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  1. In this narrative review, a theoretical framework on the crosstalk between physical exercise and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is presented. We discuss the influence of physical activity on the factor...

    Authors: Marta A. Małkiewicz, Arkadiusz Szarmach, Agnieszka Sabisz, Wiesław J. Cubała, Edyta Szurowska and Paweł J. Winklewski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:15

    Content type: Review

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  2. Neurovascular, autoimmune, and traumatic injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) all have in common an initial acute inflammatory response mediated by influx across the blood-brain barrier of activated mo...

    Authors: Arthur A. Vandenbark, Roberto Meza-Romero, Gil Benedek and Halina Offner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:14

    Content type: Review

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  3. The chemokine CXCL13 is an intensively investigated biomarker in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB). Its role in other neuroinfections is increasingly recognized but less clear.

    Authors: Georg Pilz, Peter Wipfler, Ferdinand Otto, Wolfgang Hitzl, Shahrzad Afazel, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Eugen Trinka and Andrea Harrer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:13

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) triggers a chain of events that is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction leading to necrotic cell death at the core of the injury site, which is restricted by astrogliosis ...

    Authors: Kristyna Karova, John V. Wainwright, Lucia Machova-Urdzikova, Rishikaysh V. Pisal, Meic Schmidt, Pavla Jendelova and Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:12

    Content type: Research

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  5. Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, exhibit various morphologies that correlate with their functions under physiological and pathological conditions. In conditions such as aging and stress, micr...

    Authors: Victoria L. DiBona, Wenxin Zhu, Mihir K. Shah, Aditi Rafalia, Hajer Ben Cheikh, David P. Crockett and Huaye Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:11

    Content type: Research

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  6. Microglia-derived lysosomal cathepsins are important inflammatory mediators to trigger signaling pathways in inflammation-related cascades. Our previous study showed that the expression of cathepsin C (CatC) i...

    Authors: Qing Liu, Yanli Zhang, Shuang Liu, Yanna Liu, Xiaohan Yang, Gang Liu, Takahiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Ikenaka, Kai Fan and Jianmei Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:10

    Content type: Research

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  7. Phagocytosis is a key function of myeloid cells and is highly involved in brain ischemic injury. It has been scarcely studied in vivo, thus preventing a deep knowledge of the processes occurring in the ischemi...

    Authors: Stefano Fumagalli, Fabio Fiordaliso, Carlo Perego, Alessandro Corbelli, Alessandro Mariani, Massimiliano De Paola and Maria-Grazia De Simoni

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:9

    Content type: Research

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  8. Activated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation has been regarded as an underlying key player in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). The therapeutic potential of ...

    Authors: Wenchao Liu, Ran Li, Jian Yin, Shenquan Guo, Yunchang Chen, Haiyan Fan, Gancheng Li, Zhenjun Li, Xifeng Li, Xin Zhang, Xuying He and Chuanzhi Duan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:8

    Content type: Research

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  9. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt placement is frequently complicated by bacterial infection. Shunt infection diagnosis relies on bacterial culture of CSF which can often produce false-negative results. Negative...

    Authors: Gwenn L. Skar, David Synhorst, Matthew Beaver and Jessica N. Snowden

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:7

    Content type: Short report

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  10. Altered neuronal connectivity in peri-infarct tissue is an important contributor to both the spontaneous recovery of neurological function that commonly develops after stroke and improvements in recovery that ...

    Authors: Wai Ping Yew, Natalia D. Djukic, Jaya S. P. Jayaseelan, Frederick R. Walker, Karl A. A. Roos, Timothy K. Chataway, Hakan Muyderman and Neil R. Sims

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:6

    Content type: Research

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  11. The fetal brain is particularly vulnerable to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) conditions evidenced by neuronal and white matter abnormalities and altered neurodevelopment in the IUGR infant. To further ...

    Authors: Julie A. Wixey, Kah Meng Lee, Stephanie M. Miller, Kate Goasdoue, Paul B. Colditz, S. Tracey Bjorkman and Kirat K. Chand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:5

    Content type: Research

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  12. Microglia/macrophages (M/Ms) with multiple functions derived from distinct activation states are key surveillants maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their activation status and role during the brain metas...

    Authors: Sha Qiao, Yuan Qian, Guoqiang Xu, Qingming Luo and Zhihong Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:4

    Content type: Research

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  13. Immunologic abnormalities have been described in peripheral blood and central nervous system of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet their role in the pathogenesis still remains poorly defined.

    Authors: Isabelle St-Amour, Cristina R. Bosoi, Isabelle Paré, Prenitha Mercy Ignatius Arokia Doss, Manu Rangachari, Sébastien S. Hébert, Renée Bazin and Frédéric Calon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:3

    Content type: Research

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  14. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause for long-term disability, yet the treatments available that improve outcomes after TBI limited. Neuroinflammatory responses are key contributors to determining pat...

    Authors: S. T. Peruzzaro, M. M. M. Andrews, A. Al-Gharaibeh, O. Pupiec, M. Resk, D. Story, P. Maiti, J. Rossignol and G. L. Dunbar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:2

    Content type: Research

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  15. Despite accumulating evidence on the role of glial cells and their associated chemicals in mechanisms of pain, few studies have addressed the potential role of chemokines in the descending facilitation of chro...

    Authors: Huadong Ni, Yungong Wang, Kang An, Qianying Liu, Longsheng Xu, Chunyan Zhu, Housheng Deng, Qiuli He, Tingting Wang, Miao Xu, Ying Zheng, Bing Huang, Jianqiao Fang and Ming Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:1

    Content type: Research

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  16. Spinal reactive astrocytes and microglia are known to participate to the initiation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. However, whether reactive astrocytes and microglia in thalamic nuclei that process senso...

    Authors: Lucie Blaszczyk, Marlène Maître, Thierry Lesté-Lasserre, Samantha Clark, Daniela Cota, Stéphane H. R. Oliet and Valérie S. Fénelon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:349

    Content type: Research

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  17. Neuroinflammation is closely associated with functional outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Our recent study demonstrated that fluoxetine inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuated n...

    Authors: Fu-yi Liu, Jing Cai, Chun Wang, Wu Ruan, Guo-ping Guan, Hai-zhou Pan, Jian-ru Li, Cong Qian, Jing-sen Chen, Lin Wang and Gao Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:347

    Content type: Research

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  18. The pathophysiology of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) may be linked to overactive immunity including aberrant activity of the brain’s resident immune cells, microglia. Here we used [11C]DPA-713 and ...

    Authors: Jennifer M. Coughlin, Ting Yang, Alison W. Rebman, Kathleen T. Bechtold, Yong Du, William B. Mathews, Wojciech G. Lesniak, Erica A. Mihm, Sarah M. Frey, Erica S. Marshall, Hailey B. Rosenthal, Tristan A. Reekie, Michael Kassiou, Robert F. Dannals, Mark J. Soloski, John N. Aucott…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:346

    Content type: Short report

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  19. Understanding the interdependencies among inflammatory mediators of tissue damage following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is essential in providing effective, patient-specific care. Activated microglia and elev...

    Authors: Leah E. Vaughan, Prerna R. Ranganathan, Raj G. Kumar, Amy K. Wagner and Jonathan E. Rubin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:345

    Content type: Research

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  20. Activation of resident microglia accompanies every known form of neurodegeneration, but the involvement of peripheral monocytes that extravasate and rapidly transform into microglia-like macrophages within the...

    Authors: Sarah J. Karlen, Eric B. Miller, Xinlei Wang, Emily S. Levine, Robert J. Zawadzki and Marie E. Burns

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:344

    Content type: Research

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  21. Over-activated microglia play a central role during neuroinflammation, leading to neuronal cell death and neurodegeneration. Reversion of over-activated to neuroprotective microglia phenotype could regenerate ...

    Authors: Veronika E. Neubrand, Irene Forte-Lago, Marta Caro and Mario Delgado

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:343

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:31

  22. Although the mechanisms underlying AD neurodegeneration are not fully understood, it is now recognised that inflammation could play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of AD neurodegeneration. A n...

    Authors: Paola Italiani, Ilaria Puxeddu, Sabrina Napoletano, Emanuele Scala, Daniela Melillo, Simone Manocchio, Antonella Angiolillo, Paola Migliorini, Diana Boraschi, Emilia Vitale and Alfonso Di Costanzo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:342

    Content type: Research

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  23. Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit psychostimulant that is subject to abuse worldwide. While the modulatory effects of METH on dopamine neurotransmission and its neurotoxicity in the central nervous system a...

    Authors: Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Wolfgang J. Streit, Soomaayeh Heysieattalab and Habibeh Khoshbouei

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:341

    Content type: Review

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  24. Microglia-associated inflammation is closely related to the pathogenesis of various retinal diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy, which are associated with increased vascular permeability. In this...

    Authors: Despina Kokona, Andreas Ebneter, Pascal Escher and Martin S. Zinkernagel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:340

    Content type: Research

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  25. Emerging evidence suggests that gut-brain-microbiota axis (GBMAx) may play a pivotal role linking gastrointestinal and neuronal disease. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in studies of GBMAx in ...

    Authors: Liang Zhao, Qiutang Xiong, Creed M. Stary, Omer Kamal Mahgoub, Yingze Ye, Lijuan Gu, Xiaoxing Xiong and Shengmei Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:339

    Content type: Review

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  26. Neuroinflammation has recently emerged as a critical risk factor in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutic strategies as means ...

    Authors: Qiqi Song, Cuiqin Fan, Peng Wang, Ye Li, Mu Yang and Shu Yan Yu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:338

    Content type: Research

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  27. Perinatal maternal malnutrition is related to altered growth of tissues and organs. The nervous system development is very sensitive to environmental insults, being the hippocampus a vulnerable structure, in w...

    Authors: Y. Diz-Chaves, L. Toba, J. Fandiño, L. C. González-Matías, L. M. Garcia-Segura and F. Mallo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:337

    Content type: Research

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  28. The extension of sepsis encompassing the preterm newborn’s brain is often overlooked due to technical challenges in this highly vulnerable population, yet it leads to substantial long-term neurodevelopmental d...

    Authors: Ekaterina P. Demina, Wyston C. Pierre, Annie L. A. Nguyen, Irene Londono, Bela Reiz, Chunxia Zou, Radhika Chakraberty, Christopher W. Cairo, Alexey V. Pshezhetsky and Gregory A. Lodygensky

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:336

    Content type: Research

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  29. The regulatory role of capsaicin-sensitive peptidergic sensory nerves has been shown in acute inflammation, but little is known about their involvement in T/B-cell driven autoimmune arthritis. This study integ...

    Authors: Ádám Horváth, Éva Borbély, Kata Bölcskei, Nikolett Szentes, Tamás Kiss, Mátyás Belák, Tibor Rauch, Tibor Glant, Róza Zákány, Tamás Juhász, Edina Karanyicz, Ferenc Boldizsár, Zsuzsanna Helyes and Bálint Botz

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:335

    Content type: Research

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  30. Inflammatory reaction plays a crucial role in cerebral ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. It has been shown that activated microglia long-term existed in cerebral ischemia and induced second injury. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Ranran Zhao, Jie Jiang, Huiwen Li, Min Chen, Renfa Liu, Sujuan Sun, De Ma, Xiaolong Liang and Shumin Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:334

    Content type: Research

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  31. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with midbrain dopaminergic neurons degeneration. A number of studies suggest that microglial activation may have a role ...

    Authors: Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Zuzana Gombalova, Federica Rey, Maria Carlotta F. Gorio, Massimiliano Mazza and Anna Maria Di Giulio

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:333

    Content type: Research

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  32. Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) occur frequently after surgery, especially in aged patients. Surgery-induced neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction play a crucial role in the ...

    Authors: Pengfei Ni, Hongquan Dong, Yiwei Wang, Qin Zhou, Mengmeng Xu, Yanning Qian and Jie Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:332

    Content type: Research

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  33. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an acute-phase protein implicated in multiple neurodegenerative conditions. Interestingly, both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects have been described for Lcn2. Increased Lcn2 ...

    Authors: Doortje W. Dekens, Petrus J. W. Naudé, Jan N. Keijser, Ate S. Boerema, Peter P. De Deyn and Ulrich L. M. Eisel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:330

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Few studies have suggested a relationship between inflammation and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). This retrospective study aimed to explore the changes in inflammation in different CVT stages and the correl...

    Authors: Liyan Wang, Jiangang Duan, Tingting Bian, Ran Meng, Longfei Wu, Zhen Zhang, Xuxiang Zhang, Chunxiu Wang and Xunming Ji

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:329

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Neuroprotective strategies are becoming relevant to slow down dopaminergic cell death and inflammatory processes related to the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Interestingly, among o...

    Authors: Ana-Luisa Gil-Martínez, Lorena Cuenca, Consuelo Sánchez, Cristina Estrada, Emiliano Fernández-Villalba and María Trinidad Herrero

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:328

    Content type: Research

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  36. The host response to intruders in the central nervous system (CNS) may be beneficial but could also be harmful and responsible for neurologic symptoms and sequelae in CNS infections. This immune response induc...

    Authors: Else Quist-Paulsen, Pål Aukrust, Anne-Marte Bakken Kran, Oona Dunlop, Vidar Ormaasen, Birgitte Stiksrud, Øivind Midttun, Thor Ueland, Per Magne Ueland, Tom Eirik Mollnes and Anne Ma Dyrhol-Riise

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:327

    Content type: Research

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  37. Recent evidence suggests that reactive astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, controlling astrocyte reactivity has been suggested as a promising strategy f...

    Authors: Eun-Jung Lee, Jin-Sun Park, Yu-Young Lee, Do-Yeon Kim, Jihee Lee Kang and Hee-Sun Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:326

    Content type: Research

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  38. The ATP-gated ionotropic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has the unusual ability to function as a small cation channel and a trigger for permeabilization of plasmalemmal membranes. In murine microglia, P2X7R-mediated pe...

    Authors: Laura Janks, Cristian V. R. Sharma and Terrance M. Egan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:325

    Content type: Research

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  39. Exposure to increased manganese (Mn) causes inflammation and neuronal injury in the cortex and basal ganglia, resulting in neurological symptoms resembling Parkinson’s disease. The mechanisms underlying neuron...

    Authors: Katriana A. Popichak, Maryam F. Afzali, Kelly S. Kirkley and Ronald B. Tjalkens

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:324

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major cause of disability and death worldwide with sustained neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction contributing to the cellular damage. Stimulator of interferon ...

    Authors: Amar Abdullah, Moses Zhang, Tony Frugier, Sammy Bedoui, Juliet M. Taylor and Peter J. Crack

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:323

    Content type: Research

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  41. Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Microglia are the resident mononuclear immune cells of the central nervous system, and they play essential ro...

    Authors: Soraya Wilke Saliba, Hannah Jauch, Brahim Gargouri, Albrecht Keil, Thomas Hurrle, Nicole Volz, Florian Mohr, Mario van der Stelt, Stefan Bräse and Bernd L. Fiebich

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:322

    Content type: Research

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  42. Pharmaceutical treatment with probable anti-inflammatory substances that attack cells in various ways including receptors, ion channels, or transporter systems may slow down the progression of inflammatory con...

    Authors: Elisabeth Hansson, Ulrika Björklund, Eva Skiöldebrand and Lars Rönnbäck

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:321

    Content type: Research

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  43. Preemptive administration of analgesic drugs reduces perceived pain and prolongs duration of antinociceptive action. Whereas several lines of evidence suggest that endomorphins, the endogenous mu-opioid agonis...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Nan Zhang, Run Zhang, Weidong Zhao, Yong Chen, Zilong Wang, Biao Xu, Mengna Zhang, Xuerui Shi, Qinqin Zhang, Yuanyuan Guo, Jian Xiao, Dan Chen and Quan Fang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:320

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. The development of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in acute ischemic stroke is associated with a higher neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in peripheral blood. Here, we studied whether the predictive value of ...

    Authors: Slaven Pikija, Laszlo K. Sztriha, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer, Friedrich Weymayr, Constantin Hecker, Christian Ramesmayer, Larissa Hauer and Johann Sellner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:319

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella and zoster. VZV can infect multiple cell types in the spinal cord and brain, including astrocytes, producing myelopathy and...

    Authors: Andrew N. Bubak, Christina N. Como, Anna M. Blackmon, Dallas Jones and Maria A. Nagel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:318

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Upon publication of the original article [1], it was noticed that there is an error in Fig. 10, the dialog box in panel (b) was missing. The correct Fig. 10 is shown below.

    Authors: Shalini Swaroop, Anita Mahadevan, Susarla Krishna Shankar, Yogita K. Adlakha and Anirban Basu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:317

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:177

  47. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 was recently shown to control the phenotype switch of reactive astrogliosis (RA) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    Authors: Zhihua Yu, Fangfang Dou, Yanxia Wang, Lina Hou and Hongzhuan Chen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:316

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. La Crosse virus (LACV) causes pediatric encephalitis in the USA. LACV induces severe inflammation in the central nervous system, but the recruitment of inflammatory cells is poorly understood. A deeper underst...

    Authors: Brian E. Dawes, Junling Gao, Colm Atkins, Jacob T. Nelson, Kendra Johnson, Ping Wu and Alexander N. Freiberg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2018 15:315

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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