DMF and MMF (sodium salt) for all experiments were obtained from Biogen Idec, Carl-Zeiss-Ring 6 85737 Ismaning, Germany and solubilized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was also used as the vehicle control. The pH of all media was kept constant at 7.4. Cell culture dishes were from Greiner Bio-One, Maybachstraße 2., 72636 Frickenhausen, Germany; DMEM cell culture medium, sterile phosphate buffered saline were from PAA, Unterm Bornrain 2, 35091 Cölbe, Germany; penicillin, streptomycin were from Gibco/Life Technologies, Frankfurter Straße 129B, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany; cryopreserved primary dissociated cortical cultures from embryonic rats were from QBM Cell Science Inc., 1200 Montreal Road, Building M23A, Suite 147, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Cell Titer Blue was from Promega, Schildkrötstraße 15 68199 Mannheim, Germany; the high contact imaging microscope, the anti-CD3 antibody, 7-AAD and Annexin V PE were from Becton Dickinson, Tullastr. 8-12, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany; the anti-Nrf2 antibody was from Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Bergheimer Straße 89, 69115 Heidelberg, Germany; the anti-Actin antibody and secondary antibodies were from Millipore, 290 Concord Road Billerica, MA 01821, USA; the anti-NF-κB-antibody was from Cell Signaling Technologies, 3 Trask Lane Danvers, MA 01923, USA; multi-electrode arrays were from Multichannel Systems, Aspenhaustrasse 21. 72770 Reutlingen, Germany; the MEA analyzing software Spanner was from RESULT software, 47918 Tönisvorst, Germany; the Universal Probe LibraryTM was from Roche, Emil-Barell-Str. 1 79639 Grenzach-Wyhlen, Germany; Fam-Tamra labeled oligonucleotides were from Eurofins-MWG-Operon, Anzingerstr. 7a, 85560 Ebersberg, Germany; the TNFα ELISA was from R&D Systems, Borsigstrasse 7. 65205 Wiesbaden, Germany; the Immunospot Analyzer was from CTL, 2860 Fisher Road, Columbus, OH 43204, USA; Prism software was from GraphPad Software, 2236 Avenida de la Playa, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA; spreadsheet software was from Microsoft, Konrad-Zuse-Str. 1, 85716 Unterschleißheim, Germany; all other chemicals were from Sigma Aldrich, Georg-Heyken-Str. 14 D-21147 Hamburg Germany.