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  1. As the primary resident immune cells, microglia play a central role in regulating inflammatory processes in the CNS. The extracellular matrix (ECM) protein vitronectin promotes microglial activation, switching...

    Authors: Jennifer V Welser-Alves, Amin Boroujerdi, Ulrich Tigges and Richard Milner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:157
  2. Microglia and astrocytes respond to homeostatic disturbances with profound changes of gene expression. This response, known as glial activation or neuroinflammation, can be detrimental to the surrounding tissu...

    Authors: Marco Straccia, Núria Gresa-Arribas, Guido Dentesano, Aroa Ejarque-Ortiz, Josep M Tusell, Joan Serratosa, Carme Solà and Josep Saura
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:156
  3. Multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), is characterized by blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and massive infiltration of activated immune cells. Engagement of ...

    Authors: Camille L Pittet, Jia Newcombe, Alexandre Prat and Nathalie Arbour
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:155
  4. Increasing evidence suggests that microglial activation may participate in the aetiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). CD200-CD200R signalling has been shown to be critical for restraining micr...

    Authors: Shi Zhang, Xi-Jin Wang, Li-Peng Tian, Jing Pan, Guo-Qiang Lu, Ying-Jie Zhang, Jian-Qing Ding and Sheng-Di Chen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:154
  5. Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidat...

    Authors: Masaya Miwa, Mizuki Tsuboi, Yumiko Noguchi, Aoi Enokishima, Toshitaka Nabeshima and Masayuki Hiramatsu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:153
  6. Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced...

    Authors: Tiina M Kauppinen, Sang Won Suh, Youichirou Higashi, Ari E Berman, Carole Escartin, Seok Joon Won, Chao Wang, Seo-Hyun Cho, Li Gan and Raymond A Swanson
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:152
  7. There is a pressing need to identify novel pathophysiological pathways relevant to depression that can help to reveal targets for the development of new medications. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) has a regulato...

    Authors: Iciar Gárate, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal, Lidia Bravo, Esther Berrocoso, Javier R Caso, Juan A Micó and Juan C Leza
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:151
  8. β-Amyloid (Aβ) plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Neurons are major sources of Aβ in the brain. However, astrocytes outnumber neurons by at least five-fold. Thus, even a small level...

    Authors: Jie Zhao, Tracy O'Connor and Robert Vassar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:150
  9. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an acquired inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and is the leading cause of nontraumatic disability among young adults. Activated microglial cells...

    Authors: Noemí Virgili, Juan F Espinosa-Parrilla, Pilar Mancera, Andrea Pastén-Zamorano, Javier Gimeno-Bayon, Manuel J Rodríguez, Nicole Mahy and Marco Pugliese
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:149
  10. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) evokes a systemic immune response including leukocyte migration into the brain and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, the mechanisms underlying TBI pathogenesis and pr...

    Authors: Mahasweta Das, Christopher C Leonardo, Saniya Rangooni, Keith R Pennypacker, Subhra Mohapatra and Shyam S Mohapatra
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:148
  11. The combination of diffuse brain injury with a hypoxic insult is associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the impact of post-traumatic hypoxia in am...

    Authors: Edwin B Yan, Sarah C Hellewell, Bo-Michael Bellander, Doreen A Agyapomaa and M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:147
  12. Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmun...

    Authors: Klaus Lehmann-Horn, Eva Schleich, Deetje Hertzenberg, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Tania Kümpfel, Nikolas von Bubnoff, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Achim Berthele, Bernhard Hemmer and Martin S Weber
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:146
  13. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV)-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribu...

    Authors: Manmeet K Mamik, Sugato Banerjee, Timothy F Walseth, Renee Hirte, Lin Tang, Kathleen Borgmann and Anuja Ghorpade
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:145
  14. Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is an X-linked peroxisomal disorder characterized by the abnormal beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA). In 35-40% of children with ALD, an acute inflammatory process...

    Authors: Paul J Orchard, Troy Lund, Wes Miller, Steven M Rothman, Gerald Raymond, David Nascene, Lisa Basso, James Cloyd and Jakub Tolar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:144
  15. Vasogenic edema dynamically accumulates in many brain disorders associated with brain inflammation, with the critical step of edema exacerbation feared in patient care. Water entrance through blood-brain barri...

    Authors: Thomas Tourdias, Nobuyuki Mori, Iulus Dragonu, Nadège Cassagno, Claudine Boiziau, Justine Aussudre, Bruno Brochet, Chrit Moonen, Klaus G Petry and Vincent Dousset
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:143
  16. Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to clarify the relations...

    Authors: Afaf K El-Ansary, Abir G Ben Bacha and Laila Y Al-Ayadhi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:142
  17. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is activated in response to cerebral ischemia leading to substantial brain damage. In contrast, mild activation of TLR4 by preconditioning with low dose exposure to lipopolysacchari...

    Authors: Keri B Vartanian, Susan L Stevens, Brenda J Marsh, Rebecca Williams-Karnesky, Nikola S Lessov and Mary P Stenzel-Poore
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:140
  18. Brain microvascular pericytes are important constituents of the neurovascular unit. These cells are physically the closest cells to the microvascular endothelial cells in brain capillaries. They significantly ...

    Authors: Andrej Kovac, Michelle A Erickson and William A Banks
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:139
  19. Age-related cognitive dysfunction, including impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory, affects approximately half of the aged population. Induction of a variety of neuroinflammatory meas...

    Authors: Heather D VanGuilder, Georgina V Bixler, Robert M Brucklacher, Julie A Farley, Han Yan, Junie P Warrington, William E Sonntag and Willard M Freeman
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:138
  20. Mounting evidence supports a significant role of inflammation in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology, with several inflammatory pathways being suggested as playing a role in the dopaminergic degeneration ...

    Authors: Janelle Drouin-Ouellet, Claire Gibrat, Mélanie Bousquet, Frédéric Calon, Jasna Kriz and Francesca Cicchetti
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:137
  21. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) represents a reasonable functional and positional candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as it is located under the linkage region of AD on chromosome 4q, and functionally is invo...

    Authors: Jin-Tai Yu, Shan-Mao Mou, Li-Zhu Wang, Cai-Xia Mao and Lan Tan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:136
  22. Cerebral ischemia triggers acute inflammation, which has been associated with an increase in brain damage. The mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia are multifaceted. An im...

    Authors: Yan-Chun Wang, Sen Lin and Qing-Wu Yang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:134
  23. SB623 cells are expanded from marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transfected with a Notch intracellular domain (NICD)-expressing plasmid. In stroke-induced animals, these cells reduce infarct size and promote functio...

    Authors: Mo A Dao, Ciara C Tate, Irina Aizman, Michael McGrogan and Casey C Case
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:133
  24. Amyloidogenesis is linked to neuroinflammation. The tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal, possesses anti-inflammatory properties in cultured macrophages, and in an arthr...

    Authors: Young-Jung Lee, Dong-Young Choi, Im Seup Choi, Jin-Yi Han, Heon-Sang Jeong, Sang Bae Han, Ki-Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:132
  25. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become a powerful tool in the visualization of immune cell dynamics and cellular communication within the complex biological networks of the inflamed central ne...

    Authors: Josephine Herz, Magdalena Paterka, Raluca A Niesner, Alexander U Brandt, Volker Siffrin, Tina Leuenberger, Jerome Birkenstock, Agata Mossakowski, Robert Glumm, Frauke Zipp and Helena Radbruch
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:131
  26. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that inflammation-related gene expression after SCI occurs in two waves - an initi...

    Authors: Kimberly R Byrnes, Patricia M Washington, Susan M Knoblach, Eric Hoffman and Alan I Faden
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:130
  27. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, sugges...

    Authors: W Michael Zawada, Gregg P Banninger, Jennifer Thornton, Beth Marriott, David Cantu, Angela L Rachubinski, Mita Das, W Sue T Griffin and Susan M Jones
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:129
  28. Inflammatory responses in brain are primarily mediated by microglia, but growing evidence suggests a crucial importance of astrocytes. S100B, a calcium-binding protein secreted by astrocytes, has properties of...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Guerra, Lucas S Tortorelli, Fabiana Galland, Carollina Da Ré, Elisa Negri, Douglas S Engelke, Letícia Rodrigues, Marina C Leite and Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:128
  29. The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, e...

    Authors: Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Naeem Mahfooz, Ellen Carl, Allison Drake, Jaclyn Schneider, Barbara Teter, Sara Hussein, Bijal Mehta, Marc Weiskopf, Jacqueline Durfee, Niels Bergsland and Murali Ramanathan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:127
  30. During inflammation, immune cells accumulate in damaged areas and release pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a neuromodulatory role in spinal cord dors...

    Authors: Ya-Tin Lin, Long-Sun Ro, Hung-Li Wang and Jin-Chung Chen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:126
  31. Microglial cells are important effectors of the neuronal innate immune system with a major role in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a major component of tumeric, alleviates pro-inflammatory activi...

    Authors: Marcus Karlstetter, Elena Lippe, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Alexander Aslanidis, Myriam Mirza and Thomas Langmann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:125
  32. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a bacteriostatic factor that may also modulate cellular function, however, little is known concerning the expression or role of Lcn2 in CNS inflammation. Therefore, here we investigated t...

    Authors: Jacque PK Ip, Aline L Noçon, Markus J Hofer, Sue Ling Lim, Marcus Müller and Iain L Campbell
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:124
  33. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines by microglial cells in response to viral brain infection contributes to both pathogen clearance and neuronal damage. In the present stu...

    Authors: Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Scott J Schachtele and James R Lokensgard
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:123
  34. While it is clear that inbred strains of mice have variations in immunological responsiveness, the influence of genetic background following tissue damage in the central nervous system is not fully understood....

    Authors: David J Graber, Brent T Harris and William F Hickey
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:122
  35. Activation of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, has been implicated in the inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dis...

    Authors: Wenwen Sheng, Yijia Zong, Arwa Mohammad, Deepa Ajit, Jiankun Cui, Dongdong Han, Jennifer L Hamilton, Agnes Simonyi, Albert Y Sun, Zezong Gu, Jau-Shyong Hong, Gary A Weisman and Grace Y Sun
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:121
  36. Retinal neovascularization has been intensively investigated in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Here, we studied the contribution of microglial cells to vascular regression during the hype...

    Authors: Franziska Fischer, Gottfried Martin and Hansjürgen T Agostini
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:120
  37. Recent data indicate that inflammatory mechanisms contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined that serine racemase (SR) expression is increased by inflammatory stimuli including liposaccharide ...

    Authors: Haiyan Jiang, Junxu Fang, Bo Wu, Guibin Yin, Lin Sun, Jia Qu, Steven W Barger and Shengzhou Wu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:119
  38. Burn survivors develop long-term cognitive impairment with increased inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Gelsolin, an actin-binding protein with capping and severing activities, plays a crucial role in th...

    Authors: Qing-Hong Zhang, Qi Chen, Jia-Rui Kang, Chen Liu, Ning Dong, Xiao-Mei Zhu, Zhi-Yong Sheng and Yong-Ming Yao
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:118
  39. A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accomp...

    Authors: Hideya Sakaguchi, Akihiko Ueda, Takayuki Kosaka, Satoshi Yamashita, En Kimura, Taro Yamashita, Yasushi Maeda, Teruyuki Hirano and Makoto Uchino
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:116
  40. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising approach to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently in clinical trials. There is extensive evidence, both in mice and humans that a significant a...

    Authors: Donna M Wilcock, Dave Morgan, Marcia N Gordon, Tiffany L Taylor, Lisa A Ridnour, David A Wink and Carol A Colton
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:115
  41. We have earlier shown that protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) were elevated in Indian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Here, we report th...

    Authors: Pawan K Gupta, Sudesh Prabhakar, Chandrika Abburi, Neel K Sharma and Akshay Anand
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:114
  42. Nogo-66 receptor NgR1 and its structural homologue NgR2 are binding proteins for a number of myelin-associated inhibitory factors. After neuronal injury, these inhibitory factors are responsible for preventing...

    Authors: Claire L McDonald, Karin Steinbach, Florian Kern, Rüdiger Schweigreiter, Roland Martin, Christine E Bandtlow and Markus Reindl
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:113
  43. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether localized peripheral inflammation, such as osteoarthritis, contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease in vivo.

    Authors: Stephanos Kyrkanides, Ross H Tallents, Jen-nie H Miller, Mallory E Olschowka, Renee Johnson, Meixiang Yang, John A Olschowka, Sabine M Brouxhon and M Kerry O'Banion
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:112
  44. Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. L...

    Authors: Laila Y AL-Ayadhi and Gehan A Mostafa
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:111
  45. Oligodendrocyte (OL) death is important in focal cerebral ischemia. TIMP-3 promotes apoptosis in ischemic neurons by inhibiting proteolysis of TNF-α superfamily of death receptors. Since OLs undergo apoptosis ...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Fakhreya Y Jalal, Jeffrey F Thompson, Espen J Walker, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Lu Li, Ross R Reichard, Chi Ben, Qing-Xiang Sang, Lee Anna Cunningham and Gary A Rosenberg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:108

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