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  1. Intracellular Ca2+ modulates several microglial activities, such as proliferation, migration, phagocytosis, and inflammatory mediator secretion. Extracellular ATP, the levels of which significantly change during ...

    Authors: Nicole Piera Palomba, Katiuscia Martinello, Germana Cocozza, Sara Casciato, Addolorata Mascia, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Roberta Morace, Vincenzo Esposito, Heike Wulff, Cristina Limatola and Sergio Fucile

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:44

    Content type: Research

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  2. Germinal matrix intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is associated with deposition of redox active cell-free hemoglobin (Hb), derived from hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in the cerebrum and cerebellum....

    Authors: Alex Adusei Agyemang, Suvi Vallius Kvist, Nathan Brinkman, Thomas Gentinetta, Miriam Illa, Niklas Ortenlöf, Bo Holmqvist, David Ley and Magnus Gram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:42

    Content type: Research

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  3. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a very common complication that might increase the morbidity and mortality of elderly patients after surgery. However, the mechanism of POCD remains largely unknow...

    Authors: Qiang Liu, Yi-Man Sun, Hui Huang, Chen Chen, Jie Wan, Lin-Hui Ma, Yin-Ying Sun, Hui-Hui Miao and Yu-Qing Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:41

    Content type: Research

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  4. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) plays an important role in mediating inflammatory responses during ischemic stroke. Bile acid receptor Takeda-G...

    Authors: Hui Liang, Nathanael Matei, Devin W. McBride, Yang Xu, Zhenhua Zhou, Jiping Tang, Benyan Luo and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:40

    Content type: Research

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  5. Bacterial meningitis is a fatal disease with a mortality up to 30% and neurological sequelae in one fourth of survivors. Available vaccines do not fully protect against this lethal disease. Here, we report the...

    Authors: S. Ribes, L. Zacke, S. Nessler, N. Saiepour, E. Avendaño-Guzmán, M. Ballüer, U. K. Hanisch and R. Nau

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  6. Selective serotonin reuptaker inhibitors, including fluoxetine, are widely studied and prescribed antidepressants, while their exact molecular and cellular mechanism are yet to be defined. We investigated the ...

    Authors: Weifen Li, Tahir Ali, Chengyou Zheng, Zizhen Liu, Kaiwu He, Fawad Ali Shah, Qingguo Ren, Shafiq Ur Rahman, Ningning Li, Zhi-Jian Yu and Shupeng Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:38

    Content type: Research

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  7. The role of the immune system in stroke is well-recognised. Fingolimod, an immunomodulatory agent licensed for the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, has been shown to provide benefit in rod...

    Authors: Kyle Malone, Andrea C. Diaz Diaz, Jennifer A. Shearer, Anne C. Moore and Christian Waeber

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:37

    Content type: Research

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  8. Microglia-driven cerebral spreading inflammation is a key contributor to secondary brain injury after SAH. Genetic depletion or deactivation of microglia has been shown to ameliorate neuronal cell death. There...

    Authors: Rebecca Heinz, Susan Brandenburg, Melina Nieminen-Kelhä, Irina Kremenetskaia, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Peter Vajkoczy and Ulf C. Schneider

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:36

    Content type: Research

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  9. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial inflammation, cartilage damage, and systemic inflammation. RA is also associated with the occurrence of neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. ...

    Authors: Po-Hsuan Lai, Ting-Hsuan Wang, Nai-You Zhang, Kuo-Chen Wu, Chung-Chen Jane Yao and Chun-Jung Lin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:35

    Content type: Research

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  10. The exchange of cerebrospinal (CSF) and interstitial fluid is believed to be vital for waste clearance in the brain. The sleep-dependent glymphatic system, which is comprised of perivascular flow of CSF and is...

    Authors: Oscar Manouchehrian, Marta Ramos, Sara Bachiller, Iben Lundgaard and Tomas Deierborg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:34

    Content type: Research

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  11. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a degenerative disease in the central macula area of the neuroretina and the supporting retinal pigment epithelium, is the most common cause of vision loss in the elderl...

    Authors: Keng Siang Lee, Shuxiao Lin, David A. Copland, Andrew D. Dick and Jian Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:32

    Content type: Review

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  12. When the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) is altered, microglial cells become activated displaying a wide range of phenotypes that depend on the specific site, the nature of the activator, and p...

    Authors: Mireia Recasens, Beatriz Almolda, Jeús Pérez-Clausell, Iain L. Campbell, Berta González and Bernardo Castellano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:31

    Content type: Research

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  13. Activated macrophages in the experimental model of multiple sclerosis (MS) express folate receptor-β (FR-β), representing a promising target for the treatment of MS. Here, we both evaluated the efficacy of a n...

    Authors: Petri Elo, Xiang-Guo Li, Heidi Liljenbäck, Maria Gardberg, Olli Moisio, Maxwell Miner, Jenni Virta, Antti Saraste, Madduri Srinivasarao, Michael Pugh, Philip S. Low, Juhani Knuuti, Sirpa Jalkanen, Laura Airas, Yingjuan June Lu and Anne Roivainen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  14. Protein aggregates can be found in peripheral organs, such as the heart, kidney, and pancreas, but little is known about the impact of peripherally misfolded proteins on neuroinflammation and brain functional ...

    Authors: Yanying Liu, Kalpana Subedi, Aravind Baride, Svetlana Romanova, Eduardo Callegari, Christa C. Huber, Xuejun Wang and Hongmin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:29

    Content type: Research

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  15. Inflammation undermines multiple forms of neuroplasticity. Although inflammation and its influence on plasticity in multiple neural systems has been extensively studied, its effects on plasticity of neural net...

    Authors: Arash Tadjalli, Yasin B. Seven, Raphael R. Perim and Gordon S. Mitchell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  16. Follicular regulatory T (TFR) cells are essential for the regulation of germinal center (GC) response and humoral self-tolerance. Dysregulated follicular helper T (TFH) cell-GC-antibody (Ab) response secondary to...

    Authors: Lin Luo, Xianzhen Hu, Michael L. Dixon, Brandon J. Pope, Jonathan D. Leavenworth, Chander Raman, William R. Meador and Jianmei W. Leavenworth

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:27

    Content type: Research

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  17. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic (HI)-induced brain injury. Activation of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) has been shown to exert anti-inflammato...

    Authors: Shufeng Yu, Desislava Met Doycheva, Marcin Gamdzyk, Yijun Yang, Cameron Lenahan, Gaigai Li, Dujuan Li, Lifei Lian, Jiping Tang, Jun Lu and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:26

    Content type: Research

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  18. Through considerable effort in research and clinical studies, the immune system has been identified as a participant in the onset and progression of brain injury after ischaemic stroke. Due to the involvement ...

    Authors: Tian-Yu Lei, Ying-Ze Ye, Xi-Qun Zhu, Daniel Smerin, Li-Juan Gu, Xiao-Xing Xiong, Hong-Fei Zhang and Zhi-Hong Jian

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:25

    Content type: Review

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  19. Disruptions of brain-gut axis have been implicated in the progression of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and central nervous system (CNS) diseases and injuries, including traumatic brain injury (T...

    Authors: Marie Hanscom, David J. Loane, Taryn Aubretch, Jenna Leser, Kara Molesworth, Nivedita Hedgekar, Rodney M. Ritzel, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Terez Shea-Donohue and Alan I. Faden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:24

    Content type: Research

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  20. Microglia activation induced by α-synuclein (α-syn) is one of the most important factors in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which α-syn exerts neuroinflammation and ...

    Authors: Ya-Nan Zhang, Jing-Kai Fan, Li Gu, Hui-Min Yang, Shu-Qin Zhan and Hong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

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  21. Heat-shock protein B1 (HSPB1) is among the most well-known and versatile member of the evolutionarily conserved family of small heat-shock proteins. It has been implicated to serve a neuroprotective role again...

    Authors: Brigitta Dukay, Fruzsina R. Walter, Judit P. Vigh, Beáta Barabási, Petra Hajdu, Tamás Balassa, Ede Migh, András Kincses, Zsófia Hoyk, Titanilla Szögi, Emőke Borbély, Bálint Csoboz, Péter Horváth, Lívia Fülöp, Botond Penke, László Vígh…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  22. Microglia react to danger signals by rapid and targeted extension of cellular processes towards the source of the signal. This positive chemotactic response is accompanied by a hyperpolarization of the microgl...

    Authors: Laura Laprell, Christian Schulze, Marie-Luise Brehme and Thomas G. Oertner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:21

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:33

  23. Recent work has established that Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have an altered gut microbiome, along with signs of intestinal inflammation. This could help explain the high degree of gastric disturbances i...

    Authors: Zach Dwyer, Melany Chaiquin, Jeffrey Landrigan, Kiara Ayoub, Pragya Shail, Julianna Rocha, Christie L. Childers, Kenneth B. Storey, Dana J. Philpott, Hongyu Sun and Shawn Hayley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:20

    Content type: Research

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  24. Genetic variants and mutations in triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are associated with premature and late onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Authors: Michael Fassler, Maya Saban Rappaport, Clara Benaim Cuño and Jacob George

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  25. Microglia are highly motile phagocytic cells in the healthy brain with surveillance and clearance functions. Although microglia have been shown to engulf cellular debris following brain insult, less is known a...

    Authors: Xiaoying Cai, Ying Li, Xiaoyang Zheng, Rong Hu, Yingyuan Li, Liangcan Xiao and Zhongxing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:18

    Content type: Research

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  26. FMRP is a selective mRNA-binding protein that regulates protein synthesis at synapses, and its loss may lead to the impairment of trace fear memory. Previously, we found that FMRP levels in the hippocampus of ...

    Authors: Peng-Yin Nie, Lei Tong, Ming-Da Li, Chang-Hai Fu, Jun-Bo Peng and Li-Li Ji

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:17

    Content type: Research

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  27. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the CNS. Pro-inflammatory microglia, stimulated by microbial signals such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), viral RNAs, or inflammatory cytok...

    Authors: Nicholas W. Mathy, Olivia Burleigh, Andrew Kochvar, Erin R. Whiteford, Matthew Behrens, Patrick Marta, Cong Tian, Ai-Yu Gong, Kristen M. Drescher, Peter S. Steyger, Xian-Ming Chen and Annemarie Shibata

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  28. The acute phase response (APR) to CNS insults contributes to the overall magnitude and nature of the systemic inflammatory response. Aspects of this response are thought to drive secondary inflammatory patholo...

    Authors: Abi G. Yates, Trisha Jogia, Ellen R. Gillespie, Yvonne Couch, Marc J. Ruitenberg and Daniel C. Anthony

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  29. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an ATP-gated nonselective cationic channel playing important roles in a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, and apoptotic or necrotic cell death. An extracellul...

    Authors: Duk-Shin Lee and Ji-Eun Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  30. Perinatal inflammation is a key factor of brain vulnerability in neonates born preterm or with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), two leading conditions associated with brain injury and responsible for n...

    Authors: Manuela Zinni, Jérôme Mairesse, Julien Pansiot, Francesco Fazio, Luisa Iacovelli, Nico Antenucci, Rosamaria Orlando, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Daniel Vaiman and Olivier Baud

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:13

    Content type: Research

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  31. After spinal cord injury (SCI), glial scarring is mainly formed around the lesion and inhibits axon regeneration. Recently, we reported that anti-β1 integrin antibody (β1Ab) had a therapeutic effect on astrocy...

    Authors: Shingo Yoshizaki, Tetsuya Tamaru, Masamitsu Hara, Ken Kijima, Masatake Tanaka, Dai-jiro Konno, Yoshihiro Matsumoto, Yasuharu Nakashima and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  32. Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging neurotropic arthropod-borne virus recently involved in massive die offs of wild birds predominantly reported in Europe. Although primarily asymptomatic or presenting mild clin...

    Authors: Marion Clé, Orianne Constant, Jonathan Barthelemy, Caroline Desmetz, Marie France Martin, Lina Lapeyre, Daniel Cadar, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Federica Monaco, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Gaëlle Gonzales, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Fabien Gosselet…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:11

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:59

  33. The role of microglia in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis is becoming increasingly important, as activation of these cell types likely contributes to both pathological and protective processes associated ...

    Authors: Song Cao, Daniel W. Fisher, Guadalupe Rodriguez, Tian Yu and Hongxin Dong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  34. Both genetic factors and environmental hazards, including environmental noise stress, have been associated with gut microbiome that exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. However, the role and mechani...

    Authors: Huimin Chi, Wa Cao, Ming Zhang, Donghong Su, Honglian Yang, Zhe Li, Chao Li, Xiaojun She, Kun Wang, Xiujie Gao, Kefeng Ma, Pengfang Zheng, Xiaofang Li and Bo Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  35. Neuroinflammation is associated with various chronic neurological diseases, including epilepsy; however, neuroimaging approaches for visualizing neuroinflammation have not been used in the clinical routine yet...

    Authors: Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Hiroki Kato, Ryoko Kuwayama, Koji Tominaga, Shin Nabatame, Haruhiko Kishima, Jun Hatazawa and Masako Taniike

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  36. Alteration of immune status in the central nervous system (CNS) has been implicated in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the nature of overall changes in brain immunocyte lands...

    Authors: Shuoshuo Li, Yajin Liao, Yuan Dong, Xiaoheng Li, Jun Li, Yong Cheng, Jinbo Cheng and Zengqiang Yuan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  37. Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is a leading cause of acute mortality and chronic disability in newborns. Our previous studies demonstrated that HI insult significantly increased microRNA-210 (miR-...

    Authors: Qingyi Ma, Chiranjib Dasgupta, Guofang Shen, Yong Li and Lubo Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:6

    Content type: Research

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  38. Central sensitization is an important pathophysiological mechanism of chronic migraine (CM). According to our previous studies, microglial activation and subsequent inflammation in the trigeminal nucleus cauda...

    Authors: Li Jiang, Yixin Zhang, Feng Jing, Ting Long, Guangcheng Qin, Dunke Zhang, Lixue Chen and Jiying Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

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  39. Cognitive decline occurs frequently in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which greatly decreases the quality of life of patients. However, the mechanisms remain to be investigated. Neuroinflammation mediated by overac...

    Authors: Dongdong Zhang, Sheng Li, Liyan Hou, Lu Jing, Zhengzheng Ruan, Bingjie Peng, Xiaomeng Zhang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Jie Zhao and Qingshan Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  40. Inflammatory response plays an important role in many processes related to acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9), released by monocytes and neutrophils, is a key protein in the regulation o...

    Authors: Juan Marta-Enguita, Manuel Navarro-Oviedo, Idoia Rubio-Baines, Nuria Aymerich, Maria Herrera, Beatriz Zandio, Sergio Mayor, Jose-Antonio Rodriguez, Jose-Antonio Páramo, Estefania Toledo, Maite Mendioroz, Roberto Muñoz and Josune Orbe

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:3

    Content type: Research

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  41. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Microglial/macrophage activation and neuroinflammation are key cellular events following TBI, but the regulatory and functiona...

    Authors: Haijian Wu, Jingwei Zheng, Shenbin Xu, Yuanjian Fang, Yingxi Wu, Jianxiong Zeng, Anwen Shao, Ligen Shi, Jianan Lu, Shuhao Mei, Xiaoyu Wang, Xinying Guo, Yirong Wang, Zhen Zhao and Jianmin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  42. The NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis, which could be regulated by miRNA-27a, is a key player in the development of depression. Isoliquiritin is a phenolic flavonoid compound that has been demonstrated to suppress NLR...

    Authors: Yuanjie Li, Wen Song, Yue Tong, Xia Zhang, Jianjun Zhao, Xiaojuan Gao, Jingjiao Yong and Hanqing Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:1

    Content type: Research

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  43. Previous studies noted that intravitreal injection of S100B triggered a glaucoma-like degeneration of retina and optic nerve as well as microglia activation after 14 days. The precise role of microglia in our ...

    Authors: Pia Grotegut, Natarajan Perumal, Sandra Kuehn, Andreas Smit, H. Burkhard Dick, Franz H. Grus and Stephanie C. Joachim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:375

    Content type: Research

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  44. In vivo assessment of neuroinflammation by 18-kDa translocator protein positron-emission-tomography (TSPO-PET) ligands receives growing interest in preclinical and clinical research of neurodegenerative disord...

    Authors: Gloria Biechele, Nicolai Franzmeier, Tanja Blume, Michael Ewers, Jose Medina Luque, Florian Eckenweber, Christian Sacher, Leonie Beyer, Francois Ruch-Rubinstein, Simon Lindner, Franz-Josef Gildehaus, Barbara von Ungern-Sternberg, Paul Cumming, Peter Bartenstein, Axel Rominger, Günter U. Höglinger…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:374

    Content type: Research

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  45. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammation-mediated demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that eventually results in secondary axonal degeneration due to remyelination failure. Successful remyeli...

    Authors: Inge L. Werkman, Marissa L. Dubbelaar, Pieter van der Vlies, Jelkje J. de Boer-Bergsma, Bart J. L. Eggen and Wia Baron

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:373

    Content type: Research

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  46. Microglia are brain-resident myeloid cells involved in the innate immune response and a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In macrophages, TonEBP is a transcriptional cofactor of NF-κB which stimulates the...

    Authors: Gyu Won Jeong, Hwan Hee Lee, Whaseon Lee-Kwon and Hyug Moo Kwon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:372

    Content type: Research

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  47. Genetics have provided hints on potential molecular pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases (NDD). However, the number of cases caused exclusively by genetic alterations is low, suggesting an important...

    Authors: Jorge Rubén Cabrera, Ignacio Rodríguez-Izquierdo, José Luis Jiménez and María Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:371

    Content type: Research

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  48. Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a progressive neurodegenerative disease association with exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) received ...

    Authors: Jonathan D. Cherry, Gaoyuan Meng, Sarah Daley, Weiming Xia, Sarah Svirsky, Victor E. Alvarez, Raymond Nicks, Morgan Pothast, Hunter Kelley, Bertrand Huber, Yorghos Tripodis, Michael L. Alosco, Jesse Mez, Ann C. McKee and Thor D. Stein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:370

    Content type: Research

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  49. Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2) cells are a glial cell type tiled throughout the gray and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). NG2 cells are known for their ability to differentiate into oligodendroc...

    Authors: Laura A. Bell, Glenna J. Wallis and Karen S. Wilcox

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:369

    Content type: Research

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