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  1. Content type: Research

    The mechanism underlying migraine chronification remains unclear. Central sensitization may account for this progression. The microglia P2X4 receptor (P2X4R) plays a pivotal role in the central sensitization o...

    Authors: Ting Long, Wei He, Qi Pan, Shanshan Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Chaoyang Liu, Qing Liu, Guangcheng Qin, Lixue Chen and Jiying Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:245

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  2. Content type: Research

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD), loss of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals and degeneration of DA neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) are associated with inflammation. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain...

    Authors: Li Cheng, Lin Chen, Xinbing Wei, Yimeng Wang, Zhiping Ren, Shenglan Zeng, Xiumei Zhang, Haitao Wen, Chengjiang Gao and Huiqing Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:243

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  3. Content type: Research

    Most of the animal models commonly used for preclinical research into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) largely fail to address the pathophysiology, including the impact of known risk factors, of the widely diagnosed s...

    Authors: Nina Weishaupt, Qingfan Liu, Sheojung Shin, Ramandeep Singh, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Vladimir Hachinski and Shawn Narain Whitehead

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:241

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  4. Content type: Research

    Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a crucial factor in mediating inflammatory responses after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), but the cellular location of NLRP3 inflammasome in cerebral I...

    Authors: Zhe Gong, Jingrui Pan, Qingyu Shen, Mei Li and Ying Peng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:242

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  5. Content type: Short report

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been associated with brain inflammation as indicated by the activation of microglia, but the triggers are not known. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted from many cells...

    Authors: Irene Tsilioni and Theoharis C. Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:239

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  6. Content type: Research

    Overstimulation of glutamate receptors, especially neuronal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), mediates excitatory neurotoxicity in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of NMDAR in the regul...

    Authors: Zheng Chen, Xugang Wang, Usama Ashraf, Bohan Zheng, Jing Ye, Dengyuan Zhou, Hao Zhang, Yunfeng Song, Huanchun Chen, Shuhong Zhao and Shengbo Cao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:238

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  7. Content type: Research

    Blood–brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammatory responses are the major causes of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation (HT), while high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) e...

    Authors: Miaodan Li, Shumin Chen, Xue Shi, Chenfei Lyu, Yongfang Zhang, Miaoqin Tan, Chen Wang, Nailiang Zang, Xiaoxi Liu, Yafang Hu, Jiangang Shen, Liang Zhou and Yong Gu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:237

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  8. Content type: Research

    Ammonia and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play important roles in the mechanisms of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Rhesus glycoprotein C (Rhcg) is important for ammonia transport especially in the kidney. ...

    Authors: Wen Wang, Hui Lu, Xu Lu, Donglei Wang, Zhaohan Wang, Wenying Dai, Jinyong Wang and Pei Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:234

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  9. Content type: Research

    Very late antigen 4 (VLA-4; integrin α4β1) is critical for transmigration of T helper (TH) 1 cells into the central nervous system (CNS) under inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We have prev...

    Authors: Johanna Breuer, Eva Korpos, Melanie-Jane Hannocks, Tilman Schneider-Hohendorf, Jian Song, Lisa Zondler, Sebastian Herich, Ken Flanagan, Thomas Korn, Alexander Zarbock, Tanja Kuhlmann, Lydia Sorokin, Heinz Wiendl and Nicholas Schwab

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:236

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  10. Content type: Research

    Emerging evidence indicates that long-time use of multiple antibiotics can induce cognitive dysfunction via gut dysbiosis. Cefazolin is often used for 3 to 5 days to prevent perioperative infection. This study...

    Authors: Peng Liang, Weiran Shan and Zhiyi Zuo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:235

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  11. Content type: Research

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a severe adverse effect in patients receiving antitumor agents, and no effective treatment is available. Although the mechanisms responsible for the deve...

    Authors: Cristina Meregalli, Ivan Marjanovic, Carla Scali, Laura Monza, Nadia Spinoni, Cristina Galliani, Rinaldo Brivio, Alessia Chiorazzi, Elisa Ballarini, Virginia Rodriguez-Menendez, Valentina Alda Carozzi, Paola Alberti, Giulia Fumagalli, Eleonora Pozzi, Annalisa Canta, Marina Quartu…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:232

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  12. Content type: Research

    Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Up to 50% of survivors show neurologic sequelae including hearing loss, cognitive impairments and learning disabilities, being par...

    Authors: Lukas Muri, Denis Grandgirard, Michelle Buri, Michael Perny and Stephen L. Leib

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:233

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  13. Content type: Research

    An acute and drastic inflammatory response characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators is followed by stroke, including SAH. Overactivation of microglia parallels an excessive inflammatory respon...

    Authors: Ran Li, Wenchao Liu, Jian Yin, Yunchang Chen, Shenquan Guo, Haiyan Fan, Xifeng Li, Xin Zhang, Xuying He and Chuanzhi Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:231

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  14. Content type: Research

    Treatment of spinal cord injury is dependent on neuronal survival, appropriate synaptic circuit preservation, and inflammatory environment management. In this sense, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a pr...

    Authors: A. B. Spejo, G. B. Chiarotto, A. D. F. Ferreira, D. A. Gomes, R. S. Ferreira Jr, B. Barraviera and A. L. R. Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:230

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  15. Content type: Research

    The first pathology observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is ‘dying back’ of striatal dopaminergic (DA) terminals. Connexin (Cx)30, an astrocytic gap junction protein, is upregulated in the striatum in PD, but ...

    Authors: Atsushi Fujita, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Ryo Yamasaki, Yiwen Cui, Yuta Matsuoka, Ken-ichi Yamada and Jun-ichi Kira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:227

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  16. Content type: Research

    With the aging population, the prevalence and incidence of cerebrovascular disease will continue to rise, as well as the number of individuals with vascular cognitive impairment/dementia (VCID). No specific FD...

    Authors: Heba A. Ahmed, Tauheed Ishrat, Bindu Pillai, Abdelrahman Y. Fouda, Mohammed A. Sayed, Wael Eldahshan, Jennifer L. Waller, Adviye Ergul and Susan C. Fagan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:229

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  17. Content type: Research

    Prenatal infection is a substantial risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in offspring. We have previously reported that influenza vaccination (VAC) during early pregnancy contributes to ...

    Authors: Yingying Wu, Fangfang Qi, Dan Song, Zitian He, Zejie Zuo, Yunjie Yang, Qiongliang Liu, Saisai Hu, Xiao Wang, Xiaona Zheng, Junhua Yang, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo and Zhibin Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:228

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  18. Content type: Research

    Microglia—the resident immune cells of the brain—are activated after brain lesions, e.g., cerebral ischemia, and polarize towards a classic “M1” pro-inflammatory or an alternative “M2” anti-inflammatory phenot...

    Authors: Sabine Ulrike Vay, Lea Jessica Flitsch, Monika Rabenstein, Rebecca Rogall, Stefan Blaschke, Judith Kleinhaus, Noémie Reinert, Annika Bach, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Michael Schroeter and Maria Adele Rueger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:226

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  19. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease, which is pathologically characterized by an excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrils, is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia. In a previous study,...

    Authors: Ji Yeon Choi, In Jun Yeo, Ki Cheon Kim, Won Rack Choi, Jae-Kyung Jung, Sang-Bae Han and Jin Tae Hong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:224

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  20. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) for which several new treatment options were recently introduced. Among them is the monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody ale...

    Authors: Micha Simon, Rojda Ipek, György A. Homola, Damiano M. Rovituso, Andrea Schampel, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Stefanie Kuerten

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:225

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  21. Content type: Research

    Cerebral ischemia generates neuroinflammation that can induce neural cell death. This cohort study assessed whether Fas-ligand (FasL) and interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after hypoxi...

    Authors: Kristin Leifsdottir, Huseyin Mehmet, Staffan Eksborg and Eric Herlenius

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:223

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  22. Content type: Research

    Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is caused by degenerative or congenital changes to the discs and soft tissues of the cervical spine, which leads to chronic compression of the spinal cord. The current tr...

    Authors: Pia M. Vidal, Antigona Ulndreaj, Anna Badner, James Hong and Michael G. Fehlings

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:222

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  23. Content type: Research

    Mice with pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) are characterized by intense hippocampal neuroinflammation, a prominent pathological hallmark of TLE that is known to contribute to neuronal hyperexci...

    Authors: Xinjian Zhu, Xiaolin Li, Mengyi Zhu, Kangni Xu, Li Yang, Bing Han, Rongrong Huang, Aifeng Zhang and Honghong Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:221

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  24. Content type: Research

    The spleen plays an important role in erythrocyte turnover, adaptive immunity, antibody production, and the mobilization of monocytes/macrophages (Mφ) following tissue injury. In response to trauma, the spleen...

    Authors: Anna Badner, Justin Hacker, James Hong, Mirriam Mikhail, Reaz Vawda and Michael G. Fehlings

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:219

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  25. Content type: Research

    The glutamine synthetase (GS), an astrocyte-specific enzyme, is involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation which activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Endocannabinoid ...

    Authors: Shenghong Wang, Hua Zhang, Bin Geng, Qiqi Xie, Wenzhou Li, Yajun Deng, Weidong Shi, Yunyan Pan, Xuewen Kang and Jing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:220

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  26. Content type: Research

    Means to promote endogenous remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) benefit from insights into the role of inhibitory molecules that preclude remyelination. Fibronectin assembles into aggregates in MS, which ...

    Authors: Arend H. Sikkema, Josephine M. J. Stoffels, Peng Wang, Frederike J. Basedow, Robbert Bulsink, Jeffrey J. Bajramovic and Wia Baron

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:218

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  27. Content type: Research

    Chronic infection with the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been implicated in the risk for several neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanisms, by which the parasite may alter neural function and behavi...

    Authors: Daniel Lang, Björn H. Schott, Marco van Ham, Lorena Morton, Leonora Kulikovskaja, Rodrigo Herrera-Molina, Rainer Pielot, Frank Klawonn, Dirk Montag, Lothar Jänsch, Eckart D. Gundelfinger, Karl Heinz Smalla and Ildiko Rita Dunay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:216

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  28. Content type: Research

    Autoimmune polyneuropathies are acquired inflammatory disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and axonal degeneration. Although the pathogenesis has not b...

    Authors: Anne K. Mausberg, Fabian Szepanowski, Francesca Odoardi, Alexander Flügel, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Mark Stettner and Bernd C. Kieseier

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:217

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  29. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation is a crucial factor contributing to neurological injuries after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9), an agonist of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1), has recently...

    Authors: Lianhua Zhao, Shengpan Chen, Prativa Sherchan, Yan Ding, Wei Zhao, Zaiyu Guo, Jing Yu, Jiping Tang and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:215

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  30. Content type: Short report

    Hypothermia is increasingly tested in several neurological conditions, such as neonatal encephalopathy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, and neurological outcomes of...

    Authors: Mathilde Chevin, Clémence Guiraut and Guillaume Sébire

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:214

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  31. Content type: Research

    The disintegrin metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is the main α-secretase acting in the non-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. This study assesses whether ADAM10 is present in cerebrospinal...

    Authors: Aitana Sogorb-Esteve, María-Salud García-Ayllón, Johan Gobom, Jordi Alom, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow and Javier Sáez-Valero

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:213

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  32. Content type: Research

    Previous studies in various rodent epilepsy models have suggested that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition with rapamycin has anti-epileptogenic potential. Since treatment with rapamycin produces u...

    Authors: C. M. Drion, J. van Scheppingen, A. Arena, K. W. Geijtenbeek, L. Kooijman, E. A. van Vliet, E. Aronica and J. A. Gorter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:212

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  33. Content type: Research

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic neurological disease, in which about 30% of patients cannot be treated adequately with anti-epileptic drugs. Brain inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular mat...

    Authors: Anatoly Korotkov, Diede W. M. Broekaart, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Jasper J. Anink, Johannes C. Baayen, Sander Idema, Jan A. Gorter, Eleonora Aronica and Erwin A. van Vliet

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:211

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  34. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by progressive accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ)-containing amyloid plaques, and microglia play a critical role in internalization and degradation of Aβ. Our previous research...

    Authors: Yinquan Fang, Jianing Wang, Lemeng Yao, Chenhui Li, Jing Wang, Yuan Liu, Xia Tao, Hao Sun and Hong Liao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:210

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  35. Content type: Research

    There is a need for clinically useful biomarkers of disease activity in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and relapsing remitting MS (RRMS). The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between neurofi...

    Authors: Irene Håkansson, Anders Tisell, Petra Cassel, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg, Peter Lundberg, Charlotte Dahle, Magnus Vrethem and Jan Ernerudh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:209

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  36. Content type: Research

    Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-reactive T-helper (Th)1 cells induce conventional experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cEAE), characterized by ascending paralysis and monocyte-predominant spina...

    Authors: Joshua S. Stoolman, Patrick C. Duncker, Amanda K. Huber, David A. Giles, Jesse M. Washnock-Schmid, Athena M. Soulika and Benjamin M. Segal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:208

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  37. Content type: Research

    Although rates of severe HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders have declined in the post-antiretroviral treatment (ART) era, subtle deficits persist, possibly exacerbated by treatment non-adherence. The actu...

    Authors: William Schreiber-Stainthorp, Sanhita Sinharay, Sharat Srinivasula, Swati Shah, Jing Wang, Lori Dodd, H. Clifford Lane, Michele Di Mascio and Dima A. Hammoud

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:207

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  38. Content type: Research

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects an estimated 7 to 10 million people worldwide, and only symptomatic treatments are presently available to relieve the consequences of brain dopaminergic neurons loss. Neuronal ...

    Authors: Natasa Kustrimovic, Cristoforo Comi, Luca Magistrelli, Emanuela Rasini, Massimiliano Legnaro, Raffaella Bombelli, Iva Aleksic, Fabio Blandini, Brigida Minafra, Giulio Riboldazzi, Andrea Sturchio, Marco Mauri, Giorgio Bono, Franca Marino and Marco Cosentino

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:205

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  39. Content type: Research

    The steroid hormone estrogen (17-β-estradiol, E2) provides neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injury by activating estrogen receptors. The novel estrogen receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) i...

    Authors: Zengli Zhang, Pei Qin, Youliang Deng, Zhi Ma, Hang Guo, Haiyun Guo, Yushu Hou, Shiquan Wang, Wangyuan Zou, Yanyuan Sun, Yulong Ma and Wugang Hou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:206

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  40. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation is a common therapeutic target for traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to its contribution to delayed secondary cell death and has the potential to occur for years after the initial insult. Exos...

    Authors: Niketa A. Patel, Lauren Daly Moss, Jea-Young Lee, Naoki Tajiri, Sandra Acosta, Charles Hudson, Sajan Parag, Denise R. Cooper, Cesario V. Borlongan and Paula C. Bickford

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:204

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  41. Content type: Research

    Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder worldwide. It is characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate seizures and its development is accompanied by alterations in many cellular processes. Org...

    Authors: Daniela M. Magalhães, Noémia Pereira, Diogo M. Rombo, Cláudia Beltrão-Cavacas, Ana M. Sebastião and Cláudia A. Valente

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:203

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  42. Content type: Research

    Phospholipids in the central nervous system are enriched in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). These PUFA can undergo enzymatic re...

    Authors: Bo Yang, Runting Li, C. Michael Greenlief, Kevin L. Fritsche, Zezong Gu, Jiankun Cui, James C. Lee, David Q. Beversdorf and Grace Y. Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:202

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  43. Content type: Research

    Following injury to the central nervous system, increased microglia, secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and altered blood-brain barrier permeability, a hallmark of degeneration, are observed at...

    Authors: Nicole M. Smith, Marcus K. Giacci, Alexander Gough, Charlotte Bailey, Terence McGonigle, Anna M. B. Black, Thomas O. Clarke, Carole A. Bartlett, K. Swaminathan Iyer, Sarah A. Dunlop and Melinda Fitzgerald

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:201

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  44. Content type: Review

    Programmed cell death has a vital role in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Necroptosis is an alternative mode of regulated cell death mimicking features of apoptosis and necrosis. Necroptosis requ...

    Authors: Yogesh K. Dhuriya and Divakar Sharma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:199

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  45. Content type: Research

    It is well established that lung pathology and inflammation are more severe during respiratory infections complicated by the presence of both bacteria and viruses. Whilst co-infection can result in invasive pn...

    Authors: Hao Wang, Melissa Blackall, Luba Sominsky, Sarah J. Spencer, Ross Vlahos, Melissa Churchill and Steven Bozinovski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:200

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  46. Content type: Research

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the most common cause of adult-acquired disability in many nations. Thus, attenuating the damage after ischemic injury and improving patient prognosis ...

    Authors: Di Ma, Liangshu Feng, Yingying Cheng, Meiying Xin, Jiulin You, Xiang Yin, Yulei Hao, Li Cui and Jiachun Feng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:198

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  47. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation and microglial activation have been implicated in both alcohol use disorders (AUD) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its re...

    Authors: Kai Zhang, Haiping Wang, Mei Xu, Jacqueline A. Frank and Jia Luo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:197

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  48. Content type: Short report

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the main constituents of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. As an endotoxin, LPS induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with the blood-brain barrier impairment....

    Authors: Elizaveta B. Boitsova, Andrey V. Morgun, Elena D. Osipova, Elena A. Pozhilenkova, Galina P. Martinova, Olga V. Frolova, Raissa Ya Olovannikova, Abolghasem Tohidpour, Yana V. Gorina, Yulia A. Panina and Alla B. Salmina

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:196

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  49. Content type: Review

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the USA, costing $40.2 billion in direct and indirect costs. Globally, stroke is the second leading cause of death an...

    Authors: Hilary A. Seifert and Halina Offner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:195

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