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Fig. 3 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 3

From: Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia

Fig. 3

Sulforaphane normalizes extracellular GABA and the function of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway in the cerebellum of hyperammonemic rats. Control (C) and hyperammonemic (HA) rats treated with vehicle (V) or (SFN) were subjected to in vivo microdialysis in the cerebellum. a Extracellular GABA was measured by HPLC in the five initial samples of each rat. b After taking five samples to determine basal levels of cGMP, NMDA 0.5 mM was administered in the perfusion stream, and cGMP was determined in the following five samples to determine to function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP. Values are the mean ± SEM of six to eight rats per group. Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks. Values significantly different from hyperammonemic rats are indicated by “a”. **p < 0.01; “ap < 0.05; “aaap < 0.001

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