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  1. In the healthy central nervous system (CNS), microglia are found in a homeostatic state and peripheral macrophages are absent from the brain. Microglia play key roles in maintaining CNS homeostasis and acting ...

    Authors: Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Carlos Gorbea, Daniel J. Doty, Jane E. Libbey, John Michael S. Sanchez, Tyler J. Hanak, Demián Cazalla and Robert S. Fujinami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Microglia are essential to the development of the CNS and its homeostasis. Our prior findings suggested a niche model to describe the behaviors of retinal microglia. Here, we ask whether new myeloid cells recr...

    Authors: Scott W. McPherson, Neal D. Heuss, Ute Lehmann, Heidi Roehrich, Md. Abedin and Dale S. Gregerson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:151

    Content type: Research

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  3. Determining the etiology and possible treatment strategies for numerous diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of compensatory mechanisms in physiological systems. The vagus nerve acts as a key interf...

    Authors: Anna Kobrzycka, Paweł Napora, Brandon L. Pearson, Krystyna Pierzchała-Koziec, Rafał Szewczyk and Marek Wieczorek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

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  4. Unrestrained activation of Th1 and Th17 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). While inactivation of dynamin-rela...

    Authors: Yan-Hua Li, Fang Xu, Rodolfo Thome, Min-Fang Guo, Man-Luan Sun, Guo-Bin Song, Rui-lan Li, Zhi Chai, Bogoljub Ciric, A. M. Rostami, Mark Curtis, Cun-Gen Ma and Guang-Xian Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

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  5. Neuroinflammation is the response of the central nervous system to events that interfere with tissue homeostasis and represents a common denominator in virtually all neurological diseases. Activation of microg...

    Authors: Morena Zusso, Valentina Lunardi, Davide Franceschini, Andrea Pagetta, Rita Lo, Stefano Stifani, Anna Chiara Frigo, Pietro Giusti and Stefano Moro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:148

    Content type: Research

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  6. Neurotoxocarosis (NT) is induced by larvae of the dog or cat roundworm (Toxocara canis or T. cati) migrating and persisting in the central nervous system of paratenic hosts, including humans, and may be accompani...

    Authors: Patrick Waindok and Christina Strube

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:147

    Content type: Research

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  7. The small population of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) contributes to tumor initiation, malignancy, and recurrence in glioblastoma. However, the maintenance of GSC properties in the tumor microenvironment remai...

    Authors: Shao-Ming Wang, Hong-Yi Lin, Yen-Lin Chen, Tsung-I Hsu, Jian-Ying Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao and Chiung-Yuan Ko

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:146

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. Increased plasma YKL-40 has been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but its levels in other neurodegenerative diseases are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate plasma YKL-40 in the spectrum of neurodegene...

    Authors: Anna Villar-Piqué, Matthias Schmitz, Peter Hermann, Stefan Goebel, Timothy Bunck, Daniela Varges, Isidre Ferrer, Joachim Riggert, Franc Llorens and Inga Zerr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:145

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Cardiovascular exercise (CVE) has been shown to be protective against cognitive decline in aging and the risk for dementias, including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). CVE has also been shown to have several benefici...

    Authors: Lisa S. Robison, Dominique L. Popescu, Maria E. Anderson, Nikita Francis, Joshua Hatfield, Joseph K. Sullivan, Steven I. Beigelman, Feng Xu, Brenda J. Anderson, William E. Van Nostrand and John K. Robinson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:144

    Content type: Research

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  10. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neuropathology strongly associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Accordingly, inflammation resulting from obesity exacerbates learning and memory deficits in human...

    Authors: Elisa Medrano-Jiménez, Itzia Jiménez-Ferrer Carrillo, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Cristina E. Ramírez-Serrano, Lourdes Álvarez-Arellano, Javier Cortés-Mendoza, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Alejandro Zamilpa, Jaime Tortoriello, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva and Leonor Pérez-Martínez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:143

    Content type: Research

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  11. Stroke, the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is undergoing a change in perspective with the emergence of new ideas on neurodegeneration. The concept that stroke is a disorder solely of bl...

    Authors: Richard L. Jayaraj, Sheikh Azimullah, Rami Beiram, Fakhreya Y. Jalal and Gary A. Rosenberg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:142

    Content type: Review

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  12. Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition with few effective treatment options. The blood-spinal cord barrier consists of pericytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells, which are collectively termed the neurovasc...

    Authors: Jonathon Chon Teng Chio, Jian Wang, Anna Badner, James Hong, Vithushan Surendran and Michael G. Fehlings

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:141

    Content type: Research

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  13. Chronic pain is a critical clinical problem with an increasing prevalence. However, there are limited effective prevention measures and treatments for chronic pain. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells...

    Authors: Ting Li, Xuhui Chen, Chuanhan Zhang, Yue Zhang and Wenlong Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:140

    Content type: Review

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  14. Sympathetic overactivation and inflammation are two major mediators to post-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmia (VA). The vicious cycle between microglia and sympathetic activa...

    Authors: Songyun Wang, Lin Wu, Xuemeng Li, Binxun Li, Yi Zhai, Dongdong Zhao and Hong Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:139

    Content type: Research

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  15. Leukostasis is a key patho-physiological event responsible for capillary occlusion in diabetic retinopathy. Circulating monocytes are the main cell type entrapped in retinal vessels in diabetes. In this study,...

    Authors: Mei Chen, Gideon Obasanmi, David Armstrong, Nuala-Jane Lavery, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Noemi Lois and Heping Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:138

    Content type: Research

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  16. The lack of effective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stems mainly from the incomplete understanding of AD causes. Neuroinflammation has emerged as an important component of AD pathology, and a vast num...

    Authors: Marta Sochocka, Michał Ochnik, Maciej Sobczyński, Iwona Siemieniec, Beata Orzechowska, Piotr Naporowski and Jerzy Leszek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:137

    Content type: Research

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  17. Current evidence indicates that extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate in intercellular signaling, and in the regulation and amplification of neuroinflammation. We have previously shown that ethanol activate...

    Authors: Francesc Ibáñez, Jorge Montesinos, Juan R. Ureña-Peralta, Consuelo Guerri and María Pascual

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:136

    Content type: Research

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  18. Treatments for autoimmune diseases aim to dampen autoreactivity while preserving normal immune function. In CD4+ T cells, the transcription factor Oct1/Pou2f1 is a dispensable transcription factor for T cell deve...

    Authors: Heejoo Kim, Laura Dickey, Colleen Stone, Jillian L. Jafek, Thomas E. Lane and Dean Tantin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:133

    Content type: Research

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  19. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response t...

    Authors: Alvaro Cobo-Calvo, María Sepúlveda, Fabien Rollot, Thais Armangué, Anne Ruiz, Elisabeth Maillart, Caroline Papeix, Bertrand Audoin, Helene Zephir, Damien Biotti, Jonathan Ciron, Francoise Durand-Dubief, Nicolas Collongues, Xavier Ayrignac, Pierre Labauge, Eric Thouvenot…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:134

    Content type: Research

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  20. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including LXRα and LXRβ, are key regulators of transcriptional programs for both cholesterol homeostasis and inflammation in the brain. Here, the modes of action of LXRs and the epige...

    Authors: Yu-Jiao Li, Kun Zhang, Ting Sun, Jian Wang, Yan-Yan Guo, Le Yang, Qi Yang, Yan-Jiao Li, Shui-Bing Liu, Ming-Gao Zhao and Yu-Mei Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:132

    Content type: Research

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  21. An alteration of autophagy and mitophagy, two highly conserved lysosome-dependent degradation pathways involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis, has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Massimiliano Castellazzi, Simone Patergnani, Mariapina Donadio, Carlotta Giorgi, Massimo Bonora, Enrico Fainardi, Ilaria Casetta, Enrico Granieri, Maura Pugliatti and Paolo Pinton

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:131

    Content type: Research

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  22. Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves a misdirected immune attack against myelin in the brain and spinal cord, leading to profound neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. While the mechanisms of disease pathogenes...

    Authors: Juan M. Ilarregui, Gijs Kooij, Ernesto Rodríguez, Susanne M. A. van der Pol, Nathalie Koning, Hakan Kalay, Joost C. van der Horst, Sandra J. van Vliet, Juan J. García-Vallejo, Helga E. de Vries and Yvette van Kooyk

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:130

    Content type: Research

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  23. Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiome composition alterations affect neurodegeneration through neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we evaluate gut microbiota alter...

    Authors: Chin-Hsien Lin, Chieh-Chang Chen, Han-Lin Chiang, Jyh-Ming Liou, Chih-Min Chang, Tzu-Pin Lu, Eric Y. Chuang, Yi-Cheng Tai, Chieh Cheng, Han-Yi Lin and Ming-Shiang Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:129

    Content type: Research

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  24. Synaptic dysfunction, named synaptopathy, due to inflammatory status of the central nervous system (CNS) is a recognized factor potentially underlying both motor and cognitive dysfunctions in neurodegenerative...

    Authors: Vincenzo Giacco, Giulia Panattoni, Manuela Medelin, Elena Bonechi, Alessandra Aldinucci, Clara Ballerini and Laura Ballerini

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:127

    Content type: Research

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  25. Persistent and/or recurrent inflammatory processes are the main factor leading to multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. The composite ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide, an endogenous N-acylethanolamine, combine...

    Authors: Gabriella Contarini, Davide Franceschini, Laura Facci, Massimo Barbierato, Pietro Giusti and Morena Zusso

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:126

    Content type: Research

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  26. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammation (SI) is associated with neuroinflammation in the brain, hypotension, tachycardia, and multiple organs dysfunctions. Considering that during SI these impor...

    Authors: Mateus R. Amorim, Júnia L. de Deus, Rafael A. Cazuza, Clarissa M. D. Mota, Luiz E. V. da Silva, Gabriela S. Borges, Marcelo E. Batalhão, Evelin C. Cárnio and Luiz G. S. Branco

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:125

    Content type: Research

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  27. Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually causes a devastating lifelong disability for patients. After a traumatic lesion, disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier induces the infiltration of macrophages into the le...

    Authors: Judith Sánchez-Ventura, Jesús Amo-Aparicio, Xavier Navarro and Clara Penas

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:124

    Content type: Research

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  28. Astrocyte activation is a common pathological feature in many brain diseases with neuroinflammation, and revealing the underlying mechanisms might shed light on the regulatory processes of the diseases. Recent...

    Authors: Chia-Chi Hung, Yi-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Min Kuo, Pei-Chien Hsu, Huey-Jen Tsay, Ying-Ting Hsu, Chih-Chin Lee, Jia-Jun Liang and Feng-Shiun Shie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:123

    Content type: Research

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  29. Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is associated with cerebro-cerebellar damage in very preterm infants, leading to neurodevelopmental impairment. Penetration, from the intraventricular space...

    Authors: Olga Romantsik, Alex Adusei Agyemang, Snjolaug Sveinsdóttir, Sigurbjörg Rutardóttir, Bo Holmqvist, Magnus Cinthio, Mattias Mörgelin, Gulcin Gumus, Helena Karlsson, Stefan R. Hansson, Bo Åkerström, David Ley and Magnus Gram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:122

    Content type: Research

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  30. The NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor [NLR] family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of innate immune cell sensors. These are crucial regulators...

    Authors: Pu Hong, Ruo-Nan Gu, Feng-Xian Li, Xiao-Xing Xiong, Wen-Bin Liang, Zhi-Jian You and Hong-Fei Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:121

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  31. After the publication of the original article [1], it came to the authors’ attention that there was an error in the originally published version of Fig. 5b. The image of CD4+CD25+ T cells of the statin-Dex group ...

    Authors: Xiao-Li Li, Heng Li, Min Zhang, Hua Xu, Long-Tao Yue, Xin-Xin Zhang, Shan Wang, Cong-Cong Wang, Yan-Bin Li, Ying-Chun Dou and Rui-Sheng Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:119

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2016 13:8

  32. Microglia and inflammation have context-specific impacts upon neuronal survival in different models of central nervous system (CNS) disease. Herein, we investigate how inflammatory mediators, including microgl...

    Authors: Levi Todd, Isabella Palazzo, Lilianna Suarez, Xiaoyu Liu, Leo Volkov, Thanh V. Hoang, Warren A. Campbell, Seth Blackshaw, Ning Quan and Andy J. Fischer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:118

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO) is responsible for the progression of the kynurenine pathway. This pathway has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced depression in which convention...

    Authors: Sara Hemmati, Mohammad Amin Sadeghi, Razieh Mohammad Jafari, Hasan Yousefi-Manesh and Ahmad Reza Dehpour

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:117

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Microglia and CNS-infiltrating monocytes/macrophages (CNS-MPs) perform pro-inflammatory and protective anti-inflammatory functions following ischemic stroke. Selective inhibition of pro-inflammatory responses ...

    Authors: Tianwen Gao, Syed Ali Raza, Supriya Ramesha, Ngozi V. Nwabueze, Amelia J. Tomkins, Lihong Cheng, Hailian Xiao, Manuel Yepes and Srikant Rangaraju

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability in the USA and the world; it constitutes 30% of injury-related deaths (Taylor et al., MMWR Surveill Summ 66:1-16, 2017). Contact sports ath...

    Authors: Mahasweta Das, Xiaolan Tang, Jung Yeon Han, Karthick Mayilsamy, Elspeth Foran, Manas R. Biswal, Radouil Tzekov, Shyam S. Mohapatra and Subhra Mohapatra

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:115

    Content type: Research

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  36. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication with high incidence in both advanced and developing countries. Children surviving from HIE often have severe long-term sequela including ce...

    Authors: Xing-Liang Yang, Xin Wang, Lin Shao, Guang-Tong Jiang, Jia-Wei Min, Xi-Yu Mei, Xiao-Hua He, Wan-Hong Liu, Wen-Xian Huang and Bi-Wen Peng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:114

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. The cellular and molecular pathophysiological mecha\nisms of pain processing in neglected parasitic infections such as leishmaniasis remain unknown. The present study evaluated the participation of spinal cord...

    Authors: Sergio M. Borghi, Victor Fattori, Felipe A. Pinho-Ribeiro, Talita P. Domiciano, Milena M. Miranda-Sapla, Tiago H. Zaninelli, Rubia Casagrande, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Wander R. Pavanelli, Jose C. Alves-Filho, Fernando Q. Cunha, Thiago M. Cunha and Waldiceu A. Verri Jr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:113

    Content type: Research

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  38. Ischemic stroke provokes a neuroinflammatory response and simultaneously promotes release of epinephrine and norepinephrine by the sympathetic nervous system. This increased sympathetic outflow can act on β2-a...

    Authors: Kendra J. Lechtenberg, Scott T. Meyer, Janelle B. Doyle, Todd C. Peterson and Marion S. Buckwalter

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:112

    Content type: Research

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  39. In a subgroup of patients suffering from progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), which is an inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), B cell aggregates were discovered ...

    Authors: Verena Schropp, Jörn Rohde, Damiano M. Rovituso, Samir Jabari, Richa Bharti and Stefanie Kuerten

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:111

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is important in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Extracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ), a major pathological hallmark of AD, can induce microglia activation. Adi...

    Authors: Min Jian, Jason Shing-Cheong Kwan, Myriam Bunting, Roy Chun-Laam Ng and Koon Ho Chan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. The mechanisms driving multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common cause of non-traumatic disability in young adults, remain unknown despite extensive research. Especially puzzling are the underlying molecular pr...

    Authors: Krista D. DiSano, Michael R. Linzey, Darlene B. Royce, Andrew R. Pachner and Francesca Gilli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease whose various pathophysiological aspects are still being investigated. Recently, it has been hypothesized that AD may be associated with a dysbiosis of m...

    Authors: Francesco Angelucci, Katerina Cechova, Jana Amlerova and Jakub Hort

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:108

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  43. Numerous studies have identified the proinflammatory, pronociceptive effects of morphine which ultimately exacerbate pain. Our novel endomorphin analog ZH853 does not produce proinflammatory effects on its own...

    Authors: Amy K. Feehan and James E. Zadina

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Mast cells (MCs) in the brain can respond to environmental cues and relay signals to neurons that may directly influence neuronal electrical activity, calcium signaling, and neurotransmission. MCs also express...

    Authors: Juan Antonio Flores, María Pilar Ramírez-Ponce, María Ángeles Montes, Santiago Balseiro-Gómez, Jorge Acosta, Guillermo Álvarez de Toledo and Eva Alés

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:107

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Systemic inflammation has been linked to synapse loss and cognitive decline in human patients and animal models. A role for microglial release of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been proposed based on in vivo a...

    Authors: Olivia Sheppard, Michael P. Coleman and Claire S. Durrant

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:106

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the cause of a highly lethal form of meningitis in humans. Microglial cells in the brain represent the first line of defense against pathogens, and they participate in the inflammatory...

    Authors: Sabrina Hupp, Denis Grandgirard, Timothy J. Mitchell, Stephen L. Leib, Lucy J. Hathaway and Asparouh I. Iliev

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:105

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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