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  1. Content type: Research

    Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that...

    Authors: Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning and Eng H. Lo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:143

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  2. Content type: Review

    Epilepsy, a neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures, is often associated with a history of previous lesions in the nervous system. Impaired regulation of the activation and resolution of infla...

    Authors: Amna Rana and Alberto E. Musto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:144

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  3. Content type: Research

    Microglial activation contributes to the neuropathology associated with chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal, including the expression of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory genes. In the current study, we e...

    Authors: Sergey Kalinin, Marta González-Prieto, Hannah Scheiblich, Lucia Lisi, Handojo Kusumo, Michael T. Heneka, Jose L. M. Madrigal, Subhash C. Pandey and Douglas L. Feinstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:141

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  4. Content type: Research

    Acute neurological insults caused by infection, systemic inflammation, ischemia, or traumatic injury are often associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) followed by infiltration of peripheral ...

    Authors: Justin R. Piro, Georgette L. Suidan, Jie Quan, YeQing Pi, Sharon M. O’Neill, Marissa Ilardi, Nikolay Pozdnyakov, Thomas A. Lanz, Hualin Xi, Robert D. Bell and Tarek A. Samad

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:142

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  5. Content type: Research

    Systemic inflammation associated with sepsis can induce neuronal hyperexcitability, leading to enhanced seizure predisposition and occurrence. Brain microglia are rapidly activated in response to systemic infl...

    Authors: Wan-Yu Huang, Shankung Lin, Hsuan-Ying Chen, Ya-Ping Chen, Ting-Yu Chen, Kuei-Sen Hsu and Hung-Ming Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:140

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  6. Content type: Research

    Pericytes and endothelial cells are critical cellular components of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and play an important role in neuroinflammation. To date, the majority of inflammation-related studies in endot...

    Authors: Leon C. D. Smyth, Justin Rustenhoven, Thomas I.-H. Park, Patrick Schweder, Deidre Jansson, Peter A. Heppner, Simon J. O’Carroll, Edward W. Mee, Richard L. M. Faull, Maurice Curtis and Mike Dragunow

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:138

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  7. Content type: Research

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) while neighboring ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons are relativ...

    Authors: Eric Wildon Kostuk, Jingli Cai and Lorraine Iacovitti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:139

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  8. Content type: Research

    The mixed lineage kinase type 3 inhibitor URMC-099 facilitates amyloid-beta (Aβ) clearance and degradation in cultured murine microglia. One putative mechanism is an effect of URMC-099 on Aβ uptake and degrada...

    Authors: Tomomi Kiyota, Jatin Machhi, Yaman Lu, Bhagyalaxmi Dyavarshetty, Maryam Nemati, Gang Zhang, R. Lee Mosley, Harris A. Gelbard and Howard E. Gendelman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:137

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  9. Content type: Review

    Over the past few years, new-generation cell-based assays have demonstrated a robust association of autoantibodies to full-length human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) with (mostly recurrent) opt...

    Authors: S. Jarius, F. Paul, O. Aktas, N. Asgari, R. C. Dale, J. de Seze, D. Franciotta, K. Fujihara, A. Jacob, H. J. Kim, I. Kleiter, T. Kümpfel, M. Levy, J. Palace, K. Ruprecht, A. Saiz…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:134

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  10. Content type: Research

    Ischemic stroke induced matrixmetallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) upregulation, which increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cell therapy protected blood-brain barrier ...

    Authors: Zhuo Cheng, Liping Wang, Meijie Qu, Huaibin Liang, Wanlu Li, Yongfang Li, Lidong Deng, Zhijun Zhang and Guo-Yuan Yang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:135

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  11. Content type: Research

    Chronic pro-inflammatory signaling propagates damage to neural tissue and affects the rate of disease progression. Increased activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), master regulators of the innate immune res...

    Authors: Sinéad Kinsella, Michael Fichtner, Orla Watters, Hans-Georg König and Jochen H. M. Prehn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:130

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  12. Content type: Research

    Depression is a frequent mood disorder in stroke patient. Our aim was to determine irisin levels in serum and investigate their associations with post-stroke depression (PSD) in a 6-month follow-up study in Ch...

    Authors: Wen-Jun Tu, Han-Cheng Qiu, Qiang Liu, Xuemei Li, Ji-Zong Zhao and Xianwei Zeng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:133

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  13. Content type: Research

    Numerous studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). But the precise mechanisms by which PM2.5 contributed to AD pathogenesis have not been clarified.

    Authors: Bian-Rong Wang, Jian-Quan Shi, Nian-Nian Ge, Zhou Ou, You-Yong Tian, Teng Jiang, Jun-Shan Zhou, Jun Xu and Ying-Dong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:132

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  14. Content type: Research

    Multiple risk factors contribute to the progression of Parkinson’s disease, including oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between higher urate level and a lower...

    Authors: Li-Hui Bao, Ya-Nan Zhang, Jian-Nan Zhang, Li Gu, Hui-Min Yang, Yi-Ying Huang, Ning Xia and Hong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:131

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  15. Content type: Research

    Converging evidence suggests a role for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Animal models of PD can serve as a platform to investigate the role of neuroinflammation in degeneratio...

    Authors: Megan F. Duffy, Timothy J. Collier, Joseph R. Patterson, Christopher J. Kemp, Kelvin C. Luk, Malú G. Tansey, Katrina L. Paumier, Nicholas M. Kanaan, D. Luke Fischer, Nicole K. Polinski, Olivia L. Barth, Jacob W. Howe, Nishant N. Vaikath, Nour K. Majbour, Omar M. A. El-Agnaf and Caryl E. Sortwell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:129

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:169

  16. Content type: Research

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is an inflammation-inducible endothelial cell molecule and primary amine oxidase that mediates leukocyte entry to sites of inflammation. However, there is limited knowledge ...

    Authors: Petri Elo, Sina Tadayon, Heidi Liljenbäck, Jarmo Teuho, Meeri Käkelä, Kalle Koskensalo, Virva Saunavaara, Jenni Virta, Tibor Z. Veres, Aida Kiviniemi, Antti Saraste, Päivi Marjamäki, Laura Airas, Sirpa Jalkanen and Anne Roivainen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:128

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  17. Content type: Research

    Brain inflammation including increases in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β is widely believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Although IL-1β-induced impairments in long-term po...

    Authors: Liqi Tong, G. Aleph Prieto and Carl W. Cotman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:127

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  18. Content type: Research

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a common outcome of a majority of HIV-1-infected subjects and is associated with synaptodendritic damage. Neurogranin (N...

    Authors: Debjani Guha, Marc C. E. Wagner and Velpandi Ayyavoo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:126

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  19. Content type: Research

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Although complement-dependent astrocyte damage mediated by anti-aquaporin 4 autoantibody (AQP4-Ab) is we...

    Authors: Kazuya Yamashita, Makoto Kinoshita, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Akiko Namba, Mikito Shimizu, Toru Koda, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Yuki Mori, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Yuji Nakatsuji, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Susumu Kusunoki, Hideki Mochizuki and Tatsusada Okuno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:125

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  20. Content type: Research

    Refractory olfactory dysfunction is a common finding in head trauma due to olfactory nerve injury. Anti-inflammatory treatment using steroids is known to contribute to functional recovery of the central and pe...

    Authors: Masayoshi Kobayashi, Kengo Tamari, Mohammed Omar Al Salihi, Kohei Nishida and Kazuhiko Takeuchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:124

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  21. Content type: Research

    Glycosylation significantly affects protein structure and function and thus participates in multiple physiologic and pathologic processes. Studies demonstrated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycosylation associat...

    Authors: Di Liu, Zhongyao Zhao, Anxin Wang, Siqi Ge, Hao Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qi Sun, Weijie Cao, Ming Sun, Lijuan Wu, Manshu Song, Yong Zhou, Wei Wang and Youxin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:123

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  22. Content type: Research

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical da...

    Authors: Alice Valentin-Torres, Carine Savarin, Joslyn Barnett and Cornelia C. Bergmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:121

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  23. Content type: Research

    Autoimmune neuropathies are common PNS disorders and effective treatment is challenging. Environmental influence and dietary components are known to affect the course of autoimmune diseases. Capsaicin as punge...

    Authors: Jeremias Motte, Björn Ambrosius, Thomas Grüter, Hussein Bachir, Melissa Sgodzai, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Kalliopi Pitarokoili and Ralf Gold

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:122

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  24. Content type: Research

    Growing evidence has strengthened the association of food allergy with neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and autism. However, underlying mechanisms by which peripheral allergic responses l...

    Authors: Danielle L. Germundson, Nicholas A. Smith, Lane P. Vendsel, Andrea V. Kelsch, Colin K. Combs and Kumi Nagamoto-Combs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:120

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  25. Content type: Research

    Melatonin is a well-known potent endogenous antioxidant pharmacological agent with significant neuroprotective actions. Here in the current study, we explored the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (N...

    Authors: Tahir Ali, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Fawad Ali Shah and Myeong Ok Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:119

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  26. Content type: Research

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a clinically variable but potentially severe Flavivirus infection, with the outcome strongly dependent on secondary immunopathology. Neutrophils are present in cerebrospinal fluid...

    Authors: Sambor Grygorczuk, Renata Świerzbińska, Maciej Kondrusik, Justyna Dunaj, Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko, Agnieszka Siemieniako and Sławomir Pancewicz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:115

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  27. Content type: Research

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives pain by inducing the expression of inflammatory mediators; however, its ability to regulate sodium channel 1.7 (Nav1.7), a key driver of temporomandib...

    Authors: Peng Zhang, Rui-Yun Bi and Ye-Hua Gan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:117

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  28. Content type: Research

    Microglial polarization and the subsequent neuroinflammatory response are contributing factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced secondary injury. High mobile group box 1 (HMGB1) mediates the activation...

    Authors: Xiangrong Chen, Chunnuan Chen, Sining Fan, Shukai Wu, Fuxing Yang, Zhongning Fang, Huangde Fu and Yasong Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:116

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  29. Content type: Research

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a common neurologic event with high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Spleen has been reported to play a critical role in inflammatory responses by regulating peri...

    Authors: Yiting Zhang, Yan Ding, Tai Lu, Yixin Zhang, Ningbo Xu, Devin W. McBride, Jiping Tang and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:118

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  30. Content type: Research

    The success of clinical trials of selective B cell depletion in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) indicates B cells are important contributors to peripheral immune responses involved in the devel...

    Authors: Hanane Touil, Antonia Kobert, Nathalie Lebeurrier, Aja Rieger, Philippe Saikali, Caroline Lambert, Lama Fawaz, Craig S. Moore, Alexandre Prat, Jennifer Gommerman, Jack P. Antel, Yasuto Itoyama, Ichiro Nakashima and Amit Bar-Or

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:114

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  31. Content type: Research

    Antenatal infection (i.e., chorioamnionitis) is an important risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after preterm birth. Destructive and developmental disturbances of the white matter are hallmark...

    Authors: Ruth Gussenhoven, Rob J. J. Westerlaken, Daan R. M. G. Ophelders, Alan H. Jobe, Matthew W. Kemp, Suhas G. Kallapur, Luc J. Zimmermann, Per T. Sangild, Stanislava Pankratova, Pierre Gressens, Boris W. Kramer, Bobbi Fleiss and Tim G. A. M. Wolfs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:113

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  32. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheime...

    Authors: Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A. Newell, Xu-Feng Huang and Yinghua Yu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:112

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  33. Content type: Research

    Experimental studies suggest that systemic inflammation contributes to the pathophysiology of delirium. The aim of our study was to determine blood-derived inflammatory signatures of post-stroke delirium.

    Authors: Katarzyna Kowalska, Elzbieta Klimiec, Kazimierz Weglarczyk, Joanna Pera, Agnieszka Slowik, Maciej Siedlar and Tomasz Dziedzic

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:111

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  34. Content type: Research

    Elderly patients are more likely to suffer from postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after surgery and anesthesia. Except for declined organ function, the particular pathogenesis of POCD in elderly patie...

    Authors: Zhi Wang, Shiyu Meng, Lin Cao, Ying Chen, Zhiyi Zuo and Shuling Peng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:109

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    The Letter to the Editor to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:266

  35. Content type: Short report

    Encounter of autoantibodies with specific antigens can lead to hypersensitivity reactions and pathology. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD), immunoglobulin-G (IgG) depositi...

    Authors: Marlene Thorsen Mørch, Sofie Forsberg Sørensen, Reza Khorooshi, Nasrin Asgari and Trevor Owens

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:110

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  36. Content type: Research

    In the early phases of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS), a clear correlation between brain lesion load and clinical disability is often lacking, originating the so-called clinico-radiological par...

    Authors: Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Ennio Iezzi, Girolama A. Marfia, Ilaria Simonelli, Alessandra Musella, Georgia Mandolesi, Diego Fresegna, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Roberto Furlan, Annamaria Finardi, Giorgia Mataluni, Doriana Landi, Luana Gilio, Diego Centonze and Fabio Buttari

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:108

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  37. Content type: Review

    Recent research has shown that the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) in microglia is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The mechanism of this relationship, ...

    Authors: Jiang-Tao Li and Ying Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:107

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  38. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury. Activation of melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) has been shown to elicit anti-inflam...

    Authors: Shengpan Chen, Lianhua Zhao, Prativa Sherchan, Yan Ding, Jing Yu, Derek Nowrangi, Jiping Tang, Ying Xia and John H. Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:106

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  39. Content type: Research

    Both dysfunctional neuropeptide signaling and immune system activation are characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Unknown is whether substance P (SP) or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)...

    Authors: Wen-Wu Li, Tian-Zhi Guo, Xiaoyou Shi, Frank Birklein, Tanja Schlereth, Wade S. Kingery and J. David Clark

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:105

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  40. Content type: Research

    Human cerebral malaria (HCM) is a severe form of malaria characterized by sequestration of infected erythrocytes (IRBCs) in brain microvessels, increased levels of circulating free heme and pro-inflammatory cy...

    Authors: Mingli Liu, Wesley Solomon, Juan Carlos Cespedes, Nana O. Wilson, Byron Ford and Jonathan K. Stiles

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:104

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  41. Content type: Research

    Stroke-induced immunodeficiency syndrome (SIDS) is regarded as a protective mechanism for secondary inflammatory injury as well as a contributor to infection complications. Although stroke-induced hyperactivat...

    Authors: Huan Wang, Qi-Wen Deng, Ai-Ni Peng, Fang-Lan Xing, Lei Zuo, Shuo Li, Zheng-Tian Gu and Fu-Ling Yan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:102

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  42. Content type: Research

    Astrocyte and microglia activation are well-known features of temporal lobe epilepsy that may contribute to epileptogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying glia activation are not well understood. Long non...

    Authors: Chun-Lei Han, Ming Ge, Yun-Peng Liu, Xue-Min Zhao, Kai-Liang Wang, Ning Chen, Wen-Jia Meng, Wei Hu, Jian-Guo Zhang, Liang Li and Fan-Gang Meng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:103

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  43. Content type: Research

    A dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapeutic agents such as vincristine (VCR) is neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed at present. Chemokine-mediated immune cell/neuron communication in preclinical VCR-...

    Authors: Karli Montague, Raffaele Simeoli, Joao Valente and Marzia Malcangio

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:101

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  44. Content type: Research

    Systemic inflammation is associated with increased cognitive decline and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Microglia (MG) activated during systemic inflammation can cause exaggerated neuroinflammatory responses an...

    Authors: Hallel C. Paraiso, Ping-Chang Kuo, Eric T. Curfman, Haley J. Moon, Robert D. Sweazey, Jui-Hung Yen, Fen-Lei Chang and I-Chen Yu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:100

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  45. Content type: Research

    Currently, several amyloid beta (Aβ) antibodies, including the protofibril selective antibody BAN2401, are in clinical trials. The murine version of BAN2401, mAb158, has previously been shown to lower the leve...

    Authors: Sofia Söllvander, Elisabeth Nikitidou, Linn Gallasch, Marlena Zyśk, Linda Söderberg, Dag Sehlin, Lars Lannfelt and Anna Erlandsson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:98

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  46. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is rapidly progressive adult-onset motor neuron disease characterized by the neurodegeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons in the cortex and the spinal cord; the m...

    Authors: Caroline Perner, Florian Perner, Beatrice Stubendorff, Martin Förster, Otto W. Witte, Florian H. Heidel, Tino Prell and Julian Grosskreutz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:99

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  47. Content type: Research

    Neuro–immune interaction underlies chronic neuroinflammation and aberrant sensory processing resulting in neuropathic pain. Despite the pathological significance of both neuroinflammation-driven peripheral sen...

    Authors: Norikazu Kiguchi, Daichi Kobayashi, Fumihiro Saika, Shinsuke Matsuzaki and Shiroh Kishioka

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:96

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  48. Content type: Research

    Glia-mediated neuroinflammation is related to brain injury exacerbation after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Astrocytic hemichannels or gap junctions, which were mainly formed by connexin-43, have...

    Authors: Xiang Yin, Liangshu Feng, Di Ma, Ping Yin, Xinyu Wang, Shuai Hou, Yulei Hao, Jingdian Zhang, Meiying Xin and Jiachun Feng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:97

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  49. Content type: Research

    Diarrhea is a severe complication in HIV-1-infected patients with Trans-activator of transcription (HIV-1 Tat) protein being recognized as a major underlying cause. Beside its direct enterotoxic effects, Tat p...

    Authors: Giovanni Sarnelli, Luisa Seguella, Marcella Pesce, Jie Lu, Stefano Gigli, Eugenia Bruzzese, Roberta Lattanzi, Alessandra D’Alessandro, Rosario Cuomo, Luca Steardo and Giuseppe Esposito

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:94

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