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  1. Itch is an unpleasant sensation that can be debilitating, especially if it is chronic and of non-histaminergic origin, as treatment options are limited. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent endogenous vasoconstrict...

    Authors: Elín I. Magnúsdóttir, Mirjana Grujic, Jessica Bergman, Gunnar Pejler and Malin C. Lagerström

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:123

    Content type: Research

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  2. Dry skin itch is one of the most common skin diseases and elderly people are believed to be particularly prone to it. The inflammasome has been suggested to play an important role in chronic inflammatory disor...

    Authors: Jun-Juan Fan, Bo Gao, Ao-Qi Song, Ya-Jing Zhu, Jun Zhou, Wei-Zu Li, Yan-Yan Yin and Wen-Ning Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:122

    Content type: Research

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  3. After peripheral nerve transection, facial motoneuron (FMN) survival depends on an intact CD4+ T cell population and a central source of interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, it has not been determined previously w...

    Authors: Elizabeth M. Runge, Abhirami K. Iyer, Deborah O. Setter, Felicia M. Kennedy, Virginia M. Sanders and Kathryn J. Jones

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:121

    Content type: Research

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  4. Glioblastomas are the most common and lethal primary brain tumors. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, survey their environment and respond to pathogens, toxins, and tumors. Glioblastoma cells c...

    Authors: Sybren L. N. Maas, Erik R. Abels, Lieke L. Van De Haar, Xuan Zhang, Liza Morsett, Srinjoy Sil, Joana Guedes, Pritha Sen, Shilpa Prabhakar, Suzanne E. Hickman, Charles P. Lai, David T. Ting, Xandra O. Breakefield, Marike L. D. Broekman and Joseph El Khoury

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:120

    Content type: Research

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  5. Many lines of evidence suggest that accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (αSYN) in the Parkinson’s disease (PD) brain causes infiltration of T cells. However, in which ways the stationary brain cells int...

    Authors: Jinar Rostami, Grammatiki Fotaki, Julien Sirois, Ropafadzo Mzezewa, Joakim Bergström, Magnus Essand, Luke Healy and Anna Erlandsson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:119

    Content type: Research

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  6. Neuropathic pain is a debilitating status that is insusceptible to the existing analgesics. It is important to explore the underlying pathophysiological changes and search for new pharmacological approaches. T...

    Authors: Jing Wang, Ming Zhao, Peng Jia, Fang-Fang Liu, Kun Chen, Fei-Yang Meng, Jiang-Hao Hong, Ting Zhang, Xiao-Hang Jin and Juan Shi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:118

    Content type: Research

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  7. Brain circulation disorders such as chronic cerebral hypoperfusion have been associated with a decline in cognitive function during the development of dementia. Astrocytes together with microglia participate i...

    Authors: Marina Leardini-Tristão, Giulia Andrade, Celina Garcia, Patrícia A. Reis, Millena Lourenço, Emilio T. S. Moreira, Flavia R. S. Lima, Hugo C. Castro-Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibirica and Vanessa Estato

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:117

    Content type: Research

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  8. Maternal obesity as a result of high levels of saturated fat (HFD) consumption leads to significant negative health outcomes in both mother and exposed offspring. Offspring exposed to maternal HFD show sex-spe...

    Authors: Sanoji Wijenayake, Mouly F. Rahman, Christine M. W. Lum, Wilfred C. De Vega, Aya Sasaki and Patrick O. McGowan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:116

    Content type: Research

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  9. Older-age individuals are at the highest risk for disability from a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrocytes are the most numerous glia in the brain, necessary for brain function, yet there is little known abo...

    Authors: Alexandria N. Early, Amy A. Gorman, Linda J. Van Eldik, Adam D. Bachstetter and Josh M. Morganti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:115

    Content type: Research

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  10. A craniotomy is required to access the brain for tumor resection or epilepsy treatment, and despite precautionary measures, infectious complications occur at a frequency of 1–3%. Approximately half of cranioto...

    Authors: Amy L. Aldrich, Cortney E. Heim, Wen Shi, Rachel W. Fallet, Bin Duan and Tammy Kielian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:114

    Content type: Research

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  11. Increasing evidence has suggested that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the Ncf1 gene is associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms of NCF1-induced immunoregulator...

    Authors: Jianghong Zhong, Anthony C. Y. Yau and Rikard Holmdahl

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:113

    Content type: Research

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  12. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite reductions in viral load (VL) and overall disease severity. The mechanisms underlying HAND in ...

    Authors: Saranya Canchi, Mary K. Swinton, Robert A. Rissman and Jerel Adam Fields

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:112

    Content type: Research

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  13. Neuroinflammation plays an important role in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Although microglia are largely responsible for injury-induced inflammatory response, they play beneficial roles in b...

    Authors: Shunichiro Tsuji, Elena Di Martino, Takeo Mukai, Shoko Tsuji, Takashi Murakami, Robert A. Harris, Klas Blomgren and Ulrika Åden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:111

    Content type: Research

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  14. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple or long-time exposure to general anaesthesia (GA) could be detrimental to cognitive development in young subjects and might also contribute to accelerated neurodegene...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Jian-Jun Yang, Yan Cao, Huihui Li, Hongting Zhao, Shuofei Yang and Kuanyu Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:110

    Content type: Research

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  15. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of microglial and astrocyte responses in the pathological development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the mechanisms involved are no...

    Authors: Dongliang Li, Mingming Chen, Tao Meng and Jianchun Fei

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:109

    Content type: Research

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  16. Cerebral vascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders that affect the blood supply to the brain and lead to the reduction of oxygen and glucose supply to the neurons and the supporting cells. Spreading de...

    Authors: Rezan Ashayeri Ahmadabad, Maryam Khaleghi Ghadiri and Ali Gorji

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:108

    Content type: Review

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  17. Although inflammatory cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and anti-inflammation factor Kruppel-like transcription factor (KLF) 4 have all been reported to be induced after cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), the close ...

    Authors: Xinyu Zhang, Lu Wang, Zhenxiang Han, Jing Dong, Defang Pang, Yuan Fu and Longxuan Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:107

    Content type: Research

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  18. To promote understanding of the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment or dementia, we explored the potential interaction between transient cerebral ischemia and amyloid-β (Aβ) infusion in mediating cognitive de...

    Authors: Li-Juan Min, Jun Iwanami, Masachika Shudou, Hui-Yu Bai, Bao-Shuai Shan, Akinori Higaki, Masaki Mogi and Masatsugu Horiuchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:106

    Content type: Research

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  19. Senescent astrocytes have been implicated in the aging brain and neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is an antioxidant derivative from a traditional Chines...

    Authors: Mei-Ling Xia, Xia-Hong Xie, Jian-Hua Ding, Ren-Hong Du and Gang Hu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:105

    Content type: Research

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  20. There is a great clinical need to identify the underlying mechanisms, as well as related biomarkers, and treatment targets, for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroinflammation is a central pathophysiological f...

    Authors: William T. O’Brien, Louise Pham, Georgia F. Symons, Mastura Monif, Sandy R. Shultz and Stuart J. McDonald

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:104

    Content type: Review

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  21. Mural cells synthesize and deposit laminin to the basement membrane. To investigate the function of mural cell-derived laminin, we generated a mutant mouse line lacking mural cell-derived laminin (termed PKO)....

    Authors: Jyoti Gautam, Lingling Xu, Abhijit Nirwane, Benjamin Nguyen and Yao Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:103

    Content type: Research

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  22. Cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R) plays an important role in the cascading inflammation following ischemic injury. The toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4)/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) signal pathway is involved in b...

    Authors: Na Jing, Bo Fang, Zhe Li and Ayong Tian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:101

    Content type: Research

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  23. Microglia are essential to maintain cell homeostasis in the healthy brain and are activated after brain injury. Upon activation, microglia polarize towards different phenotypes. The course of microglia activat...

    Authors: Sabine Ulrike Vay, Lea Jessica Flitsch, Monika Rabenstein, Helena Monière, Igor Jakovcevski, Pavle Andjus, Dunja Bijelic, Stefan Blaschke, Helene Luise Walter, Gereon Rudolf Fink, Michael Schroeter and Maria Adele Rueger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

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  24. Bladder-related pain symptoms in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) are often accompanied by depression and memory deficits. Magnesium deficiency contributes to neuroinflammatio...

    Authors: Jia-Liang Chen, Xin Zhou, Bo-Long Liu, Xu-Hong Wei, Hong-Lu Ding, Zhi-Jun Lin, Hai-Lun Zhan, Fei Yang, Wen-Biao Li, Jun-Cong Xie, Min-Zhi Su, Xian-Guo Liu and Xiang-Fu Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

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  25. Huntington’s disease (HD) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder that affects cognitive and motor abilities by primarily targeting the striatum and cerebral cortex. HD is caused by a mutation elo...

    Authors: Julie C. Savage, Marie-Kim St-Pierre, Micaël Carrier, Hassan El Hajj, Sammy Weiser Novak, Maria Gabriela Sanchez, Francesca Cicchetti and Marie-Ève Tremblay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

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  26. Bacterial meningitis (BM) causes apoptotic damage to the hippocampus and homocysteine (Hcy) accumulation to neurotoxic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of children. The Hcy pathway controls bioavailability of...

    Authors: Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Vanessa Cavalcante-Silva, Flávia Lombardi Lopes, Gifone Aguiar Rocha, Vânia D’Almeida and Roney Santos Coimbra

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:96

    Content type: Research

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  27. Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by the expression of a mutated variant of Huntingtin (mHtt), which results in the complex pathology characterized by a defective function of the nervous system and altered i...

    Authors: Marian Jesabel Pérez-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ibarra-Sánchez, Abraham Román-Figueroa, Francisca Pérez-Severiano and Claudia González-Espinosa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

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  28. Recent years have seen an explosion of research pertaining to biological psychiatry, yet despite subsequent advances in our understanding of neuroimmune communication pathways, how the brain senses and respond...

    Authors: Carolyn A. Thomson, Alison McColl, Gerard J. Graham and Jonathan Cavanagh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

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  29. Increased circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are associated with greater risk of impaired neurodevelopment after preterm birth. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that systemic TNF inhibiti...

    Authors: Robert Galinsky, Simerdeep K. Dhillon, Justin M. Dean, Joanne O. Davidson, Christopher A. Lear, Guido Wassink, Fraser Nott, Sharmony B. Kelly, Mhoyra Fraser, Caroline Yuill, Laura Bennet and Alistair Jan Gunn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  30. Early-life stress (ES) is an emerging risk factor for later life development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have previously shown that ES modulates amyloid-beta pathology and the microglial response to it in ...

    Authors: Maralinde R. Abbink, Janssen M. Kotah, Lianne Hoeijmakers, Aline Mak, Genevieve Yvon-Durocher, Bram van der Gaag, Paul J. Lucassen and Aniko Korosi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:91

    Content type: Research

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  31. Inflammatory response mediated by oxidative stress is considered as an important pathogenesis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) are novel markers of oxidative stress and ...

    Authors: Zhongyuan Liu, Xinqiang Yao, Wangsheng Jiang, Wei Li, Siyuan Zhu, Congrui Liao, Lin Zou, Ruoting Ding and Jianting Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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  32. The interaction between astrocytes and microglia plays a vital role in the damage and repair of brain lesions due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent studies have shown that exosomes act as potent mediator...

    Authors: Xiaobing Long, Xiaolong Yao, Qian Jiang, Yiping Yang, Xuejun He, Weidong Tian, Kai Zhao and Huaqiu Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

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  33. The participation of microglia in CNS development and homeostasis indicate that these cells are pivotal for the regeneration that occurs after demyelination. The clearance of myelin debris and the inflammatory...

    Authors: Miriam Mecha, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Ana Feliú, Leyre Mestre, Francisco Javier Carrillo-Salinas, Kristoffer Riecken, Diego Gomez-Nicola and Carmen Guaza

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:88

    Content type: Research

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  34. An emerging problem in the treatment of breast cancer is the increasing incidence of metastases to the brain. Metastatic brain tumours are incurable and can cause epileptic seizures and cognitive impairment, s...

    Authors: Anna Simon, Ming Yang, Joanne L. Marrison, Andrew D. James, Mark J. Hunt, Peter J. O’Toole, Paul M. Kaye, Miles A. Whittington, Sangeeta Chawla and William J. Brackenbury

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:87

    Content type: Research

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  35. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease that results in demyelination and axonal damage. Five percent of patients die and 20% remain significantly disabled on recovery. Recovery is slow in most ...

    Authors: Patrick Altmann, Desiree De Simoni, Alexandra Kaider, Birgit Ludwig, Jakob Rath, Fritz Leutmezer, Fritz Zimprich, Romana Hoeftberger, Michael P. Lunn, Amanda Heslegrave, Thomas Berger, Henrik Zetterberg and Paulus Stefan Rommer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:86

    Content type: Research

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  36. A growing body of studies have indicated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have powerful analgesic effects in animal models of bone cancer pain. Here, we explored the molecular mechanisms underly...

    Authors: Chao Zhu, Kun Wang, Zhi Chen, Yingchao Han, Hao Chen, Quan Li, Zude Liu, Lie Qian, Jun Tang and Hongxing Shen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:85

    Content type: Research

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  37. Studies suggest a role of the innate immune system, including the activity of neutrophils, in neurodegeneration related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but prospective cognitive data remain lacking in humans. We ...

    Authors: Kritleen K. Bawa, Saffire H. Krance, Nathan Herrmann, Hugo Cogo-Moreira, Michael Ouk, Di Yu, Che-Yuan Wu, Sandra E. Black, Krista L. Lanctôt and Walter Swardfager

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:84

    Content type: Research

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  38. Spinal cord microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the mechanisms underlying spinal microglial activation during neuropathic pain remain incompletely determined. Here,...

    Authors: Lijuan Wang, Cui Yin, Tianya Liu, Mannan Abdul, Yan Zhou, Jun-Li Cao and Chen Lu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:83

    Content type: Research

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  39. Sema4A is a regulator of helper T cell (Th) activation and differentiation in the priming phase, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and multipl...

    Authors: Toru Koda, Akiko Namba, Makoto Kinoshita, Yuji Nakatsuji, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Kaori Sakakibara, Satoru Tada, Mikito Shimizu, Kazuya Yamashita, Kazushiro Takata, Teruyuki Ishikura, Syo Murata, Shohei Beppu, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Hideki Mochizuki and Tatsusada Okuno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:82

    Content type: Research

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  40. Acute inflammation induced by reactive astrocytes after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is important for protecting the resultant lesion. Our previous study demonstrated that DJ-1 is abundantly expr...

    Authors: Li Peng, Yang Zhou, Ning Jiang, Tingting Wang, Jin Zhu, Yanlin Chen, Linyu Li, Jinyan Zhang, Shanshan Yu and Yong Zhao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:81

    Content type: Research

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  41. The gut microbiota regulates the host immune and nervous systems and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune neurological disease multiple sclerosis (MS). There are considerable efforts curre...

    Authors: Clemens Gödel, Birgit Kunkel, Alireza Kashani, Hans Lassmann, Manimozhiyan Arumugam and Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:79

    Content type: Short report

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  42. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cerebral small vessel disease of the aged and a prominent comorbidity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). CAA can promote a variety of vascular-related pathologies includ...

    Authors: Xiaoyue Zhu, Joshua Hatfield, Joseph K. Sullivan, Feng Xu and William E. Van Nostrand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

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  43. Western pattern diets induce neuroinflammation and impair cognitive behavior in humans and animals. Neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment have been associated with microbiota dysbiosis, through the gut-br...

    Authors: Hongli Shi, Qiao Wang, Mingxuan Zheng, Shanshan Hao, Jeremy S. Lum, Xi Chen, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu and Kuiyang Zheng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:77

    Content type: Research

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  44. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, Flavivirus genus, which includes several important human pathogens. It is responsible for neurological symptoms that may cause permanen...

    Authors: Mazigh Fares, Marielle Cochet-Bernoin, Gaëlle Gonzalez, Claudia N. Montero-Menei, Odile Blanchet, Alexandra Benchoua, Claire Boissart, Sylvie Lecollinet, Jennifer Richardson, Nadia Haddad and Muriel Coulpier

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:76

    Content type: Research

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  45. Cinobufagin is the major bufadienolide of Bufonis venenum (Chansu), which has been traditionally used for the treatment of chronic pain especially cancer pain. The current study aimed to evaluate its antinocicept...

    Authors: Evhy Apryani, Usman Ali, Zi-Ying Wang, Hai-Yun Wu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Khalil Ali Ahmad, Xin-Yan Li and Yong-Xiang Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

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  46. Inflammation is a potential crucial factor in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of diverse aspects of neuronal dysfunction. The th...

    Authors: Niansheng Lai, Degang Wu, Tianyu Liang, Pengjie Pan, Guiqiang Yuan, Xiang Li, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Zhong Wang and Gang Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

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