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  1. Short report

    Activation of FXR pathway does not alter glial cell function

    The nuclear receptor farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR; NR1H4) is expressed not only in the liver, gut, kidney and adipose tissue but also in the immune cells. FXR has been shown to confer protection in several animal...

    Stefanie Albrecht, Ann-Katrin Fleck, Ina Kirchberg, Stephanie Hucke, Marie Liebmann, Luisa Klotz and Tanja Kuhlmann

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:66

    Published on: 28 March 2017

  2. Research

    Inflammatory signature of cerebellar neurodegeneration during neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Ugt1 -/- mouse model

    Severe hyperbilirubinemia is toxic during central nervous system development. Prolonged and uncontrolled high levels of unconjugated bilirubin lead to bilirubin-induced neurological damage and eventually death...

    Simone Vodret, Giulia Bortolussi, Jana Jašprová, Libor Vitek and Andrés F. Muro

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:64

    Published on: 24 March 2017

  3. Research

    Lymphocytes have a role in protection, but not in pathogenesis, during La Crosse Virus infection in mice

    La Crosse Virus (LACV) is a primary cause of pediatric viral encephalitis in the USA and can result in severe clinical outcomes. Almost all cases of LACV encephalitis occur in children 16 years or younger, ind...

    Clayton W. Winkler, Lara M. Myers, Tyson A. Woods, Aaron B. Carmody, Katherine G. Taylor and Karin E. Peterson

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:62

    Published on: 24 March 2017

  4. Research

    NOX2 deficiency alters macrophage phenotype through an IL-10/STAT3 dependent mechanism: implications for traumatic brain injury

    NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is an enzyme system that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglia and macrophages. Excessive ROS production is linked with neuroinflammation and chronic neurodegeneration follo...

    James P. Barrett, Rebecca J. Henry, Sonia Villapol, Bogdan A. Stoica, Alok Kumar, Mark P. Burns, Alan I. Faden and David J. Loane

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:65

    Published on: 24 March 2017

  5. Research

    Development of a model of Saint Louis encephalitis infection and disease in mice

    Flaviviruses are a genre of closely related viral pathogens which emerged in the last decades in Brazil and in the world. Saint (St.) Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a neglected flavivirus that can cause a ...

    Rafael Elias Marques, Juliana L. Del Sarto, Rebeca P. F. Rocha, Giovanni F. Gomes, Allysson Cramer, Milene A. Rachid, Danielle G. Souza, Maurício L. Nogueira and Mauro M. Teixeira

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:61

    Published on: 22 March 2017

  6. Research

    Analysis of monocyte infiltration in MPTP mice reveals that microglial CX3CR1 protects against neurotoxic over-induction of monocyte-attracting CCL2 by astrocytes

    Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson’s disease mice. However, this r...

    Vincent R. Parillaud, Guillaume Lornet, Yann Monnet, Anne-Laure Privat, Andrei T. Haddad, Vanessa Brochard, Amaury Bekaert, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Etienne C. Hirsch, Christophe Combadière, Stéphane Hunot and Christian S. Lobsiger

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:60

    Published on: 21 March 2017

  7. Short report

    Regulatory T cell frequency, but not plasma IL-33 levels, represents potential immunological biomarker to predict clinical response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a polyspecific pooled immunoglobulin G preparation and one of the commonly used therapeutics for autoimmune diseases including those of neurological origin. A recent report...

    Mohan S. Maddur, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, Mrinmoy Das, Praveen Prakhar, Varun K. Sharma, Vikas Singh, Magalie Rabin, Jamma Trinath, Kithiganahalli N. Balaji, Francis Bolgert, Jean-Michel Vallat, Laurent Magy, Srini V. Kaveri and Jagadeesh Bayry

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:58

    Published on: 20 March 2017

  8. Research

    Relationship of acute axonal damage, Wallerian degeneration, and clinical disability in multiple sclerosis

    Axonal damage and loss substantially contribute to the incremental accumulation of clinical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis. Here, we assessed the amount of Wallerian degeneration in brain tissue ...

    Shailender Singh, Tobias Dallenga, Anne Winkler, Shanu Roemer, Brigitte Maruschak, Heike Siebert, Wolfgang Brück and Christine Stadelmann

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:57

    Published on: 17 March 2017

  9. Research

    Matrix metalloproteinase activity stimulates N-cadherin shedding and the soluble N-cadherin ectodomain promotes classical microglial activation

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that are typically released from intracellular stores to act on specific extracellular substrates. MMP expression and activity can be increased in a neu...

    Katherine Conant, Stefano Daniele, P. Lorenzo Bozzelli, Tsion Abdi, Amanda Edwards, Arek Szklarczyk, India Olchefske, David Ottenheimer and Kathleen Maguire-Zeiss

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:56

    Published on: 17 March 2017

  10. Research

    MicroRNA-142 regulates inflammation and T cell differentiation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis

    MicroRNAs have emerged as an important class of modulators of gene expression. These molecules influence protein synthesis through translational repression or degradation of mRNA transcripts. Herein, we invest...

    Farideh Talebi, Samira Ghorbani, Wing Fuk Chan, Roobina Boghozian, Farimah Masoumi, Sedigheh Ghasemi, Mohammed Vojgani, Christopher Power and Farshid Noorbakhsh

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:55

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  11. Research

    Myeloid C/EBPβ deficiency reshapes microglial gene expression and is protective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of important pro-inflammatory genes in microglia. Mice deficient for C/EBPβ show protection against excitotoxic...

    Marta Pulido-Salgado, Jose M. Vidal-Taboada, Gerardo Garcia Diaz-Barriga, Joan Serratosa, Tony Valente, Paola Castillo, Jonathan Matalonga, Marco Straccia, Josep M. Canals, Annabel Valledor, Carme Solà and Josep Saura

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:54

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  12. Research

    Microglial-derived microparticles mediate neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury

    Local and systemic inflammatory responses are initiated early after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play a key role in the secondary injury processes resulting in neuronal loss and neurological deficits....

    Alok Kumar, Bogdan A. Stoica, David J. Loane, Ming Yang, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Niaz Khan, Asit Kumar, Stephen R. Thom and Alan I. Faden

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:47

    Published on: 15 March 2017

  13. Review

    Macrophage and nerve interaction in endometriosis

    Dysregulation of the immune system in endometriotic milieus has been considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Macrophage recruitment and nerve fiber infiltration are the two majo...

    Jinjie Wu, Hongyu Xie, Shuzhong Yao and Yanchun Liang

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:53

    Published on: 14 March 2017

  14. Research

    Microglia-derived IL-1β contributes to axon development disorders and synaptic deficit through p38-MAPK signal pathway in septic neonatal rats

    Axon development plays a pivotal role in the formation of synapse, nodes of Ranvier, and myelin sheath. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by microglia may cause myelination disturbances through suppression of ol...

    Qianpeng Han, Qiongyu Lin, Peixian Huang, Mengmeng Chen, Xin Hu, Hui Fu, Shaoru He, Fengcai Shen, Hongke Zeng and Yiyu Deng

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:52

    Published on: 14 March 2017

  15. Research

    Enhanced susceptibility of triple transgenic Alzheimer’s disease (3xTg-AD) mice to acute infection

    Infection is a recognised risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and can worsen symptoms in established disease. AD patients have higher rates of infection and are more likely to require hospital admissions ...

    Rebecca Montacute, Kerry Foley, Ruth Forman, Kathryn Jane Else, Sheena Margaret Cruickshank and Stuart McRae Allan

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:50

    Published on: 11 March 2017

  16. Short report

    Teriflunomide and monomethylfumarate target HIV-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) affect about 50% of infected patients despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Ongoing compartmentalized inflammation mediated by microglia which are activ...

    Björn Ambrosius, Simon Faissner, Kirsten Guse, Marec von Lehe, Thomas Grunwald, Ralf Gold, Bastian Grewe and Andrew Chan

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:51

    Published on: 11 March 2017

  17. Research

    Astrocyte-specific overexpressed gene signatures in response to methamphetamine exposure in vitro

    Astrocyte activation is one of the earliest findings in the brain of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers. Our goal in this study was to identify the characteristics of the astrocytic acute response to the drug, whi...

    Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Svetlana Semenova, Howard S. Fox, Timothy Ravasi and Maria Cecilia G. Marcondes

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:49

    Published on: 9 March 2017

  18. Research

    Cell-specific deletion of C1qa identifies microglia as the dominant source of C1q in mouse brain

    The complement cascade not only provides protection from infection but can also mediate destructive inflammation. Complement is also involved in elimination of neuronal synapses which is essential for proper d...

    Maria I. Fonseca, Shu-Hui Chu, Michael X. Hernandez, Melody J. Fang, Lila Modarresi, Pooja Selvan, Grant R. MacGregor and Andrea J. Tenner

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:48

    Published on: 6 March 2017

  19. Research

    Pleiotrophin regulates microglia-mediated neuroinflammation

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a cytokine found highly upregulated in the brain in different disorders characterized by overt neuroinflammation such as neurodegenerative diseases, drug addiction, traumatic injury, and ...

    Rosalía Fernández-Calle, Marta Vicente-Rodríguez, Esther Gramage, Jimena Pita, Carmen Pérez-García, Marcel Ferrer-Alcón, María Uribarri, María P. Ramos and Gonzalo Herradón

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:46

    Published on: 4 March 2017

  20. Research

    Molecular imaging of nestin in neuroinflammatory conditions reveals marked signal induction in activated microglia

    Nestin is a known marker of neuronal progenitor cells in the adult brain. Following neuro- and gliogenesis, nestin is replaced by cell type-specific intermediate filaments, e.g., neurofilaments for panneuronal...

    Senthil Krishnasamy, Yuan-Cheng Weng, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Daniel Phaneuf, Melanie Lalancette-Hebert and Jasna Kriz

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:45

    Published on: 3 March 2017

  21. Research

    Systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine status following therapeutic hypothermia in a piglet hypoxia-ischemia model

    Inflammatory cytokines are implicated in the pathogenesis of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The influence of hypothermia (HT) on cytokines after HI is unclear. Our aim was to assess in a piglet asphyxia mode...

    Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Dorottya Kelen, Stuart Faulkner, Kevin D. Broad, Manigandan Chandrasekaran, Áron Kerenyi, Takenori Kato, Alan Bainbridge, Xavier Golay, Mark Sullivan, Boris W. Kramer and Nicola J. Robertson

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:44

    Published on: 3 March 2017

  22. Research

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from neovascular age-related macular degeneration patients produce higher levels of chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1) and CXCL8 (IL-8)

    Infiltrating immune cells including monocytes/macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). The aim of this study was to investigate the cytokine ...

    Judith Lechner, Mei Chen, Ruth E. Hogg, Levente Toth, Giuliana Silvestri, Usha Chakravarthy and Heping Xu

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:42

    Published on: 23 February 2017

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