aline Carolina Giardini, Fawzi Boumezbeur, Géraldine Pottier, Bertrand Kuhnast, Denis Servent and Evelyne Benoit

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:266

    Content type: Research

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  41. The type 1 interferon (IFN) response is part of the innate immune response and best known for its role in viral and bacterial infection. However, this pathway is also induced in sterile inflammation such as th...

    Authors: Ayelet Vardi, Shifra Ben-Dor, Soo Min Cho, Ulrich Kalinke, Julia Spanier and Anthony H. Futerman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:265

    Content type: Research

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  42. Maternal nutrition is critical for proper fetal development. While increased nutrient intake is essential during pregnancy, an excessive consumption of certain nutrients, like fat, can lead to long-lasting det...

    Authors: Maude Bordeleau, Chloé Lacabanne, Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Nathalie Vernoux, Julie C. Savage, Fernando González-Ibáñez and Marie-Ève Tremblay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:264

    Content type: Research

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  43. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes neurological dysfunction with devastating consequences. SCI pathogenesis is accompanied by inflammasome activation and neuronal damage. But the spatial pattern and the time cour...

    Authors: Xuefei Li, Zhiyuan Yu, Weifeng Zong, Peng Chen, Jia Li, Minghuan Wang, Fengfei Ding, Minjie Xie, Wei Wang and Xiang Luo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:263

    Content type: Research

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  44. New-generation, cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of serum autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) optic neuritis, myeli...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Christian Lechner, Eva M. Wendel, Matthias Baumann, Markus Breu, Mareike Schimmel, Michael Karenfort, Adela Della Marina, Andreas Merkenschlager, Charlotte Thiels, Astrid Blaschek, Michela Salandin, Steffen Leiz, Frank Leypoldt, Alexander Pschibul, Annette Hackenberg…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:262

    Content type: Research

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  45. New-generation cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of serum autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) optic neuritis, myelit...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Hannah Pellkofer, Nadja Siebert, Mirjam Korporal-Kuhnke, Martin W. Hümmert, Marius Ringelstein, Paulus S. Rommer, Ilya Ayzenberg, Klemens Ruprecht, Luisa Klotz, Nasrin Asgari, Tobias Zrzavy, Romana Höftberger, Rafik Tobia, Mathias Buttmann, Kai Fechner…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:261

    Content type: Research

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  46. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), and it remains the most common immune-mediated disorder affecting the CNS. While the cause of MS is unclear, the underlyi...

    Authors: Vaidya Govindarajan, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari and Robert W. Keane

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:260

    Content type: Review

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  47. Brain inflammation is a key cause of cognitive decline after central nervous system (CNS) infections. A thorough understanding of immune responses to CNS infection is essential for developing anti-inflammatory...

    Authors: Benjamin R. Cassidy, Miao Zhang, William E. Sonntag and Douglas A. Drevets

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:259

    Content type: Research

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  48. Resident microglia and macrophages are the predominant contributors to neuroinflammation and immune reactions, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury. Controlling inflammatory ...

    Authors: Dongxue Wang, Fei Liu, Liyun Zhu, Ping Lin, Fanyi Han, Xue Wang, Xianxi Tan, Li Lin and Ye Xiong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:257

    Content type: Research

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