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  1. Research

    Fingolimod additionally acts as immunomodulator focused on the innate immune system beyond its prominent effects on lymphocyte recirculation

    Growing evidence emphasizes the relevance of sphingolipids for metabolism and immunity of antigen-presenting cells (APC). APCs are key players in balancing tolerogenic and encephalitogenic responses in immunol...

    Katja Thomas, Tony Sehr, Undine Proschmann, Francisco Alejandro Rodriguez-Leal, Rocco Haase and Tjalf Ziemssen

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:41

    Published on: 23 February 2017

  2. Research

    Increased cortical lesion load and intrathecal inflammation is associated with oligoclonal bands in multiple sclerosis patients: a combined CSF and MRI study

    Although IgG oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a frequent phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, their relationship with grey matter lesions, intrathecal/meningeal inflamma...

    Gabriele Farina, Roberta Magliozzi, Marco Pitteri, Richard Reynolds, Stefania Rossi, Alberto Gajofatto, Maria Donata Benedetti, Francesco Facchiano, Salvatore Monaco and Massimiliano Calabrese

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:40

    Published on: 21 February 2017

  3. Research

    Microglia P2Y6 receptor is related to Parkinson’s disease through neuroinflammatory process

    Microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) were reported to play crucial role in neurodegeneration. Previous studies showed that P2Y6 receptor (P2Y6R) mainly contributed to microglia activation and phagocyt...

    Xiaodong Yang, Yue Lou, Guidong Liu, Xueping Wang, Yiwei Qian, Jianqing Ding, Shengdi Chen and Qin Xiao

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:38

    Published on: 20 February 2017

  4. Research

    Alleviation of secondary brain injury, posttraumatic inflammation, and brain edema formation by inhibition of factor XIIa

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological condition and a frequent cause of permanent disability. Posttraumatic inflammation and brain edema formation, two pathological key events contributing...

    Sarah Hopp, Marc W. Nolte, Christian Stetter, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Anna-Leena Sirén and Christiane Albert-Weissenberger

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:39

    Published on: 20 February 2017

  5. Research

    Aprepitant limits in vivo neuroinflammatory responses in a rhesus model of Lyme neuroborreliosis

    Substance P (SP) is produced at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), and its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), is expressed by glia and leukocytes. This tachykinin functions to exacer...

    Alejandra N. Martinez, Amanda R. Burmeister, Geeta Ramesh, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Ian Marriott and Mario T. Philipp

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:37

    Published on: 15 February 2017

  6. Research

    Roles of programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 in secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: selective modulation of microglia polarization to anti-inflammatory phenotype

    Microglia and its polarization play critical roles in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced secondary brain injury. Programmed death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 has been reported to regulate neuroimmune cel...

    Jie Wu, Liang Sun, Haiying Li, Haitao Shen, Weiwei Zhai, Zhengquan Yu and Gang Chen

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:36

    Published on: 14 February 2017

  7. Research

    The potential neuroprotective role of a histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia

    Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced infl...

    Joanna Jaworska, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz, Joanna Sypecka and Teresa Zalewska

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:34

    Published on: 10 February 2017

  8. Research

    Combined effect of BCG vaccination and enriched environment promote neurogenesis and spatial cognition via a shift in meningeal macrophage M2 polarization

    The spatial learning abilities of developing mice benefit from extrinsic cues, such as an enriched environment, with concomitant enhancement in cognitive functions. Interestingly, such enhancements can be furt...

    Fangfang Qi, Zejie Zuo, Junhua Yang, Saisai Hu, Yang Yang, Qunfang Yuan, Juntao Zou, Kaihua Guo and Zhibin Yao

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:32

    Published on: 10 February 2017

  9. Research

    Complex regulation of neutrophil-derived MMP-9 secretion in central nervous system tuberculosis

    Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS-TB) may be fatal even with treatment. Neutrophils are the key mediators of TB immunopathology, and raised CSF matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) which correlates to neu...

    Catherine W. M. Ong, Przemyslaw J. Pabisiak, Sara Brilha, Poonam Singh, Federico Roncaroli, Paul T. Elkington and Jon S. Friedland

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:31

    Published on: 7 February 2017

  10. Research

    Cytotoxic T cells modulate inflammation and endogenous opioid analgesia in chronic arthritis

    This study examined the development of chronic pain, a cardinal symptom of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in mice with antigen- and collagen-induced arthritis (ACIA). Since the role of CD8+ T cells in arthritis is co...

    Uta Baddack-Werncke, Melanie Busch-Dienstfertig, Sara González-Rodríguez, Santhosh Chandar Maddila, Jenny Grobe, Martin Lipp, Christoph Stein and Gerd Müller

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:30

    Published on: 6 February 2017

  11. Research

    Effects of dexamethasone and meloxicam on Borrelia burgdorferi-induced inflammation in glial and neuronal cells of the central nervous system

    Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), affects both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Previously, we reported that in a model of acute LNB in rhesus monkeys, tr...

    Geeta Ramesh, Alejandra N. Martinez, Dale S. Martin and Mario T. Philipp

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:28

    Published on: 2 February 2017

  12. Research

    Intrathecal Th17- and B cell-associated cytokine and chemokine responses in relation to clinical outcome in Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

    B cell immunity, including the chemokine CXCL13, has an established role in Lyme neuroborreliosis, and also, T helper (Th) 17 immunity, including IL-17A, has recently been implicated.

    Paula Gyllemark, Pia Forsberg, Jan Ernerudh and Anna J. Henningsson

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:27

    Published on: 1 February 2017

  13. Research

    Neuroprotective effects of intrastriatal injection of rapamycin in a mouse model of excitotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a kinase involved in a variety of physiological and pathological functions. However, the exact role of mTOR in excitotoxicity is poorly understood. Here, we investig...

    Soraya Wilke Saliba, Erica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Rebeca Priscila de Melo Santos, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Bernd L. Fiebich, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Antonio Lucio Teixeira and Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:25

    Published on: 31 January 2017

  14. Research

    Aging and amyloid β oligomers enhance TLR4 expression, LPS-induced Ca2+ responses, and neuron cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system recognizing diverse pathogen-derived and tissue damage-related ligands. It has been suggested that TLR sig...

    María Calvo-Rodríguez, Carmen de la Fuente, Mónica García-Durillo, Carmen García-Rodríguez, Carlos Villalobos and Lucía Núñez

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:24

    Published on: 31 January 2017

  15. Research

    Obesity and neuroinflammatory phenotype in mice lacking endothelial megalin

    The multiligand receptor megalin controls the brain uptake of a number of ligands, including insulin and leptin. Despite the role of megalin in the transport of these metabolically relevant hormones, the role ...

    Fernando Bartolome, Desiree Antequera, Eva Tavares, Consuelo Pascual, Rosario Maldonado, Antoni Camins and Eva Carro

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:26

    Published on: 31 January 2017

  16. Research

    HIV induces expression of complement component C3 in astrocytes by NF-κB-dependent activation of interleukin-6 synthesis

    Abnormal activation of the complement system contributes to some central nervous system diseases but the role of complement in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is unclear.

    Jadwiga Nitkiewicz, Alejandra Borjabad, Susan Morgello, Jacinta Murray, Wei Chao, Luni Emdad, Paul B. Fisher, Mary Jane Potash and David J. Volsky

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:23

    Published on: 26 January 2017

  17. Research

    Rab32 connects ER stress to mitochondrial defects in multiple sclerosis

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, this physiological mechanism has multiple manifestations that range from impaired clearan...

    Yohannes Haile, Xiaodan Deng, Carolina Ortiz-Sandoval, Nasser Tahbaz, Aleksandra Janowicz, Jian-Qiang Lu, Bradley J. Kerr, Nicholas J. Gutowski, Janet E. Holley, Paul Eggleton, Fabrizio Giuliani and Thomas Simmen

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:19

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  18. Review

    Cerebral ischemic damage in diabetes: an inflammatory perspective

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A strong inflammatory response characterized by activation and release of cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and proteolytic enzymes contributes ...

    Vibha Shukla, Akhalesh Kumar Shakya, Miguel A. Perez-Pinzon and Kunjan R. Dave

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:21

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  19. Research

    Th17-skewed immune response and cluster of differentiation 40 ligand expression in canine steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, a large animal model for neutrophilic meningitis

    Steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) is an immune-mediated disorder characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis and an arteritis particularly in the cervical leptomeninges. Previous studies of the dise...

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla, Arianna Maiolini, Regina Carlson, Martin Beyerbach, Kai Rentmeister, Thomas Flegel, Andrea Fischer and Andrea Tipold

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:20

    Published on: 23 January 2017

  20. Short report

    Blocking of platelet glycoprotein receptor Ib reduces “thrombo-inflammation” in mice with acute ischemic stroke

    Ischemic stroke causes a strong inflammatory response that includes T cells, monocytes/macrophages, and neutrophils. Interaction of these immune cells with platelets and endothelial cells facilitates microvasc...

    Michael K. Schuhmann, Josua Guthmann, Guido Stoll, Bernhard Nieswandt, Peter Kraft and Christoph Kleinschnitz

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:18

    Published on: 21 January 2017

  21. Review

    Interleukin-1 as a mediator of fatigue in disease: a narrative review

    Fatigue is commonly reported in a variety of illnesses, and it has major impact on quality of life. Previously, it was thought that fatigue originates in the skeletal muscles, leading to cessation of activity....

    Megan E. Roerink, Marieke E. van der Schaaf, Charles A. Dinarello, Hans Knoop and Jos W. M. van der Meer

    Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:16

    Published on: 21 January 2017

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