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  1. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory gastrointestinal disease in premature neonates with high mortality and morbidity, while the underlining mechanism of intestinal injury and profound neurologic...

    Authors: Fangxinxing Zhu, Lingyu Wang, Zizhen Gong, Yanyan Wang, Yanhong Gao, Wei Cai and Jin Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:66

    Content type: Research

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  2. As a classic innate immunity pathway, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has been intensively investigated for its function of pathogen recognition. The receptor is located not only on immune cells but also...

    Authors: Wenliang Su, Huan Cui, Danning Wu, Jiawen Yu, Lulu Ma, Xiuhua Zhang, Yuguang Huang and Chao Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research

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  3. Immune cell infiltration and neuroinflammation are heavily associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCL2/CCR2) axis has been identified as a critica...

    Authors: Ping Xu, Feng Zhang, Min-min Chang, Cheng Zhong, Cheng-Hong Sun, Hao-Ran Zhu, Jing-Chun Yao, Zhi-Zhong Li, Si-Tao Li, Wen-Cai Zhang and Guo-Dong Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

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  4. Synthetic cathinones are a category of psychostimulants belonging to the growing number of designer drugs also known as “Novel Psychoactive Substances” (NPS). In recent years, NPS have gained popularity in the...

    Authors: Tetyana P. Buzhdygan, Cassidy R. Rodrigues, Hannah M. McGary, Jana A. Khan, Allison M. Andrews, Scott M. Rawls and Servio H. Ramirez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  5. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating subtype of stroke, is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Neuroinflammation is an important factor leading to ICH-induced neurological injuries. C-C Chem...

    Authors: Shuixiang Deng, Peng Jin, Prativa Sherchan, Shengpeng Liu, Yuhui Cui, Lei Huang, John H. Zhang, Ye Gong and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  6. Cerebral arterio venous malformations (AVM) are a major causal factor for intracranial hemorrhage, which result in permanent disability or death. The molecular mechanisms of AVM are complex, and their pathogen...

    Authors: Jaya Mary Thomas, Dhakshmi Sasankan, Sumi Surendran, Mathew Abraham, Arumugam Rajavelu and Chandrasekharan C. Kartha

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:61

    Content type: Short report

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  7. The term sepsis is used to designate a systemic condition of infection and inflammation associated with hemodynamic changes that result in organic dysfunction. Gestational sepsis can impair the development of ...

    Authors: Marcelo Gomes Granja, Letícia Pires Alves, Marina Leardini-Tristão, Michelle Edelman Saul, Letícia Coelho Bortoni, Flávia Maciel de Moraes, Erica Camila Ferreira, Bianca Portugal Tavares de Moraes, Victória Zerboni da Silva, Adrielle Ferreira Ribeiro dos Santos, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Andrew S. Weyrich, Matthew T. Rondina, Guy A. Zimmerman…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

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  8. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Marion Clé, Orianne Constant, Jonathan Barthelemy, Caroline Desmetz, Marie France Martin, Lina Lapeyre, Daniel Cadar, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Federica Monaco, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Gaëlle Gonzales, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Fabien Gosselet…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:59

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:11

  9. Ischemic stroke is an acquired brain injury with gender-dependent outcomes. A persistent obstacle in understanding the sex-specific neuroinflammatory contributions to ischemic brain injury is distinguishing be...

    Authors: Kimberly F. Young, Rebeca Gardner, Victoria Sariana, Susan A. Whitman, Mitchell J. Bartlett, Torsten Falk and Helena W. Morrison

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  10. An innate immune memory response can manifest in two ways: immune training and immune tolerance, which refers to an enhanced or suppressed immune response to a second challenge, respectively. Exposing monocyte...

    Authors: Yang Heng, Xiaoming Zhang, Malte Borggrewe, Hilmar R. J. van Weering, Maaike L. Brummer, Tjalling W. Nijboer, Leo A. B. Joosten, Mihai G. Netea, Erik W. G. M. Boddeke, Jon D. Laman and Bart J. L. Eggen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:57

    Content type: Research

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  11. Chronic use of drugs of abuse affects neuroimmune signaling; however, there are still many open questions regarding the interactions between neuroimmune mechanisms and substance use disorders (SUDs). Further, ...

    Authors: Cassandra D. Gipson, Scott Rawls, Michael D. Scofield, Benjamin M. Siemsen, Emma O. Bondy and Erin E. Maher

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:56

    Content type: Review

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  12. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an important cause of permanent damage to central nervous system (CNS) that may result in neonatal death or manifest later as mental retardation, epilepsy, cerebral pal...

    Authors: John Sieh Dumbuya, Lu Chen, Jang-Yen Wu and Bin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:55

    Content type: Review

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  13. The lack of effective treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) reflects an incomplete understanding of disease mechanisms. Alterations in proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics, an essential process for mi...

    Authors: Andre F. Batista, Tayná Rody, Leticia Forny-Germano, Suzana Cerdeiro, Maria Bellio, Sergio T. Ferreira, Douglas P. Munoz and Fernanda G. De Felice

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:54

    Content type: Research

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  14. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesia, and seizures. However, the underlying mechanisms of this disease rema...

    Authors: Yuewen Ding, Zheye Zhou, Jinyu Chen, Yu Peng, Haitao Wang, Wei Qiu, Wei Xie, Jun Zhang and Honghao Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:53

    Content type: Research

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  15. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in fibrinolysis. It is released by endothelial cells, but also expressed by neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Interes...

    Authors: Pauline Hélie, Celia Camacho-Toledano, Léonie Lesec, Célia Seillier, Antonio J. Miralles, Maria Cristina Ortega, Sylvaine Guérit, Héloïse Lebas, Isabelle Bardou, Virginia Vila-del Sol, Denis Vivien, Brigitte Le Mauff, Diego Clemente, Fabian Docagne and Olivier Toutirais

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

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  16. To investigate the association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and lymphocyte to monocyte ratio (LMR) with post-thrombolysis early neurological outcomes including e...

    Authors: Pengyu Gong, Yukai Liu, Yachi Gong, Gang Chen, Xiaohao Zhang, Siyu Wang, Feng Zhou, Rui Duan, Wenxiu Chen, Ting Huang, Meng Wang, Qiwen Deng, Hongchao Shi, Junshan Zhou, Teng Jiang and Yingdong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

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  17. The pathological process of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) involves excessive activation of microglia leading to the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and causing neuronal injury. Sphingosine kin...

    Authors: Chenjian Wang, Tianzhen Xu, Brittany Bolduc Lachance, Xiqiang Zhong, Guangjie Shen, Tao Xu, Chengxuan Tang and Xiaofeng Jia

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:50

    Content type: Research

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  18. The integrin VLA-4 (α4β1) plays an important role in leukocyte trafficking. This study investigated the efficacy of a novel topical α4β1 integrin inhibitor (GW559090, GW) in a mouse model for non-infectious po...

    Authors: Yi Hsing Chen, Malihe Eskandarpour, Xiaozhe Zhang, Grazyna Galatowicz, John Greenwood, Sue Lightman and Virginia Calder

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:49

    Content type: Research

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  19. Paclitaxel is a widely prescribed chemotherapy drug for treating solid tumors. However, paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is a common adverse effect during paclitaxel treatment, which results in ...

    Authors: Yuanyuan Li, Chengyu Yin, Boyu Liu, Huimin Nie, Jie Wang, Danyi Zeng, Ruixiang Chen, Xiaofen He, Junfan Fang, Junying Du, Yi Liang, Yongliang Jiang, Jianqiao Fang and Boyi Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:48

    Content type: Research

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  20. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used new-generation drugs for depression. Depressive symptoms are thought to be closely rel...

    Authors: Jia-Hui He, Rong-Pei Liu, Yi-Man Peng, Qing Guo, Lan-Bing Zhu, Yi-Zhi Lian, Bei-Lei Hu, Hui-Hui Fan, Xiong Zhang and Jian-Hong Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

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  21. In acute ischemic stroke, cessation of blood flow causes immediate tissue necrosis within the center of the ischemic brain region accompanied by functional failure in the surrounding brain tissue designated th...

    Authors: Michael K. Schuhmann, Michael Bieber, Maximilian Franke, Alexander M. Kollikowski, David Stegner, Katrin G. Heinze, Bernhard Nieswandt, Mirko Pham and Guido Stoll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

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  22. Intracellular Ca2+ modulates several microglial activities, such as proliferation, migration, phagocytosis, and inflammatory mediator secretion. Extracellular ATP, the levels of which significantly change during ...

    Authors: Nicole Piera Palomba, Katiuscia Martinello, Germana Cocozza, Sara Casciato, Addolorata Mascia, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Roberta Morace, Vincenzo Esposito, Heike Wulff, Cristina Limatola and Sergio Fucile

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  23. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can induce excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may subsequently cause severe white matter injury. The process of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) di...

    Authors: Jingwei Zheng, Jia’nan Lu, Shuhao Mei, Haijian Wu, Zeyu Sun, Yuanjian Fang, Shenbin Xu, Xiaoyu Wang, Ligen Shi, Weilin Xu, Sheng Chen, Jun Yu, Feng Liang and Jianmin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:43

    Content type: Research

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  24. Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is associated with deposition of redox active cell-free hemoglobin (Hb), derived from hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in the cerebrum and cerebellum....

    Authors: Alex Adusei Agyemang, Suvi Vallius Kvist, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Miriam Illa, Niklas Ortenlöf, Bo Holmqvist, David Ley and Magnus Gram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

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  25. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a very common complication that might increase the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients after surgery. However, the mechanism of POCD remains largely unknow...

    Authors: Qiang Liu, Yi-Man Sun, Hui Huang, Chen Chen, Jie Wan, Lin-Hui Ma, Yin-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Miao and Yu-Qing Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  26. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) plays an important role in mediating inflammatory responses during ischemic stroke. Bile acid receptor Takeda-G...

    Authors: Hui Liang, Nathanael Matei, Devin W. McBride, Yang Xu, Zhenhua Zhou, Jiping Tang, Benyan Luo and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:40

    Content type: Research

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  27. Bacterial meningitis is a fatal disease with a mortality up to 30% and neurological sequelae in one fourth of survivors. Available vaccines do not fully protect against this lethal disease. Here, we report the...

    Authors: S. Ribes, L. Zacke, S. Nessler, N. Saiepour, E. Avendaño-Guzmán, M. Ballüer, U. K. Hanisch and R. Nau

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  28. Selective serotonin reuptaker inhibitors, including fluoxetine, are widely studied and prescribed antidepressants, while their exact molecular and cellular mechanism are yet to be defined. We investigated the ...

    Authors: Weifen Li, Tahir Ali, Chengyou Zheng, Zizhen Liu, Kaiwu He, Fawad Ali Shah, Qingguo Ren, Shafiq Ur Rahman, Ningning Li, Zhi-Jian Yu and Shupeng Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  29. The role of the immune system in stroke is well-recognised. Fingolimod, an immunomodulatory agent licensed for the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, has been shown to provide benefit in rod...

    Authors: Kyle Malone, Andrea C. Diaz Diaz, Jennifer A. Shearer, Anne C. Moore and Christian Waeber

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  30. Microglia-driven cerebral spreading inflammation is a key contributor to secondary brain injury after SAH. Genetic depletion or deactivation of microglia has been shown to ameliorate neuronal cell death. There...

    Authors: Rebecca Heinz, Susan Brandenburg, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Irina Kremenetskaia, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Peter Vajkoczy and Ulf C. Schneider

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research

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  31. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial inflammation, cartilage damage, and systemic inflammation. RA is also associated with the occurrence of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. ...

    Authors: Po-Hsuan Lai, Ting-Hsuan Wang, Nai-You Zhang, Kuo-Chen Wu, Chung-Chen Jane Yao and Chun-Jung Lin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:35

    Content type: Research

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  32. The exchange of cerebrospinal (CSF) and interstitial fluid is believed to be vital for waste clearance in the brain. The sleep-dependent glymphatic system, which is comprised of perivascular flow of CSF and is...

    Authors: Oscar Manouchehrian, Marta Ramos, Sara Bachiller, Iben Lundgaard and Tomas Deierborg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  33. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disease in the central macula area of the neuroretina and the supporting retinal pigment epithelium, is the most common cause of vision loss in the elderl...

    Authors: Keng Siang Lee, Shuxiao Lin, David A. Copland, Andrew D. Dick and Jian Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:32

    Content type: Review

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  34. When the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) is altered, microglial cells become activated displaying a wide range of phenotypes that depend on the specific site, the nature of the activator, and p...

    Authors: Mireia Recasens, Beatriz Almolda, Jeús Pérez-Clausell, Iain L. Campbell, Berta González and Bernardo Castellano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:31

    Content type: Research

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  35. Activated macrophages in the experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS) express folate receptor-β (FR-β), representing a promising target for the treatment of MS. Here, we both evaluated the efficacy of a n...

    Authors: Petri Elo, Xiang-Guo Li, Heidi Liljenbäck, Maria Gardberg, Olli Moisio, Maxwell Miner, Jenni Virta, Antti Saraste, Madduri Srinivasarao, Michael Pugh, Philip S. Low, Juhani Knuuti, Sirpa Jalkanen, Laura Airas, Yingjuan June Lu and Anne Roivainen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  36. Protein aggregates can be found in peripheral organs, such as the heart, kidney, and pancreas, but little is known about the impact of peripherally misfolded proteins on neuroinflammation and brain functional ...

    Authors: Yanying Liu, Kalpana Subedi, Aravind Baride, Svetlana Romanova, Eduardo Callegari, Christa C. Huber, Xuejun Wang and Hongmin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  37. Inflammation undermines multiple forms of neuroplasticity. Although inflammation and its influence on plasticity in multiple neural systems has been extensively studied, its effects on plasticity of neural net...

    Authors: Arash Tadjalli, Yasin B. Seven, Raphael R. Perim and Gordon S. Mitchell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  38. Follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells are essential for the regulation of germinal center (GC) response and humoral self-tolerance. Dysregulated follicular helper T (TFH) cell-GC-antibody (Ab) response secondary to...

    Authors: Lin Luo, Xianzhen Hu, Michael L. Dixon, Brandon J. Pope, Jonathan D. Leavenworth, Chander Raman, William R. Meador and Jianmei W. Leavenworth

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:27

    Content type: Research

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  39. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic (HI)-induced brain injury. Activation of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) has been shown to exert anti-inflammato...

    Authors: Shufeng Yu, Desislava Met Doycheva, Marcin Gamdzyk, Yijun Yang, Cameron Lenahan, Gaigai Li, Dujuan Li, Lifei Lian, Jiping Tang, Jun Lu and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  40. Through considerable effort in research and clinical studies, the immune system has been identified as a participant in the onset and progression of brain injury after ischaemic stroke. Due to the involvement ...

    Authors: Tian-Yu Lei, Ying-Ze Ye, Xi-Qun Zhu, Daniel Smerin, Li-Juan Gu, Xiao-Xing Xiong, Hong-Fei Zhang and Zhi-Hong Jian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:25

    Content type: Review

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  41. Disruptions of brain-gut axis have been implicated in the progression of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injuries, including traumatic brain injury (T...

    Authors: Marie Hanscom, David J. Loane, Taryn Aubretch, Jenna Leser, Kara Molesworth, Nivedita Hedgekar, Rodney M. Ritzel, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Terez Shea-Donohue and Alan I. Faden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research

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  42. Microglia activation induced by α-synuclein (α-syn) is one of the most important factors in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which α-syn exerts neuroinflammation and ...

    Authors: Ya-Nan Zhang, Jing-Kai Fan, Li Gu, Hui-Min Yang, Shu-Qin Zhan and Hong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

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  43. Heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1) is among the most well-known and versatile member of the evolutionarily conserved family of small heat-shock proteins. It has been implicated to serve a neuroprotective role again...

    Authors: Brigitta Dukay, Fruzsina R. Walter, Judit P. Vigh, Beáta Barabási, Petra Hajdu, Tamás Balassa, Ede Migh, András Kincses, Zsófia Hoyk, Titanilla Szögi, Emőke Borbély, Bálint Csoboz, Péter Horváth, Lívia Fülöp, Botond Penke, László Vígh…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  44. Microglia react to danger signals by rapid and targeted extension of cellular processes towards the source of the signal. This positive chemotactic response is accompanied by a hyperpolarization of the microgl...

    Authors: Laura Laprell, Christian Schulze, Marie-Luise Brehme and Thomas G. Oertner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:21

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:33

  45. Recent work has established that Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have an altered gut microbiome, along with signs of intestinal inflammation. This could help explain the high degree of gastric disturbances i...

    Authors: Zach Dwyer, Melany Chaiquin, Jeffrey Landrigan, Kiara Ayoub, Pragya Shail, Julianna Rocha, Christie L. Childers, Kenneth B. Storey, Dana J. Philpott, Hongyu Sun and Shawn Hayley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:20

    Content type: Research

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  46. Genetic variants and mutations in triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are associated with premature and late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Authors: Michael Fassler, Maya Saban Rappaport, Clara Benaim Cuño and Jacob George

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  47. Microglia are highly motile phagocytic cells in the healthy brain with surveillance and clearance functions. Although microglia have been shown to engulf cellular debris following brain insult, less is known a...

    Authors: Xiaoying Cai, Ying Li, Xiaoyang Zheng, Rong Hu, Yingyuan Li, Liangcan Xiao and Zhongxing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  48. Both genetic factors and environmental hazards, including environmental noise stress, have been associated with gut microbiome that exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. However, the role and mechani...

    Authors: Huimin Chi, Wa Cao, Ming Zhang, Donghong Su, Honglian Yang, Zhe Li, Chao Li, Xiaojun She, Kun Wang, Xiujie Gao, Kefeng Ma, Pengfang Zheng, Xiaofang Li and Bo Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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