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Fig. 8 | Journal of Neuroinflammation

Fig. 8

From: A systemic immune challenge to model hospital-acquired infections independently regulates immune responses after pediatric traumatic brain injury

Fig. 8

Quantification of immune cell populations in the brain at 24 h post-LPS (i.e., 5 days post-surgery) and 4 days post-LPS (i.e., 8 days post-surgery). All cell types are shown as representative percentage of live cells (ah). CD45+ cells were not different at any time-point (a). Macrophages were significantly increased by LPS at both 24 h and 4 days time-points (b). In addition, a significant increase was observed due to injury at 4 days in macrophages (b). Monocytes showed an increment at 4 days post-LPS (c). Neutrophils (d) were significantly affected by TBI at 4 days time point; however, non-significant trend were observed toward an effect of LPS at 24 h. Microglia cells were increased due to LPS at 4 days post-LPS (e). B cells (f) were unchanged across the time course. T cytotoxic (g) cells showed a significant increase at 4 days due to LPS treatment whereas, T helper cells (h) showed an increase due to TBI at 4 days. Two-way ANOVA, main effect of LPS; *p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001, ****p ≤ 0.0001; n = 5–8/group

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