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Fig. 10 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 10

From: A systemic immune challenge to model hospital-acquired infections independently regulates immune responses after pediatric traumatic brain injury

Fig. 10

Cytokine gene expression in the brain at 24 h post-LPS (i.e., 5 days post-TBI). Target gene expression was quantified by real-time qPCR, normalized to a stable reference gene (Ywhaz) then expressed relative to the control group average (sham saline). Il-1β expression (a, b) trending towards a non-significant effect of LPS treatment on the contralateral side only. Ccl2 expression (c, d) was increased in both hemispheres due to LPS. Tgf-β expression was unaffected by either TBI or LPS (e, f). Two-way ANOVA, main effect of LPS; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05. n = 5/group; any missing data points were detected as “undetermined”

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