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  1. Development of central nervous system (CNS) is regulated by both intrinsic and peripheral signals. Previous studies have suggested that environmental factors affect neurological activities under both physiolog...

    Authors: Qianquan Ma, Changsheng Xing, Wenyong Long, Helen Y. Wang, Qing Liu and Rong-Fu Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:53

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Amlexanox (ALX), a TBK1 inhibitor, can modulate immune responses and has anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate its role in regulating the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), ...

    Authors: Mo-Yuan Quan, Xiu-Juan Song, Hui-Jia Liu, Xiao-Hong Deng, Hui-Qing Hou, Li-Ping Chen, Tian-Zhao Ma, Xu Han, Xin-Xin He, Zhen Jia and Li Guo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:52

    Content type: Research

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  3. Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS; also termed Schilder’s disease) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterised by demyelination of vast areas of the white matt...

    Authors: S. Jarius, J. Haas, F. Paul and B. Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:51

    Content type: Research

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  4. Inflammation and oxidative stress are recognized as important contributors to Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis. As such, genetic variability in these pathways could have a role in susceptibility for the diseas...

    Authors: Sara Redenšek, Dušan Flisar, Maja Kojović, Milica Gregorič Kramberger, Dejan Georgiev, Zvezdan Pirtošek, Maja Trošt and Vita Dolžan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:50

    Content type: Research

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  5. Quinoline-3-carboxamides, such as laquinimod, ameliorate CNS autoimmunity in patients and reduce tumor cell metastasis experimentally. Previous studies have focused on the immunomodulatory effect of laquinimod...

    Authors: Martina Ott, Erika Avendaño-Guzmán, Evelyn Ullrich, Carolin Dreyer, Judith Strauss, Markus Harden, Margarete Schön, Michael P. Schön, Günter Bernhardt, Christine Stadelmann, Christiane Wegner, Wolfgang Brück and Stefan Nessler

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:49

    Content type: Research

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  6. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD), and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD) are characterized by progressive neuronal loss but differ in their unde...

    Authors: Nienke M. de Wit, Sandra den Hoedt, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Annemieke J. Rozemuller, Monique T. Mulder and Helga E. de Vries

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:48

    Content type: Research

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  7. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening subtype of stroke with high mortality and disabilities. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) has been shown to be neuroprotective against ischemia/reperfusion injury. T...

    Authors: Yuchun Zuo, Lei Huang, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Weilin Xu, Ocak Umut, Zachary D. Travis, Guangyu Zhang, Jiping Tang, Fei Liu and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:47

    Content type: Research

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  8. Neuronal and glial cell interaction is essential for synaptic homeostasis and may be affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuronal and glia markers along the AD continuum...

    Authors: Kaja Nordengen, Bjørn-Eivind Kirsebom, Kristi Henjum, Per Selnes, Berglind Gísladóttir, Marianne Wettergreen, Silje Bøen Torsetnes, Gøril Rolfseng Grøntvedt, Knut K. Waterloo, Dag Aarsland, Lars N. G. Nilsson and Tormod Fladby

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

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  9. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and the toll-like receptor ...

    Authors: John D. Lee, Ning Liu, Samantha C. Levin, Lars Ottosson, Ulf Andersson, Helena E. Harris and Trent M. Woodruff

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:45

    Content type: Research

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  10. 1-42 peptide abnormal production is associated with the development and maintenance of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in brains from Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Suppression of neuroinflammation may...

    Authors: Giuseppa Mudò, Monica Frinchi, Domenico Nuzzo, Pietro Scaduto, Fulvio Plescia, Maria F. Massenti, Marta Di Carlo, Carla Cannizzaro, Giovanni Cassata, Luca Cicero, Maria Ruscica, Natale Belluardo and Luigi M. Grimaldi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

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  11. Ligand-driven modulation of the mitochondrial translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) was recently described to dampen the neuroinflammatory response of microglia in a retinal light damage model resulting in protec...

    Authors: Kristin Mages, Felix Grassmann, Herbert Jägle, Rainer Rupprecht, Bernhard H. F. Weber, Stefanie M. Hauck and Antje Grosche

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:43

    Content type: Research

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  12. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common viral agent causing central nervous system (CNS) infections including encephalitis, meningitis, and Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Neurological complications occur frequently de...

    Authors: Liza Lind, Kristina Eriksson and Anna Grahn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:42

    Content type: Research

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  13. Excessive iron contributes to oxidative stress after central nervous system injury. NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzymes are upregulated in microglia after pro-inflammatory activation and contribute to oxidative stress...

    Authors: Young J. Yauger, Sara Bermudez, Kasey E. Moritz, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan Stoica and Kimberly R. Byrnes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:41

    Content type: Research

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  14. Ischemic stroke results in a robust inflammatory response within the central nervous system. As the immune-inhibitory CD200-CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) signaling axis is a known regulator of immune homeostasis,...

    Authors: Rodney M. Ritzel, Abdullah Al Mamun, Joshua Crapser, Rajkumar Verma, Anita R. Patel, Brittany E. Knight, Nia Harris, Nickolas Mancini, Meaghan Roy-O’Reilly, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Fudong Liu and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  15. Circulating endotoxins including lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cause brain responses such as fever and decrease of food and water intake, while pre-injection of endotoxins attenuates these responses. This phenomen...

    Authors: Shoko Morita-Takemura, Kazuki Nakahara, Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Ayami Isonishi, Kouko Tatsumi, Hiroaki Okuda, Tatsuhide Tanaka, Masahiro Kitabatake, Toshihiro Ito and Akio Wanaka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:39

    Content type: Research

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  16. Ureaplasma species (spp.) are commonly regarded as low-virulent commensals but may cause invasive diseases in immunocompromised adults and in neonates, including neonatal meningitis. The interactions of Ureaplasm...

    Authors: Christine Silwedel, Axel Haarmann, Markus Fehrholz, Heike Claus, Christian P. Speer and Kirsten Glaser

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:38

    Content type: Research

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  17. High white blood cell (WBC) count and high blood glucose level are risk factors for mortality and pneumonia after acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We investigated the combined effect of high WBC count and high blo...

    Authors: Shoujiang You, Zhijie Ou, Wei Zhang, Danni Zheng, Chongke Zhong, Xiaofeng Dong, Chenhong Qiu, Taosheng Lu, Yongjun Cao and Chun-Feng Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:37

    Content type: Research

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  18. This study investigated whether therapeutic hypercapnia (TH) ameliorated blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage and improved the neurologic outcome in a rat model of lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), and explor...

    Authors: Wan-Chao Yang, Qi Wang, Lai-Ting Chi, Yue-Zhen Wang, Hong-Ling Cao and Wen-Zhi Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:36

    Content type: Research

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  19. Extracellular accumulation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is one of pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and contributes to the neuronal loss. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF...

    Authors: Shengchun Xu, Zemin Di, Yufeng He, Runjie Wang, Yuyang Ma, Rui Sun, Jing Li, Tao Wang, Yujun Shen, Shengyun Fang, Lijie Feng and Yuxian Shen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:35

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chronic pain is a major clinical problem with limited treatment options. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) can attenuate neuropathic ...

    Authors: Hong-Chun Xiang, Li-Xue Lin, Xue-Fei Hu, He Zhu, Hong-Ping Li, Ru-Yue Zhang, Liang Hu, Wen-Tao Liu, Yi-Lin Zhao, Yang Shu, Hui-Lin Pan and Man Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:34

    Content type: Research

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  21. Human gliomas are highly fatal tumors with a significant feature of immune suppression. The association of the immune system in gliomas is gradually revealed, and immunotherapy is expected to improve the survi...

    Authors: Enshan Feng, Tingyu Liang, Xiaoyong Wang, Juan Du, Kai Tang, Xiaoxuan Wang, Fang Wang and Gan You

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:33

    Content type: Research

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  22. The inflammatory process has been described as a crucial mechanism in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) represents an interesting target in the reg...

    Authors: Alexandre D. Gimenes, Bruna F. D. Andrade, José Victor P. Pinotti, Sonia M. Oliani, Orfa Y. Galvis-Alonso and Cristiane D. Gil

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:32

    Content type: Research

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  23. In the version of this article that was originally published [1]; some information in the “Author’s contributions” section was omitted.

    Authors: Veronika E. Neubrand, Irene Forte-Lago, Marta Caro and Mario Delgado

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:31

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:343

  24. Studies showed that upregulation of Nav1.6 increased the neuronal excitability and participated in neuropathic pain in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Nav1.6 upregu...

    Authors: Huan-Huan Ding, Su-Bo Zhang, You-You Lv, Chao Ma, Meng Liu, Kui-Bo Zhang, Xiang-Cai Ruan, Jia-You Wei, Wen-Jun Xin and Shao-Ling Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:29

    Content type: Research

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  25. Traumatic brain injury remains a significant cause of death and disability in the USA. Currently, there are no effective therapies to mitigate disability except for surgical interventions necessitating a need ...

    Authors: Stephanie W. Lee, Juan Pablo de Rivero Vaccari, Jessie S. Truettner, W. Dalton Dietrich and Robert W. Keane

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:27

    Content type: Research

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  26. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. The neovascular (wet) form of AMD can be treated with intravitreal injections of different anti-vascular endotheli...

    Authors: Carsten Balser, Anne Wolf, Marc Herb and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:26

    Content type: Research

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  27. Chimeric mouse models generated via adoptive bone marrow transfer are the foundation for immune cell tracking in neuroinflammation. Chimeras that exhibit low chimerism levels, blood-brain barrier disruption an...

    Authors: A. Saam Youshani, Samuel Rowlston, Claire O’Leary, Gabriella Forte, Helen Parker, Aiyin Liao, Brian Telfer, Kaye Williams, Ian D. Kamaly-Asl and Brian W. Bigger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:25

    Content type: Research

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  28. Previous studies had showed that Apelin 13 could protect against apoptosis induced by ischemic/reperfusion (I/R). However, the mechanisms whereby Apelin 13 protected brain I/R remained to be elucidated. The pr...

    Authors: Jialin Duan, Jia Cui, Zhifu Yang, Chao Guo, Jinyi Cao, Miaomiao Xi, Yan Weng, Ying Yin, Yanhua Wang, Guo Wei, Boling Qiao and Aidong Wen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:24

    Content type: Research

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  29. Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS. Although recent studies suggest the neur...

    Authors: Yuan Yue, Milos Stanojlovic, Yifeng Lin, Gerard Karsenty and Wensheng Lin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:23

    Content type: Research

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  30. The incidence of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) is on the rise in the USA. Concussions, or mild TBIs without skull fracture, account for about 75% of all TBIs. Mild TBIs (mTBIs) lead to memory and cognitive d...

    Authors: Xingjuan Chen, Natalie N. Taylor-Nguyen, Ashley M. Riley, B. Paul Herring, Fletcher A. White and Alexander G. Obukhov

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:21

    Content type: Research

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  31. Stroke is the most common cerebrovascular disease, the second leading cause of death behind heart disease and is a major cause of long-term disability worldwide. Currently, systemic immunomodulatory therapy ba...

    Authors: Zhe Wang, Da He, Ya-Yue Zeng, Li Zhu, Chao Yang, Yong-Juan Lu, Jie-Qiong Huang, Xiao-Yan Cheng, Xiang-Hong Huang and Xiao-Jun Tan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:20

    Content type: Review

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  32. Intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are increasingly recognized complications of central nervous system (CNS) infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV).

    Authors: Larissa Hauer, Slaven Pikija, Eva C. Schulte, Laszlo K. Sztriha, Raffaele Nardone and Johann Sellner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:19

    Content type: Research

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  33. Important insight into the mechanisms through which gene-environmental interactions cause schizophrenia can be achieved through preclinical studies combining prenatal immune stimuli with disease-related geneti...

    Authors: Rebecca L. Openshaw, Jaedeok Kwon, Alison McColl, Josef M. Penninger, Jonathan Cavanagh, Judith A. Pratt and Brian J. Morris

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:18

    Content type: Research

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  34. Inflammation is considered a hallmark of concussion pathophysiology in experimental models, yet is understudied in human injury. Despite the growing use of blood biomarkers in concussion, inflammatory biomarke...

    Authors: Alex P. Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Shawn G. Rhind, Doug Richards and Michael G. Hutchison

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:17

    Content type: Research

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  35. HIV-1 infects the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after transmission. This leads to a chronic intrathecal immune activation. YKL-40, a biomarker that mainly reflects activation of astroglial cells, has no...

    Authors: Linn Hermansson, Aylin Yilmaz, Markus Axelsson, Kaj Blennow, Dietmar Fuchs, Lars Hagberg, Jan Lycke, Henrik Zetterberg and Magnus Gisslén

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. In this narrative review, a theoretical framework on the crosstalk between physical exercise and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is presented. We discuss the influence of physical activity on the factor...

    Authors: Marta A. Małkiewicz, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Agnieszka Sabisz, Wiesław J. Cubała, Edyta Szurowska and Paweł J. Winklewski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:15

    Content type: Review

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  37. Neurovascular, autoimmune, and traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) all have in common an initial acute inflammatory response mediated by influx across the blood-brain barrier of activated mo...

    Authors: Arthur A. Vandenbark, Roberto Meza-Romero, Gil Benedek and Halina Offner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:14

    Content type: Review

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  38. The chemokine CXCL13 is an intensively investigated biomarker in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Its role in other neuroinfections is increasingly recognized but less clear.

    Authors: Georg Pilz, Peter Wipfler, Ferdinand Otto, Wolfgang Hitzl, Shahrzad Afazel, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:13

    Content type: Short report

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  39. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a chain of events that is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction leading to necrotic cell death at the core of the injury site, which is restricted by astrogliosis ...

    Authors: Kristyna Karova, John V. Wainwright, Lucia Machova-Urdzikova, Rishikaysh V. Pisal, Meic Schmidt, Pavla Jendelova and Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:12

    Content type: Research

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  40. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, exhibit various morphologies that correlate with their functions under physiological and pathological conditions. In conditions such as aging and stress, micr...

    Authors: Victoria L. DiBona, Wenxin Zhu, Mihir K. Shah, Aditi Rafalia, Hajer Ben Cheikh, David P. Crockett and Huaye Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:11

    Content type: Research

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  41. Microglia-derived lysosomal cathepsins are important inflammatory mediators to trigger signaling pathways in inflammation-related cascades. Our previous study showed that the expression of cathepsin C (CatC) i...

    Authors: Qing Liu, Yanli Zhang, Shuang Liu, Yanna Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Gang Liu, Takahiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kai Fan and Jianmei Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:10

    Content type: Research

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  42. Phagocytosis is a key function of myeloid cells and is highly involved in brain ischemic injury. It has been scarcely studied in vivo, thus preventing a deep knowledge of the processes occurring in the ischemi...

    Authors: Stefano Fumagalli, Fabio Fiordaliso, Carlo Perego, Alessandro Corbelli, Alessandro Mariani, Massimiliano De Paola and Maria-Grazia De Simoni

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:9

    Content type: Research

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  43. Activated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been regarded as an underlying key player in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). The therapeutic potential of ...

    Authors: Wenchao Liu, Ran Li, Jian Yin, Shenquan Guo, Yunchang Chen, Haiyan Fan, Gancheng Li, Zhenjun Li, Xifeng Li, Xin Zhang, Xuying He and Chuanzhi Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:8

    Content type: Research

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  44. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is frequently complicated by bacterial infection. Shunt infection diagnosis relies on bacterial culture of CSF which can often produce false-negative results. Negative...

    Authors: Gwenn L. Skar, David Synhorst, Matthew Beaver and Jessica N. Snowden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:7

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  45. Altered neuronal connectivity in peri-infarct tissue is an important contributor to both the spontaneous recovery of neurological function that commonly develops after stroke and improvements in recovery that ...

    Authors: Wai Ping Yew, Natalia D. Djukic, Jaya S. P. Jayaseelan, Frederick R. Walker, Karl A. A. Roos, Timothy K. Chataway, Hakan Muyderman and Neil R. Sims

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) conditions evidenced by neuronal and white matter abnormalities and altered neurodevelopment in the IUGR infant. To further ...

    Authors: Julie A. Wixey, Kah Meng Lee, Stephanie M. Miller, Kate Goasdoue, Paul B. Colditz, S. Tracey Bjorkman and Kirat K. Chand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:5

    Content type: Research

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  47. Microglia/macrophages (M/Ms) with multiple functions derived from distinct activation states are key surveillants maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their activation status and role during the brain metas...

    Authors: Sha Qiao, Yuan Qian, Guoqiang Xu, Qingming Luo and Zhihong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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