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Table 1 Maternal characteristics

From: Immune network dysregulation associated with child neurodevelopmental delay: modulatory role of prenatal alcohol exposure

VariableC/TD (n = 15)C/ND (n = 12)A/TD (n = 15)A/ND (n = 17)p value
Maternal age at enrollment (years)27.5 ± 1.327.8 ± 1.527.3 ± 2.230.2 ± 1.70.7581
Recruitment siteKhmelnytsky67.7% (10)41.7% (5)53.3% (8)82.4% (14)0.1262
Rivne33.3% (5)58.3% (7)46.7% (7)17.6% (3)
Marital statusMarried or cohabitating93.3% (14)100.0% (12)93.3% (14)88.2% (15)0.8992
Single/separated6.7% (1)0.0% (0)6.7% (1)11.8% (2)
Maternal education levelIncomplete high school diploma0.0% (0)8.3% (1)0.0% (0)17.6% (3)0.2632
High school diploma/vocational school40.0% (6)33.3% (4)40.0% (6)58.8% (10)
Some college (college degree or unfinished university education)13.3% (2)8.3% (1)26.7% (4)5.9% (1)
University graduate46.7% (7)50.0% (6)33.3% (5)17.6% (3)
Socio-economic status category (Hollingshead score)1 (high), 55–6633.3% (5)16.7% (2)6.7% (1)0.0% (0)0.2262
2, 40–5433.3% (5)25.0% (3)26.7% (4)29.4% (5)
3, 30–3913.3% (2)25.0% (3)40.0% (6)23.5% (4)
4, 20–2912.5% (2)33.3% (4)13.3% (2)17.6% (3)
5 (low), 8–196.7% (1)0.0% (0)13.3% (2)29.4% (5)
Gravidity> 146.7% (7)75.0% (9)73.3% (11)64.7% (11)0.3822
153.3% (8)25.0% (3)26.7% (4)35.3% (6)
Parity> 046.7% (7)66.7% (8)60.0% (9)52.9% (9)0.7423
053.3% (8)33.3.3% (4)40.0% (6)47.1% (8)
Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)23.6 ± 1.123.3 ± 1.123.3 ± 0.925.0 ± 1.10.6481
Smoking statusCurrent smoker6.7% (1)0.0% (0)33.3% (5)43.8% (7)0.0142
Never smoked86.7% (13)91.7% (11)53.3% (8)43.8% (7)
Quit after realized pregnant6.7% (1)0.0% (0)6.7% (1)12.5% (2)
Quit before pregnancy0.0% (0)8.3% (1)6.7% (1)0.0% (0)
Ounces of alcohol/day at time of conception (AAD0)0.02 ± 0.020.01 ± 0.010.69 ± 0.19a,b1.91 ± 0.42a,b,c< 0.0011
Ounces of alcohol/drinking day at conception (AADD0)0.06 ± 0.050.10 ± 0.101.73 ± 0.41a,b4.03 ± 0.89a,b< 0.0011
Ounces of alcohol/day 2 weeks prior to enrollment (AADXP)0.00 ± 0.000.004 ± 0.000.31 ± 0.13a,b0.65 ± 0.23a,b< 0.0011
Ounces of alcohol/drinking day 2 weeks prior to enrollment (AADDXP)0.00 ± 0.000.05 ± 0.050.96 ± 0.30a,b1.38 ± 0.47a,b< 0.0011
  1. Abbreviations: C/TD control mother (low to no alcohol), typically developing child; C/ND control mother (low to no alcohol), neurodevelopmental delay in the child; A/TD alcohol-consuming mother, typically developing child; A/ND alcohol-consuming mother, neurodevelopmental delay in the child. Continuous variables are reported as the average value ± the standard error of the mean (SEM). Categorical variables are reported as percentage of group followed by the N in parentheses. Note: One subject in the A/ND group failed to report their smoking status. 1Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. 2Fisher’s exact test. 3Chi-square test. p values in italics are statistically significant; post hoc testing—a> C/TD; b> C/ND; c> A/TD