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Fig. 4 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 4

From: Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia

Fig. 4

Hyperammonemia increases and treatment with sulforaphane normalizes membrane expression of GAT-3 in the cerebellum. a Membrane expression of GAT-3 was analyzed by Western blot after cross-linking with BS3. A typical image of the blots with and without BS3 is shown. Membrane expression was quantified as described in methods. Values are the mean ± SEM of six rats per group. Values significantly different from control rats are indicated by asterisks. Values significantly different from hyperammonemic rats are indicated by “a”. **p < 0.01; “aap < 0.01. b Double immunofluorescence staining of GFAP (green) and GAT-3 (red). Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). In the merged image, co-localization of GAT-3 and GFAP appears in yellow. It can be seen that GAT-3 is expressed in astrocytes surrounding Purkinje neurons (P). c Double immunofluorescence staining of Neun (red) and GAT-3 (green). Nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue). In the merged image, no co-localization of GAT-3 and Neun is observed

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