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  1. Recent studies have demonstrated an inflammatory response associated with the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in cerebral ischemia have been documented. ...

    Authors: Wanglin Jiang, Shuping Zhang, Fenghua Fu, Haibo Zhu and Jian Hou
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:55
  2. In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that e...

    Authors: Xuesen Yang, Genlin He, Yutong Hao, Chunhai Chen, Maoquan Li, Yuan Wang, Guangbin Zhang and Zhengping Yu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:54
  3. Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving cells from the immune system and the central nerve system (CNS). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant class of white blood cells, and typic...

    Authors: Luokun Xie, Ethan C Poteet, Wenjun Li, Amanda E Scott, Ran Liu, Yi Wen, Anuja Ghorpade, James W Simpkins and Shao-Hua Yang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:53
  4. In 70-80% of cases, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with highly specific serum auto-antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed AQP4-Ab or NMO-IgG). Recent evidence strongly suggests that AQP4-Ab are directly i...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Diego Franciotta, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Roberto Bergamaschi, Paulus S Rommer, Reinhard Reuss, Christian Probst, Wolfgang Kristoferitsch, Klaus Peter Wandinger and Brigitte Wildemann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:52
  5. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to attenuate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis. HO-1 can be induced by various stimuli released during cellular injury, such as heme. Deleterious free heme is degraded ...

    Authors: Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Adam R Nettles, James R Lokensgard, Gregory M Vercellotti and R Bryan Rock
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:51
  6. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD) characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse my...

    Authors: Koon H Chan, Jason SC Kwan, Philip WL Ho, Jessica WM Ho, Andrew CY Chu and David B Ramsden
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:50
  7. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interac...

    Authors: Asimenia Angelidou, Konstantinos Francis, Magdalini Vasiadi, Konstantinos-Dionysios Alysandratos, Bodi Zhang, Athanasios Theoharides, Lefteris Lykouras, Kyriaki Sideri, Dimitrios Kalogeromitros and Theoharis C Theoharides
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:48
  8. Inflammatory responses in the CNS mediated by activated glial cells play an important role in host-defense but are also involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Resveratrol is a natural polyp...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Lu, Lili Ma, Lingfei Ruan, Yan Kong, Haiwei Mou, Zhijie Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Ji Ming Wang and Yingying Le
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:46
  9. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by both mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of microglia, the macrophages of the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on the ac...

    Authors: Annette I Ferger, Loretta Campanelli, Valentina Reimer, Katharina N Muth, Irma Merdian, Albert C Ludolph and Anke Witting
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:45
  10. Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 diox...

    Authors: Xin Fu, Samantha M Zunich, Jason C O'Connor, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer and Keith W Kelley
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:43
  11. The enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) has been implicated in the progression of cerebral injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Previous studies in rodents suggest that cPLA2α enhances delayed ...

    Authors: Koji Kishimoto, Rung-Chi Li, Jian Zhang, Judith A Klaus, Kathleen K Kibler, Sylvain Doré, Raymond C Koehler and Adam Sapirstein
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:42
  12. We hypothesized that gp91phox (NOX2), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, generates superoxide anion (O2-) and has a major causative role in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To evaluate the functional role of gp91phox and r...

    Authors: Kenji Dohi, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Sachiko Yofu, Kazue Satoh, Kazuyuki Miyamoto, Dandan Song, Shohko Tsunawaki, Seiji Shioda and Tohru Aruga
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:41
  13. Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD) induced status epilepticus (SE), and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known abo...

    Authors: Erik A Johnson and Robert K Kan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:40
  14. Recently, using a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease with severe neurological deterioration, we showed that MPS IIIB neuropathology is accompanied by a robust neuroinf...

    Authors: Smruti Killedar, Julianne DiRosario, Erin Divers, Phillip G Popovich, Douglas M McCarty and Haiyan Fu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:39
  15. A major site of initiation of inflammatory responses upon physical perturbation(s) and infection by invading organisms is the skin. Control of responses in this organ is, in part, modulated by the neuronal nic...

    Authors: Lorise C Gahring, Amber V Osborne, Michelle Reed and Scott W Rogers
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:38
  16. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Gut inflammation causes significant changes in neurally controlled gut functions in...

    Authors: Shaheen E Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:37
  17. The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Emna Chahmi, Jenny Pena Dias and Réjean Couture
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:36
  18. Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-li...

    Authors: Scott J Schachtele, Shuxian Hu, Morgan R Little and James R Lokensgard
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:35
  19. CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates w...

    Authors: Dafna Bonneh-Barkay, Guoji Wang, Adam Starkey, Ronald L Hamilton and Clayton A Wiley
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:34
  20. During pathology of the nervous system, increased extracellular ATP acts both as a cytotoxic factor and pro-inflammatory mediator through P2X7 receptors. In animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a...

    Authors: Mandi Gandelman, Hugo Peluffo, Joseph S Beckman, Patricia Cassina and Luis Barbeito
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:33
  21. Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of a...

    Authors: Charu Venkatesan, MaryAnn Chrzaszcz, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:32
  22. Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spi...

    Authors: Amanda Emirandetti, Gustavo F Simões, Renata G Zanon and Alexandre LR Oliveira
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:31
  23. Brain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, has ...

    Authors: Henrik Wilms, Jobst Sievers, Uta Rickert, Martin Rostami-Yazdi, Ulrich Mrowietz and Ralph Lucius
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:30
  24. Overactivated microglia that cluster at neuritic plaques constantly release neurotoxins, which actively contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, attenuating microglia...

    Authors: Wei-Chao Huang, Feng-Chang Yen, Feng-Shiun Shie, Chih-Ming Pan, Young-Ji Shiao, Cheng-Ning Yang, Fong-Lee Huang, Yen-Jen Sung and Huey-Jen Tsay
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:28
  25. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was discovered more than a century ago, and its known roles have extended from within the immune system to include a neuro-inflammatory domain in the nervous system. Neuropa...

    Authors: Lawrence Leung and Catherine M Cahill
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:27
  26. Previously, we found that interleukin (IL)-18 deficiency aggravates kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in young C57BL/6 mice due to an over-compensation by IL-12. Additionally, IL-18 partic...

    Authors: Xing-Mei Zhang, Tao Jin, Hernan Concha Quezada, Eilhard Mix, Bengt Winblad and Jie Zhu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:26
  27. We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) ...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, Jonathan W Redd, Philip Tang, Blair Wood, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:25
  28. Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Yansong Li, Shawn L Dalle Lucca, Milomir Simovic, George C Tsokos and Jurandir J Dalle Lucca
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:24
  29. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leading to long-term disability. Recent studies indicate a close association between inflammation ...

    Authors: Jofre Tenorio-Laranga, Francisco Coret-Ferrer, Buenaventura Casanova-Estruch, María Burgal and J Arturo García-Horsman
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:23
  30. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein reported to be involved in mediating cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Prior work has demonstrated that APP co-localizes wi...

    Authors: Cindy M Sondag and Colin K Combs
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:22
  31. We report on a newly discovered serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reactivity to Purkinje cells (PCs) associated with subacute inflammatory cerebellar ataxia. The patient, a previously healthy 33-year-old lad...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Klaus P Wandinger, Sigrun Horn, Heike Heuer and Brigitte Wildemann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:21
  32. Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation....

    Authors: Duraisamy Kempuraj, Shahrzad Asadi, Bodi Zhang, Akrivi Manola, Jennifer Hogan, Erika Peterson and Theoharis C Theoharides
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:20
  33. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a serious, life-threatening, secondary event following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In many cases, ICP rises in a delayed fashion, reaching a maximal level 48-96 hours...

    Authors: Georgene W Hergenroeder, Anthony N Moore, J Philip McCoy Jr, Leigh Samsel, Norman H Ward III, Guy L Clifton and Pramod K Dash
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:19
  34. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common but often asymptomatic disease, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cerebral blood vessels. We describe the successful treatment of CAA encephalopathy with d...

    Authors: Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:18
  35. Aβ deposits represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both soluble and insoluble Aβ species are considered to be responsible for initiating the pathological cascade that eventually le...

    Authors: Daniel Paris, Nowell J Ganey, Vincent Laporte, Nikunj S Patel, David Beaulieu-Abdelahad, Corbin Bachmeier, Amelia March, Ghania Ait-Ghezala and Michael J Mullan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:17
  36. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal role in a variety of CNS functions such as the induction and modulation of reactive astrogliosis, pathological inflammatory responses and neuroprotection. Tumor necrosis fact...

    Authors: Kumiko Tanabe, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iida, Shuji Dohi and Osamu Kozawa
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:16
  37. The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and it...

    Authors: Denise Harhausen, Uldus Khojasteh, Philip F Stahel, B Paul Morgan, Wilfried Nietfeld, Ulrich Dirnagl and George Trendelenburg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:15
  38. Cerebral ischemia from middle cerebral artery wall (MCA) occlusion results in increased expression of cerebrovascular endothelin and angiotensin receptors and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase...

    Authors: Aida Maddahi and Lars Edvinsson
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:14

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:18

  39. The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurolog...

    Authors: Åse B Andersen, Ian Law, Karen S Krabbe, Helle Bruunsgaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Henrik Ullum, Liselotte Højgaard, Annemette Lebech, Jan Gerstoft and Andreas Kjær
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:13
  40. Despite intensive studies focused on the pathophysiology of asthmatic inflammation, little is known about how cross-talk between neuroendocrine and immune systems regulates the inflammatory response during an ...

    Authors: Yi-Liang Zhu, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yang-Mei Deng, Xin-Wei Dong, Jun-Xia Jiang and Qiang-Min Xie
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:12
  41. There is a growing body of evidence that unilateral nerve injury induces bilateral response, the mechanism of which is not exactly known. Because cytokines act as crucial signaling molecules for response of pe...

    Authors: Radim Jančálek, Petr Dubový, Ivana Svíženská and Ilona Klusáková
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:11
  42. This review summarizes recent developments in platelet biology relevant to neuroinflammatory disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is taken as the "Poster Child" of these disorders but the implications are wide. ...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Yeon S Ahn, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:10
  43. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine isolated as an important modulator of immune responses and subsequently shown to be pleiotropic. IL-18 and its receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) wher...

    Authors: Silvia Alboni, Davide Cervia, Shuei Sugama and Bruno Conti
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:9
  44. The role of neuroinflammation in motor neuron death of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear. The human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hmSOD1)-expressing murine transgenic model of ALS has provided so...

    Authors: David J Graber, William F Hickey and Brent T Harris
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:8
  45. Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as...

    Authors: Sophie R Bader, Sonja Kothlow, Sascha Trapp, Susanne CN Schwarz, Hans-Christian Philipp, Steffen Weigend, Ahmad R Sharifi, Rudolf Preisinger, Wolfgang Schmahl, Bernd Kaspers and Kaspar Matiasek
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:7
  46. Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia in the elderly, and the potential of peripheral biochemical markers as complementary tools in the neuropsychiatric evaluation of these patients has claimed furth...

    Authors: Márcia L Chaves, Ana L Camozzato, Eduardo D Ferreira, Isabel Piazenski, Renata Kochhann, Oscar Dall'Igna, Guilherme S Mazzini, Diogo O Souza and Luis V Portela
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:6

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