Neuroprotective function for ramified microglia in hippocampal excitotoxicity
© BioMed Central Ltd 2012
Received: 9 November 2011
Accepted: 31 January 2012
Published: 31 January 2012
Most of the known functions of microglia, including neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties, are attributed to morphologically-activated microglia. Resting, ramified microglia are suggested to primarily monitor their environment including synapses. Here, we show an active protective role of ramified microglia in excitotoxicity-induced neurodegeneration.
Mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to induce excitotoxic neuronal cell death. This procedure was performed in slices containing resting microglia or slices that were chemically or genetically depleted of their endogenous microglia.
Treatment of mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures with 10-50 μM N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) induced region-specific excitotoxic neuronal cell death with CA1 neurons being most vulnerable, whereas CA3 and DG neurons were affected less. Ablation of ramified microglia severely enhanced NMDA-induced neuronal cell death in the CA3 and DG region rendering them almost as sensitive as CA1 neurons. Replenishment of microglia-free slices with microglia restored the original resistance of CA3 and DG neurons towards NMDA.
Our data strongly suggest that ramified microglia not only screen their microenvironment but additionally protect hippocampal neurons under pathological conditions. Morphological activation of ramified microglia is thus not required to influence neuronal survival.
KeywordsMicroglia NMDA Excitotoxicity Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures Clodronate Ganciclovir
Brain tissue is highly sensitive to injury because of its restricted regenerative capacity. From the outside, the brain is protected by the skull and the blood-brain barrier . Within the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are the first line of defense that respond rapidly to any type of brain injury [2–5]. This microglia response has long been defined as microglia activation and based on morphological findings, microglia activation was originally described as a stereotypic and graded process [2, 5]. This view of microglia function has been challenged in the last years . Various studies using two-photon microscopy have shown that ramified microglia are not "resting", as it has long been thought, but instead are very motile cells that constantly move their processes [6–8]. Microglia constantly screen their microenvironment, making them the sentinels of the CNS. Microglia are thus active already under healthy conditions but change their morphology and function in response to a given stimulus, for example neuronal stress signals. They first direct their processes towards the injury before they retract their processes and become motile cells that migrate to the site of injury [6–8]. The microglia response to injury can also be accompanied by proliferation [9, 10].
It is now clear that microglia react with a variety of different reactions by integrating multifarious inputs [4, 11, 12]. In line with this, microglia responses are not inevitably neurotoxic as it has long been thought. Various neuroprotective effects of microglia have been demonstrated recently in vivo. Microglia were found beneficial in a model of nitric oxide-dependent excitotoxicity  and in stroke . Moreover, protective microglia activity was described in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  and Alzheimer's disease . However, microglial neurotoxicity can occur in case of overshooting and uncontrolled stimulation of microglia [3, 17] or when microglia function is impaired [15, 18, 19]. Proper facilitation of microglia function is therefore of crucial importance for the survival of neurons under pathological conditions.
It is important to note that the studies mentioned above all focus on the functions of morphologically activated (non-ramified) microglia. Although both neuroprotective- and neurodegenerative properties have been attributed to these 'activated' microglia, little is known about the properties or functions of 'screening' ramified microglia. The more recent findings that ramified microglia contact active synapses [20, 21], suggests a cell-cell interaction between ramified microglia and neurons, which however, is not yet understood.
In order to study the role of ramified microglia, we made use of a mouse organotypic hippocampal slice culture model in which microglia maintain their ramified morphology comparable to the in vivo situation. Since microglia can be specifically eliminated from these slice cultures  without affecting other cell types [23–25], this model provides an ideal system to analyze the function of microglia in their ramified state. Here, we provide evidence that the presence of ramified microglia is essential for the survival of dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity, strongly indicating that ramified microglia, next to their monitoring function display neuroprotective properties.
All experiments have been approved by the Dutch animal experimental committee. The C57BL/6 J mice (Harlan) were housed and handled in accordance with the guidelines of the central animal laboratory facility of Groningen and the local central animal facility of the Medical Faculty (Freiburg). CD11b-HSVTK mice were housed at the animal housing facility FEM Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, in Berlin and were handled according to the guidelines of the local animal use and care authorities (LAGESO Berlin).
Culture media and supplements were all obtained from GIBCO (Invitrogen, The Netherlands), unless mentioned otherwise. Multi-lamellar CL2MDP (clodronate)-liposomes (Lip-CL) were obtained from the Department of Molecular Cell Biology of the Free University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands (for an extensive preparation protocol see ). Clodronate was a gift of Roche Diagnostics (Mannheim, Germany), phosphatidylcholine (Lipoid EPC) was obtained from Lipoid (Ludwigshafen, Germany) and cholesterol was purchased from Sigma (USA).
Preparation of organotypic hippocampal slice cultures
Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were prepared as described previously  with minor modifications. In brief, slice cultures were prepared from 2 to 3 day old mouse pups under sterile conditions. After decapitation, the brains were removed and the hippocampi from both hemispheres were acutely isolated in ice cold serum-free Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), supplemented with 0.5% glucose (Sigma) and 15 mM HEPES. Isolated hippocampi were cut into 350-375 μM thick slices using a tissue chopper (McIlwain) and were transferred to 0.4 μM culture plate inserts (Millipore, PICM03050). These culture plate inserts, containing four to six slices, were placed in six-well plates containing 1.2 ml of culture medium per well. Culture medium (pH 7.2) consisted of 0.5× minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 25% heat-inactivated horse serum, 25% BME basal medium without glutamate, 2 mM glutamax and 0.65% glucose. The slice cultures were kept at 35°C in a humidified atmosphere (5% CO2) and the culture medium was refreshed the first day after preparation and every consecutive 2 days.
Depletion of microglia from slice cultures
We used two methods to specifically deplete microglia from freshly prepared slice cultures without affecting other cell-types. In the first method, slice cultures were placed on culture plate inserts and incubated with approximately 0.5 mg/ml Lip-CL solution (1:10 liposome dilution in standard slice culture medium) for 24 h at 35°C. Subsequently, the slice cultures were carefully rinsed in PBS (35°C) to wash away residual liposomes and placed on fresh culture medium. After depletion the medium was refreshed every 2 days. Both vehicle-treated slice cultures and slice cultures treated with empty liposomes served as controls.
In the second method, slice cultures derived from CD11b-HSVTK mice were treated with 5 μg/ml ganciclovir (GCV, Sigma) in standard slice culture medium (until the end of the experiments) to specifically deplete the microglia population. Also here the slice cultures were kept at 35°C. GCV-treated slice cultures derived from wild type littermates and non-treated slice cultures derived from CD11b-HSVTK mice served as controls.
Replenishment of slice cultures with primary mouse microglia
Mixed glial cell cultures from 1-day old C57BL/6 mice were prepared and cultured as described elsewhere . Pure primary microglia (> 95%, determined by CD11b flow cytometry) were harvested 14 days after preparation by shaking the culture flasks for 15 min at room temperature at 100 rpm. The medium containing microglia was transferred to a 50 ml tube and the cells were pelleted by centrifugation at 300 × g for 10 min at room temperature. Microglia were resuspended in slice culture medium with a cell densitiy of 200 cells per μl. For microglia replenishment experiments, 400 cells in a volume of 2 μl were carefully pipetted onto 9-days old slice cultures depleted of their endogenous microglia population with the Lip-CL method. These slice cultures were maintained for an additional 12 days prior to induction of excitotoxicity.
Induction of excitotoxicity in slice cultures
Unless mentioned otherwise, slice cultures were placed after 6 days in culture in slice culture medium containing various concentrations of the glutamate receptor-agonist N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA, Sigma) for 4 h to induce excitotoxicity. Subsequently, the medium was replaced with standard culture medium without NMDA. NMDA-treated slice cultures were kept in culture for 24 h after the NMDA challenge. Vehicle-treated slice cultures and slice cultures pre-treated with NMDA-antagonist MK-801 (30 μM) served as controls.
For immunohistochemical analysis, control and NMDA-challenged slice cultures were shortly rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, 35°C) and fixated with 4% paraformaldehyde overnight at 4°C. After fixation, the slice cultures were rinsed in PBS and pre-incubated with 5% normal goat serum (NGS, Vector) in PBS containing 0.3% Triton X-100 (PBS+) for at least 1 hour. Subsequently, the slice cultures were incubated with the appropriate primary antibodies overnight in 1% NGS/PBS+ at 4°C. The following primary antibodies were used: rabbit-anti-Iba1 (1:1000, Wako 019-19741) for detection of microglia, mouse-anti-GFAP (1:600, Chemicon MAB3402) for detection of astrocytes and mouse-anti-NeuN (1:1000, Chemicon MAB377) for detection of neuronal nuclei. Secondary antibodies used were donkey-anti-mouse-Alexa488 (Molecular Probes) for NeuN, donkey-anti-rabbit-Alexa633 (Molecular Probes) for Iba1 and goat-anti-mouse-Cy3 (Jackson IR Laboratories) for GFAP. Analysis of the slice cultures was done by confocal imaging using a Leica SP2 AOBS system (Leica Microsystems).
Analysis of microglia morphology
To analyse the morphology of endogenous or primary cultured mouse microglia replenished to slice cultures, z-stacks of slice cultures were generated by confocal microscopy using a ZEISS LSM 510 META UV inverted microscope at 50× magnification (LD LCI Plan-Neofluar 25×/0.8 Imm. Korr. DIC, oil immersion, 2× digital zoom). Microglia were visualized by Iba1 immunofluorescent staining.
The images were analyzed using IMARIS software (Bitplane). Reconstructions of microglia filaments were generared by the IMARIS tool filament tracer. Tracing was performed in a region of interest using the automatic detection mode, no loops allowed, start and end points were calculated via spot detection. The parameters total dendritic length (sum of length of all dendrites) and number of branch points were analyzed for 25 cells per group.
RNA isolation and quantitative PCR
List of primers used for qPCR experiments
Quantification of neuronal cell death
To quantify neuronal cell death in response to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity, slice cultures were incubated with 5 μg/ml propidium iodide (PI, Sigma) during and after the NMDA-challenge [31, 32]. Confocal images of the neuronal layers were taken mid-section at 40× magnification and the number of double positive cells (NeuN/PI) were quantified using ImageJ software (as described in ). The percentage of neuronal cell death was determined by the number of double positive cells (NeuN/PI) divided by the total number of NeuN-positive cells per neuronal layer.
In the microglia replenishment experiments, cell death in the neuronal layer of the dentate gyrus was determined by the total PI uptake (fluorescence intensity) using ImageJ software. After acquisition of mid-section confocal images, the dentate gyrus was defined as region of interest (ROI) using the polygon selection tool. NeuN- and PI-positivity was analyzed in the respective channels using the measurement setting "area fraction" in the ROI. Cell death was evaluated by calculation of the PI-positive area fraction as the percentage of the NeuN-positive area fraction.
Data are represented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). For neuronal cell death quantification, statistical comparison between groups was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni's posthoc test and p-values smaller than 0.05 were considered significant. Student's t-test was used for qPCR analysis. All statistical tests were performed in SPSS version 14.0.2 (IBM).
NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures
Changes in microglial morphology in response to excitotoxicity coincides with selective neuronal vulnerability towards NMDA
Depletion of microglia from slice cultures using liposome-encapsulated clodronate
Depletion of microglia results in severe neuronal loss in response to excitotoxicity
Microglia replenishment rescues neurons from excitotoxicity
After long-term culturing (21 days in vitro) neuronal death was not prominent when microglia where present in the slice. However, neuronal cell death was evident in microglia-depleted slice cultures death in control conditions, as measured by the total PI uptake in the DG region (Figure 6G, 7.9 ± 2.5%). Replenishment with primary mouse microglia slightly decreased the neuronal cell death (Figure 6G, 3.5 ± 1.5%), already indicating that microglia replenishment was beneficial for neuronal survival.
To test the effects of microglia replenishment on neuronal excitotoxicity, depleted and replenished slice cultures were treated with 25 μM NMDA and neuronal cell death in the DG region was determined. We focussed on these conditions since neuronal death in the DG without microglia is substantial and therefore ideal to analyse the potential importance of microglia replenishment. Subjecting 21 days old depleted-slice cultures to 25 μM NMDA resulted in pronounced neuronal cell death in the DG region, as measured by a total PI uptake of 53.6 ± 3.2%. Under the same conditions, a significantly reduced neuronal death (21.6 ± 2.2%) was found after replenishment of slice cultures with primary mouse microglia (Figure 6G).
Selective hippocampal neuronal vulnerability in excitotoxicity: Involvement of microglia
Here, we observed that neurons from the hippocampal CA1, CA3 and DG regions showed distinct and selective neuronal vulnerability towards NMDA-induced excitotoxicity with CA1 neurons being most susceptible to NMDA followed by CA3 and DG neurons, respectively. Similar patterns towards excitotoxicity or (hypoxic-) ischemic insults in the hippocampus have been observed previously both in vivo [34–38] and in vitro in organotypic slice cultures [32, 39–44], corroborating our findings. Interestingly, selectivity towards NMDA has been shown to be independent of an intact hippocampal neuronal circuitry as isolated CA3, CA1 and DG slice cultures still respond with a selective vulnerability towards NMDA, with the CA1 and CA3 regions being more susceptible to NMDA than the DG region . The reasons for these distinct regional differences in neuronal vulnerability, however, are not well understood. It has been shown that CA1 neurons express relatively high levels of AMPA- and NMDA-receptor (-subtypes), while neurons in the CA3 region express relatively high levels of kainate-receptors [46, 47]. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that CA1 neurons are most vulnerable to glutamate- and NMDA-induced insults, whereas CA3 (and DG) neurons are most sensitive to the excitotoxin kainic acid [32, 37, 43, 48]. Thus, variability in glutamate receptor (-subtype) expression and/or endogenous properties of the distinct neuronal populations in the CA1, CA3 and DG regions [41, 49–51] could (in part) explain their selective vulnerability towards excitotoxicity.
Here, we provide evidence that selective vulnerability is not solely based on endogenous neuronal properties. The differences in neuronal sensitivity to NMDA between the three hippocampal regions disappeared in the absence of microglia. Without microglia, neurons from both the CA3 and CA1 region were equally affected upon treatment with 15-25 μM NMDA and treatment of microglia-free slice cultures with 50 μM NMDA even fully abrogated the selective vulnerability as all three hippocampal regions (CA1, CA3 and DG) were equally affected in terms of neuronal cell death. Since the depletion of microglia was achieved under two different conditions (clodronate treatment in C57BL/6 J slice cultures and ganciclovir application in CD11b-HSVTK slice cultures), we assume that our results are not due to a potential influence of the microglia depletion technique itself. Moreover, we did not find morphological differences in neurons and astrocytes or changes in NMDA receptor subunit mRNA expression nor did we observe differences in MK-801 effects when comparing slice cultures with and without endogenous microglia. Clodronate liposomes are used to target the myeloid cell compartment in brain tissue (in slices or in vivo) for more than 20 years; however, a direct effect in neurons has never been described. The CD11b-HSVTK mouse is now used to target microglia for several years. Although there are fewer publications compared to clodronate, so far no direct effect of ganciclovir treatment on neurons has been found. Even when ganciclovir was administered in vivo intraventrically for up to 2 weeks, no signs of neuronal death were observed as we and others showed [48, 52]. Thus, not the ablation technique but the absence of microglia enhanced the neuronal sensitivity, which is in agreement with earlier findings by us and others [13, 14, 33, 53–55].
We provide here the first evidence that replenishment of microglia-free slice cultures with cultured primary microglia is possible. In a surprisingly straight forward manner, added microglia invade the slice cultures throughout the hippocampal layers, acquire a regular distribution and regain a ramified morphology, which is very similar to endogenous microglia in non-depleted slice cultures. Several important clues/conclusions can be drawn from these observations: 1- The fact that the introduced primary microglia infiltrate the depleted-slice cultures and ramify argues for non-pathological "tissue homeostasis" of these slice cultures. Microglia are active sensors for cellular stress and it is anticipated that their ramification would not have occurred in the presence of damaged or stressed cells. 2- Our findings show that primary microglia, despite the well-known fact that these cells have a high activation status due to culture conditions, keep their capacity to acquire a ramified morphology when brought into a homeostatic neural environment. It is interesting to note here that microglia cell lines, such as BV-2 cells, do not show this behavior. Instead, microglia cell lines remained at the surface of the slice cultures and proliferated until the entire surface of the slices is covered (data not shown); 3- Most importantly, the replenishment with ramified microglia restored the original region specific neuronal sensitivity towards NMDA-induced neurotoxicity indicating that microglia not only acquire a ramified morphology, but also regain their protective function.
These results put a question mark behind numerous studies describing prominent neurotoxic properties of cultured microglia. Clearly, cultured microglia have the ability to damage neurons. However, this prominent neurotoxic phenotype of cultured shake off microglia may rather reflect their special activation status in vitro.
Ramified microglia are not "resting" but protective upon excitotoxicity
Morphological activation of microglia was restricted to sites of neuronal cell death in our slice culture model and thus strictly coincided with the selective neuronal vulnerability to the NMDA-challenge. This morphological activation, induced by neuronal stress or cell death signals, is a well-known feature of microglia that has already been reported for by del Rio-Hortega about a century ago  and ever since numerous times both in vivo  and in vitro in slice cultures . At 10 μM NMDA we did not find neuronal loss in the CA3 and DG regions and therefore no morphological microglia activation was observed in these regions. From the classical point of view (looking at morphology only), one could assume that microglia are not active here. However, neuronal loss was profound in these regions in the absence of microglia, clearly indicating that also ramified (morphologically non-activated) microglia have the capacity to support neurons during an insult. Moreover, these findings suggest that a morphological activation of microglia is not a prerequisite for their neuroprotective function. It is now clear that ramified microglia in vivo continuously scan their environment for homeostatic irregularities [6–8]. The data presented here show that ramified microglia contribute to the protection of neurons and that in conclusion, one should not regard ramified microglia as solely monitoring cells, but as a crucial component that protects neurons from excitotoxicity.
How microglia exert their neuroprotective function remains an open question. Recent studies have uncovered potential mechanisms with which microglia could protect neurons under excitotoxicity. For instance, it was shown that CXC3CL1 expression on neurons leads to secretion of adenosine by microglia, which in turn leads to neuronal increase of adenosine A1 receptors and neuroprotection . Exposure of hippocampal slice cultures to GDNF has been shown to activate microglia, leading to increased neuronal survival . There is also evidence for the involvement of cannabinoid receptor 2 activation in microglia in neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in Huntington's disease . Moreover, microglia in the hippocampus of rats subjected to stroke were found to specifically express neuroprotective TNFα . Furthermore, it was recently described that an intravenous injection of the human microglial cell line HMO6 in ischemic rats leads to reduced infarct size and improved behavioral outcome, suggesting a neuroprotective function of these cells by the upregulation of several inflammatory mediators and neurotrophic factors . In line with these results, it has been shown that application of the microglia cell line BV-2 to slice cultures reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal damage . These studies, however, related protective function to morphologically activated microglia that improved an ongoing pathology. We show here that in the absence of ramified microglia, brain areas (DG, CA3) are affected by a given insult (NMDA) that would not be damaged in the presence of these cells. Thus, only the ablation and replenishment of ramified microglia as demonstrated in the present study unraveled their protective function.
The CD11b-HSVTK model specifically ablates microglia that undergo activation or proliferation , which is why this model is ideal to deplete microglia in slice cultures. Moreover this model has been used in vivo in several publications. Depletion of microglia in vivo in CD11b-HSVTK mice leads to reduced stroke size  or reduced inflammation-dependent pre-conditioning in pilocarpine-induced seizure activity . Thus, in some instances the lack of microglia appears to be beneficial. However, neuronal death in response to pilocarpine was not assessed in the latter report. In two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) no change in amyloid-beta plaque load was seen in the absence of microglia . Although the available AD mice do not provide an ideal model for neurodegeneration, these data argue against substantial microglia-driven neuritic damage in AD, as amyloid-beta-driven neural dystrophy appeared to be unaltered in the absence of microglia in the AD mouse models .
In kainate-induced neurotoxicity it recently was found that the ablation of morphologically activated microglia was correlated to reduced neuronal loss, showing that morphologically activated microglia can also promote the death of neurons .
However, none of the reports mentioned above contradicts or supports the findings reported in this study, since a reliable way to deplete and to replenish ramified microglia in vivo has yet not been identified. Thus, although slice cultures are a well accepted model as they represent many in vivo properties, the question whether ramified microglia have a protective function in excitotoxicity also in vivo remains unanswered.
At the moment it is not yet understood how ramified microglia offer protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Since we did not find significant migration of microglia between the different neuronal regions (CA1, CA3 and DG) in response to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity (data not shown), a local communication between NMDA-treated neurons and surrounding microglia can be envisaged. It was recently described that amoeboid microglia in the developing white matter of rats express functional NMDA receptors . Our data, however, do not support an expression of NMDA receptors in ramified microglia, since depletion of microglia did not change the NMDA receptor expression and function in the slice cultures. Moreover, we just published a mRNA expression analysis of ramified white matter microglia from the adult mouse and did not find significant expression of NMDA receptor mRNA in these cells . It therefore is suggested that the NMDA-receptor expressing amoeboid microglia in the developing white matter recently described by Murugan and colleagues  is a specialized phenotype of microglia and these data add up to the concept that there are subtypes of microglia cells with different functions .
Although insensitive to NMDA, microglia most likely respond to NMDA-challenged neurons given the numerous signals that are released from these cells . Whether or not ramified microglia in response release some of their neurotrophic factors [68, 69] should, however, be further investigated.
Here, we show that depletion of microglia from hippocampal slice cultures and subsequent exposure to NMDA, results in severely enhanced neuronal cell death compared to slice cultures containing endogenous microglia. This is further confirmed by replenishment experiments where cultured microglia added to depleted slice cultures restored the original resistance of neurons against NMDA toxicity. These data indicate that ramified microglia not only screen their microenvironment but additionally protect hippocampal neurons under pathological conditions.
This study was supported financially by BCN (HRJvW), by a NWO-Vidi grant (KB), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), FOR1336 (KB), SFB-TRR43 (FLH) and NeuroCure Exc 257 (FLH).
- Bechmann I, Galea I, Perry VH: What is the blood-brain barrier (not)? Trends Immunol 2007, 28:5–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kreutzberg GW: Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS. Trends Neurosci 1996, 19:312–318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Rossum D, Hanisch UK: Microglia. Metab Brain Dis 2004, 19:393–411.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanisch UK, Kettenmann H: Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain. Nat Neurosci 2007, 10:1387–1394.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Streit WJ: Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS. Glia 2002, 40:133–139.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davalos D, Grutzendler J, Yang G, Kim JV, Zuo Y, Jung S, Littman DR, Dustin ML, Gan WB: ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci 2005, 8:752–758.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haynes SE, Hollopeter G, Yang G, Kurpius D, Dailey ME, Gan WB, Julius D: The P2Y12 receptor regulates microglial activation by extracellular nucleotides. Nat Neurosci 2006, 9:1512–1519.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nimmerjahn A, Kirchhoff F, Helmchen F: Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 2005, 308:1314–1318.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hailer NP, Grampp A, Nitsch R: Proliferation of microglia and astrocytes in the dentate gyrus following entorhinal cortex lesion: a quantitative bromodeoxyuridine-labelling study. Eur J Neurosci 1999, 11:3359–3364.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O'Donnell SL, Frederick TJ, Krady JK, Vannucci SJ, Wood TL: IGF-I and microglia/macrophage proliferation in the ischemic mouse brain. Glia 2002, 39:85–97.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hanisch UK: Microglia as a source and target of cytokines. Glia 2002, 40:140–155.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz M, Butovsky O, Bruck W, Hanisch UK: Microglial phenotype: is the commitment reversible? Trends Neurosci 2006, 29:68–74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turrin NP, Rivest S: Tumor necrosis factor alpha but not interleukin 1 beta mediates neuroprotection in response to acute nitric oxide excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 2006, 26:143–151.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lalancette-Hebert M, Gowing G, Simard A, Weng YC, Kriz J: Selective ablation of proliferating microglial cells exacerbates ischemic injury in the brain. J Neurosci 2007, 27:2596–2605.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boillee S, Yamanaka K, Lobsiger CS, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Kassiotis G, Kollias G, Cleveland DW: Onset and progression in inherited ALS determined by motor neurons and microglia. Science 2006, 312:1389–1392.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- El Khoury J, Toft M, Hickman SE, Means TK, Terada K, Geula C, Luster AD: Ccr2 deficiency impairs microglial accumulation and accelerates progression of Alzheimer-like disease. Nat Med 2007, 13:432–438.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cardona AE, Pioro EP, Sasse ME, Kostenko V, Cardona SM, Dijkstra IM, Huang D, Kidd G, Dombrowski S, Dutta R, et al.: Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor. Nat Neurosci 2006, 9:917–924.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neumann H, Takahashi K: Essential role of the microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) for central nervous tissue immune homeostasis. J Neuroimmunol 2007, 184:92–99.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Streit WJ: Microglial senescence: does the brain's immune system have an expiration date? Trends Neurosci 2006, 29:506–510.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tremblay ME, Lowery RL, Majewska AK: Microglial interactions with synapses are modulated by visual experience. PLoS Biol 2010, 8:e1000527.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fontainhas AM, Wang M, Liang KJ, Chen S, Mettu P, Damani M, Fariss RN, Li W, Wong WT: Microglial morphology and dynamic behavior is regulated by ionotropic glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. PLoS One 2011, 6:e15973.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kohl A, Dehghani F, Korf HW, Hailer NP: The bisphosphonate clodronate depletes microglial cells in excitotoxically injured organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Exp Neurol 2003, 181:1–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marin-Teva JL, Dusart I, Colin C, Gervais A, van Rooijen N, Mallat M: Microglia promote the death of developing Purkinje cells. Neuron 2004, 41:535–547.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Markovic DS, Glass R, Synowitz M, Rooijen N, Kettenmann H: Microglia stimulate the invasiveness of glioma cells by increasing the activity of metalloprotease-2. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2005, 64:754–762.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heppner FL, Greter M, Marino D, Falsig J, Raivich G, Hovelmeyer N, Waisman A, Rulicke T, Prinz M, Priller J, et al.: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis repressed by microglial paralysis. Nat Med 2005, 11:146–152.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Rooijen N, Sanders A: Liposome mediated depletion of macrophages: mechanism of action, preparation of liposomes and applications. J Immunol Methods 1994, 174:83–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stoppini L, Buchs PA, Muller D: A simple method for organotypic cultures of nervous tissue. J Neurosci Methods 1991, 37:173–182.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Jong EK, Vinet J, Stanulovic VS, Meijer M, Wesseling E, Sjollema K, Boddeke HW, Biber K: Expression, transport, and axonal sorting of neuronal CCL21 in large dense-core vesicles. FASEB J 2008, 22:4136–4145.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biber K, Klotz KN, Berger M, Gebicke-Harter PJ, van Calker D: Adenosine A1 receptor-mediated activation of phospholipase C in cultured astrocytes depends on the level of receptor expression. J Neurosci 1997, 17:4956–4964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD: Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods 2001, 25:402–408.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pozzo Miller LD, Mahanty NK, Connor JA, Landis DM: Spontaneous pyramidal cell death in organotypic slice cultures from rat hippocampus is prevented by glutamate receptor antagonists. Neuroscience 1994, 63:471–487.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vornov JJ, Tasker RC, Coyle JT: Direct observation of the agonist-specific regional vulnerability to glutamate, NMDA, and kainate neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Exp Neurol 1991, 114:11–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- van Weering HR, Boddeke HW, Vinet J, Brouwer N, de Haas AH, van Rooijen N, Thomsen AR, Biber KP: CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in glia cells differentially affects NMDA-induced cell death in CA and DG neurons of the mouse hippocampus. Hippocampus 2011, 21:220–232.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kirino T, Sano K: Selective vulnerability in the gerbil hippocampus following transient ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 1984, 62:201–208.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Horn M, Schlote W: Delayed neuronal death and delayed neuronal recovery in the human brain following global ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 1992, 85:79–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acarin L, Gonzalez B, Castellano B, Castro AJ: Microglial response to N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated excitotoxicity in the immature rat brain. J Comp Neurol 1996, 367:361–374.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schauwecker PE: Modulation of cell death by mouse genotype: differential vulnerability to excitatory amino acid-induced lesions. Exp Neurol 2002, 178:219–235.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Won SJ, Ko HW, Kim EY, Park EC, Huh K, Jung NP, Choi I, Oh YK, Shin HC, Gwag BJ: Nuclear factor kappa B-mediated kainate neurotoxicity in the rat and hamster hippocampus. Neuroscience 1999, 94:83–91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gee CE, Benquet P, Raineteau O, Rietschin L, Kirbach SW, Gerber U: NMDA receptors and the differential ischemic vulnerability of hippocampal neurons. Eur J Neurosci 2006, 23:2595–2603.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boscia F, Annunziato L, Taglialatela M: Retigabine and flupirtine exert neuroprotective actions in organotypic hippocampal cultures. Neuropharmacology 2006, 51:283–294.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cronberg T, Jensen K, Rytter A, Wieloch T: Selective sparing of hippocampal CA3 cells following in vitro ischemia is due to selective inhibition by acidosis. Eur J Neurosci 2005, 22:310–316.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keynes RG, Duport S, Garthwaite J: Hippocampal neurons in organotypic slice culture are highly resistant to damage by endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide. Eur J Neurosci 2004, 19:1163–1173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kristensen BW, Noraberg J, Zimmer J: Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Brain Res 2001, 917:21–44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strasser U, Fischer G: Quantitative measurement of neuronal degeneration in organotypic hippocampal cultures after combined oxygen/glucose deprivation. J Neurosci Methods 1995, 57:177–186.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ikegaya Y, Matsuki N: Regionally selective neurotoxicity of NMDA and colchicine is independent of hippocampal neural circuitry. Neuroscience 2002, 113:253–256.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martens U, Capito B, Wree A: Septotemporal distribution of [3H]MK-801, [3H]AMPA and [3H]Kainate binding sites in the rat hippocampus. Anat Embryol (Berl) 1998, 198:195–204.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Coultrap SJ, Nixon KM, Alvestad RM, Valenzuela CF, Browning MD: Differential expression of NMDA receptor subunits and splice variants among the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus of the adult rat. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2005, 135:104–111.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mirrione MM, Konomos DK, Gravanis I, Dewey SL, Aguzzi A, Heppner FL, Tsirka SE: Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice. Neurobiol Dis 2010, 39:85–97.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Chad JE, Cannon RC, Wheal HV: Reduced Mg2+ blockade of synaptically activated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons in kainic acid-lesioned rat hippocampus. Neuroscience 1999, 88:727–739.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grishin AA, Gee CE, Gerber U, Benquet P: Differential calcium-dependent modulation of NMDA currents in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells. J Neurosci 2004, 24:350–355.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sakaguchi T, Okada M, Kuno M, Kawasaki K: Dual mode of N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced neuronal death in hippocampal slice cultures in relation to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor properties. Neuroscience 1997, 76:411–423.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grathwohl SA, Kalin RE, Bolmont T, Prokop S, Winkelmann G, Kaeser SA, Odenthal J, Radde R, Eldh T, Gandy S, et al.: Formation and maintenance of Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid plaques in the absence of microglia. Nat Neurosci 2009, 12:1361–1363.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Imai F, Suzuki H, Oda J, Ninomiya T, Ono K, Sano H, Sawada M: Neuroprotective effect of exogenous microglia in global brain ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2007, 27:488–500.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kitamura Y, Takata K, Inden M, Tsuchiya D, Yanagisawa D, Nakata J, Taniguchi T: Intracerebroventricular injection of microglia protects against focal brain ischemia. J Pharmacol Sci 2004, 94:203–206.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Montero M, Gonzalez B, Zimmer J: Immunotoxic depletion of microglia in mouse hippocampal slice cultures enhances ischemia-like neurodegeneration. Brain Res 2009, 1291:140–152.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rio-Hortega PD, Rio-Hortega PD: Microglia. In In Cytology and cellular pathology of the nervous system. Edited by: Penfield W. New York: Hoeber; 1932:482–534.Google Scholar
- Bernardino L, Xapelli S, Silva AP, Jakobsen B, Poulsen FR, Oliveira CR, Vezzani A, Malva JO, Zimmer J: Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci 2005, 25:6734–6744.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lauro C, Cipriani R, Catalano M, Trettel F, Chece G, Brusadin V, Antonilli L, van Rooijen N, Eusebi F, Fredholm BB, Limatola C: Adenosine A1 receptors and microglial cells mediate CX3CL1-induced protection of hippocampal neurons against Glu-induced death. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010, 35:1550–1559.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Boscia F, Esposito CL, Di Crisci A, de Franciscis V, Annunziato L, Cerchia L: GDNF selectively induces microglial activation and neuronal survival in CA1/CA3 hippocampal regions exposed to NMDA insult through Ret/ERK signalling. PLoS One 2009, 4:e6486.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Palazuelos J, Aguado T, Pazos MR, Julien B, Carrasco C, Resel E, Sagredo O, Benito C, Romero J, Azcoitia I, et al.: Microglial CB2 cannabinoid receptors are neuroprotective in Huntington's disease excitotoxicity. Brain 2009, 132:3152–3164.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lambertsen KL, Clausen BH, Babcock AA, Gregersen R, Fenger C, Nielsen HH, Haugaard LS, Wirenfeldt M, Nielsen M, Dagnaes-Hansen F, et al.: Microglia protect neurons against ischemia by synthesis of tumor necrosis factor. J Neurosci 2009, 29:1319–1330.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Narantuya D, Nagai A, Sheikh AM, Masuda J, Kobayashi S, Yamaguchi S, Kim SU: Human microglia transplanted in rat focal ischemia brain induce neuroprotection and behavioral improvement. PLoS One 2010, 5:e11746.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Neumann J, Gunzer M, Gutzeit HO, Ullrich O, Reymann KG, Dinkel K: Microglia provide neuroprotection after ischemia. FASEB J 2006, 20:714–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Murugan M, Sivakumar V, Lu J, Ling EA, Kaur C: Expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunits in amoeboid microglia mediates production of nitric oxide via NF-kappaB signaling pathway and oligodendrocyte cell death in hypoxic postnatal rats. Glia 2011, 59:521–539.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olah M, Amor S, Brouwer N, Vinet J, Eggen B, Biber K, Boddeke HW: Identification of a microglia phenotype supportive of remyelination. Glia 2011, 60:306–321.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olah M, Biber K, Vinet J, Boddeke HW: Microglia phenotype diversity. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2011, 10:108–118.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Biber K, Neumann H, Inoue K, Boddeke HW: Neuronal'On' and'Off' signals control microglia. Trends Neurosci 2007, 30:596–602.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elkabes S, DiCicco-Bloom EM, Black IB: Brain microglia/macrophages express neurotrophins that selectively regulate microglial proliferation and function. J Neurosci 1996, 16:2508–2521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xapelli S, Bernardino L, Ferreira R, Grade S, Silva AP, Salgado JR, Cavadas C, Grouzmann E, Poulsen FR, Jakobsen B, et al.: Interaction between neuropeptide Y (NPY) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in NPY-mediated neuroprotection against excitotoxicity: a role for microglia. Eur J Neurosci 2008, 27:2089–2102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.