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  1. Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (Tsc1) is known to regulate the development and function of various cell types, and RORγt is a critical transcription factor in the immune system. However, whether Tsc1 participates i...

    Authors: Yafei Deng, Qinglan Yang, Yao Yang, Yana Li, Hongyan Peng, Shuting Wu, Shuju Zhang, Baige Yao, Shuhui Li, Yuan Gao, Xiaohui Li, Liping Li and Youcai Deng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:107

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2)-induced oxidative stress, including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydrogen peroxide, plays a pivotal role in neuropathic pain....

    Authors: Jing Xu, Shinan Wu, Junfei Wang, Jianmei Wang, Yi Yan, Mengye Zhu, Daying Zhang, Changyu Jiang and Tao Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:106

    Content type: Research

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  3. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a frequently disabling neuroinflammatory syndrome with a relapsing course. Blood-based disease severity and prognostic biomarkers for NMOSD are a yet unmet cli...

    Authors: Patrick Schindler, Ulrike Grittner, Johanna Oechtering, David Leppert, Nadja Siebert, Ankelien S. Duchow, Frederike C. Oertel, Susanna Asseyer, Joseph Kuchling, Hanna G. Zimmermann, Alexander U. Brandt, Pascal Benkert, Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius, Friedemann Paul, Judith Bellmann-Strobl…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:105

    Content type: Research

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  4. Cell transplantation-based treatments for neurological disease are promising, yet graft rejection remains a major barrier to successful regenerative therapies. Our group and others have shown that long-lasting...

    Authors: Rui Wang, Chengyan Chu, Zhiliang Wei, Lin Chen, Jiadi Xu, Yajie Liang, Miroslaw Janowski, Robert D. Stevens and Piotr Walczak

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:104

    Content type: Research

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  5. Our understanding of the relationship between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains limited, which poses an obstacle to the identification of blood-based markers of neuroinflammatory disorders. To bette...

    Authors: Sarinnapha M. Vasunilashorn, Long H. Ngo, Simon T. Dillon, Tamara G. Fong, Becky C. Carlyle, Pia Kivisäkk, Bianca A. Trombetta, Kamen V. Vlassakov, Lisa J. Kunze, Steven E. Arnold, Zhongcong Xie, Sharon K. Inouye, Towia A. Libermann and Edward R. Marcantonio

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:103

    Content type: Research

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  6. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, and one of the main hypotheses regarding its cause is genetic factors. A previous meta-analysis of seven microarray studies and...

    Authors: Fumie Horiuchi, Yuta Yoshino, Hiroshi Kumon, Rie Hosokawa, Kiwamu Nakachi, Kentaro Kawabe, Jun-ichi Iga and Shu-ichi Ueno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:102

    Content type: Research

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  7. Interleukin 23 is a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. But the local impact of interleukin 23 on the course of neuroinflammation is still not well defined. To further characterize the...

    Authors: Louisa Nitsch, Simon Petzinna, Julian Zimmermann, Linda Schneider, Marius Krauthausen, Michael T. Heneka, Daniel R. Getts, Albert Becker and Marcus Müller

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:101

    Content type: Research

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  8. Microglia are resident innate immune cells in the brain, and activation of these myeloid cells results in secretion of a variety of pro-inflammatory molecules, leading to the development of neurodegenerative d...

    Authors: Jingdong Zhang, Michael Boska, Ya Zheng, Jianuo Liu, Howard S. Fox and Huangui Xiong

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:100

    Content type: Research

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  9. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) negatively regulates the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Our previous studies showed that in encephalitogenic T cells, α7...

    Authors: Tehila Mizrachi, Oshrit Marsha, Karen Brusin, Yael Ben-David, Ganesh A. Thakur, Adi Vaknin-Dembinsky, Millet Treinin and Talma Brenner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:99

    Content type: Research

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  10. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disease caused by autoimmune destruction of the myelin sheath. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a widely used animal model for the patho...

    Authors: Junjie Zhao, Yun Liao, William Miller-Little, Jianxing Xiao, Caini Liu, Xiaoxia Li, Xiao Li and Zizhen Kang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:98

    Content type: Research

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  11. Our previous study indicated that hypoxic preconditioning reduced receptor interacting protein (RIP) 3-mediated necroptotic neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 of adult rats after transient global cerebral ische...

    Authors: Lixuan Zhan, Xiaomei Lu, Wensheng Xu, Weiwen Sun and En Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:97

    Content type: Research

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  12. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating complication after varicella-zoster virus infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of PHN. A truncated...

    Authors: Xiang Wei, Lina Wang, Jie Hua, Xiao-hong Jin, Fuhai Ji, Ke Peng, Bin Zhou, Jianping Yang and Xiao-wen Meng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:96

    Content type: Research

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  13. Chronic brain inflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and disorders. For example, overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been associated with impair...

    Authors: Luis A. Rojas-Colón, Pramod K. Dash, Fabiola A. Morales-Vías, Madeline Lebrón-Dávila, Pedro A. Ferchmin, John B. Redell, Geronimo Maldonado-Martínez and Wanda I. Vélez-Torres

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:95

    Content type: Research

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  14. Neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease, given evidence of activated microglia and elevated levels of inflammatory molecules in disease gene carriers, even those many years...

    Authors: Grace C. O’Regan, Sahar H. Farag, Caroline S. Casey, Alison Wood-Kaczmar, Jennifer M. Pocock, Sarah J. Tabrizi and Ralph Andre

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:94

    Content type: Research

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  15. Postoperative pain is a common phenomenon after surgery and is closely associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Persistent pain and systemic inflammation caused by surgery...

    Authors: Inja Cho, Jeong Min Kim, Eun Jung Kim, So Yeon Kim, Eun Hee Kam, Eunji Cheong, Minah Suh and Bon-Nyeo Koo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:93

    Content type: Research

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  16. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in pain processing and hypersensitivity. It regulates not only the expression of a variety of inflammatory mediators but also the functio...

    Authors: Shuang Wei, Chun-Yu Qiu, Ying Jin, Ting-Ting Liu and Wang-Ping Hu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:92

    Content type: Research

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  17. We previously reported a correlation between small doses of oxaliplatin penetrating onto the spinal cord and acute pain after chemotherapy. Here, we propose that MT2 within the spinal dorsal horns participates...

    Authors: Xuelin Huang, Jie Deng, Ting Xu, Wenjun Xin, Yuehong Zhang and Xiangcai Ruan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

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  18. A high-salt diet (HSD) is one of the major risk factors for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). As a potential mechanism, surplus salt intake primes macrophages towards a proinflammatory phenotype. In this study, whe...

    Authors: Mengyan Hu, Yinyao Lin, Xuejiao Men, Shisi Wang, Xiaobo Sun, Qiang Zhu, Danli Lu, Sanxin Liu, Bingjun Zhang, Wei Cai and Zhengqi Lu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:90

    Content type: Research

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  19. Immune-mediated neuropathies, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are treatable neuropathies. Among individuals with diabetic neuropathy, it remains a challenge to identify those i...

    Authors: Michael Fleischer, Inn Lee, Friedrich Erdlenbruch, Lena Hinrichs, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Rayaz A. Malik, Hans-Peter Hartung, Bernd C. Kieseier, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Mark Stettner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:89

    Content type: Research

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  20. It is suggested that neuroinflammation, in which activated microglial cells play a relevant role, contributes to the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Consequently, the modulation of microglial activati...

    Authors: Neus Rabaneda-Lombarte, Joan Serratosa, Jordi Bové, Miquel Vila, Josep Saura and Carme Solà

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:88

    Content type: Research

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  21. Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, one of the major subtypes of vascular dementia, is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter lesions caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In this study, we...

    Authors: Kaoru Suzuki, Mitsuru Shinohara, Yoshihiro Uno, Yoshitaka Tashiro, Ghupurjan Gheni, Miho Yamamoto, Akio Fukumori, Akihiko Shindo, Tomoji Mashimo, Hidekazu Tomimoto and Naoyuki Sato

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:86

    Content type: Research

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  22. Prenatal synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) exposure increases the susceptibility to cognitive and affective disorders in postnatal life. We previously demonstrated that prenatal sGC exposure results in an increas...

    Authors: You Zheng, Yan-Min Zhang, Zheng-Shan Tang, Jian-Kui Du, De-Wei Guo, Yong-Jun Xu, Hui Sheng, Jian-Qiang Lu and Xin Ni

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:85

    Content type: Research

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  23. The biomechanical properties of the brain have increasingly been shown to relate to brain pathology in neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Inflammation and demyelination in MS induce sign...

    Authors: Thecla A. van Wageningen, Nelda Antonovaite, Erik Paardekam, John J. P. Brevé, Davide Iannuzzi and Anne-Marie van Dam

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

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  24. Inflammation constitutes both positive and negative aspects to recovery following peripheral nerve injury. Following damage to the peripheral nervous system (PNS), immune cells such as macrophages play a benef...

    Authors: Erin-Mai F. Lim, Vahid Hoghooghi, Kathleen M. Hagen, Kunal Kapoor, Ariana Frederick, Trisha M. Finlay and Shalina S. Ousman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:82

    Content type: Research

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  25. Ischemia can induce rapid activation of microglia in the brain. As key immunocompetent cells, reactive microglia play an important role in pathological development of ischemic stroke. However, the role of acti...

    Authors: Ting Li, Jin Zhao, Wenguang Xie, Wanru Yuan, Jing Guo, Shengru Pang, Wen-Biao Gan, Diego Gómez-Nicola and Shengxiang Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:81

    Content type: Research

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  26. Increasing evidence suggests a causal link between periodontitis and cognitive disorders. Systemic inflammation initiated by periodontitis may mediate the development of cognitive impairment. Our study aims to...

    Authors: Yi Hu, Xu Zhang, Jing Zhang, Xinyi Xia, Huxiao Li, Che Qiu, Yue Liao, Huiwen Chen, Zhiyan He, Zhongchen Song and Wei Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:80

    Content type: Research

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  27. Pain is reported as the leading cause of disability in the common forms of inflammatory arthritis conditions. Acting as a key player in nociceptive processing, neuroinflammation, and neuron-glia communication,...

    Authors: Marc-André Dansereau, Élora Midavaine, Valérie Bégin-Lavallée, Mounir Belkouch, Nicolas Beaudet, Jean-Michel Longpré, Stéphane Mélik-Parsadaniantz and Philippe Sarret

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:79

    Content type: Research

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  28. While the etiology remains elusive, macrophages and T cells in peripheral nerves are considered as effector cells mediating autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (APN), such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. By recognizi...

    Authors: Oladayo Oladiran, Xiang Qun Shi, Mu Yang, Sylvie Fournier and Ji Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:77

    Content type: Research

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  29. The translocator protein (TSPO) has been identified as a positron emission tomography (PET)-visible biomarker of inflammation and promising immunotherapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD...

    Authors: Lauren H. Fairley, Naruhiko Sahara, Ichio Aoki, Bin Ji, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi and Anna M. Barron

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:76

    Content type: Research

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  30. Aging and age-related diseases are strong risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation (NIF), as the brain’s immune response, plays an important role in aged associated deg...

    Authors: Andrés Fernández, Elena Quintana, Patricia Velasco, Belén Moreno-Jimenez, Belén de Andrés, Maria Luisa Gaspar, Isabel Liste, Marçal Vilar, Helena Mira and Eva Cano

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

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  31. There are inherent structural and functional differences in the central nervous systems (CNS) of females and males. It has been gradually established that these sex-specific differences are due to a spectrum o...

    Authors: Jinming Han, Yueshan Fan, Kai Zhou, Klas Blomgren and Robert A. Harris

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:74

    Content type: Review

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  32. Astrocytes provide a vital support to neurons in normal and pathological conditions. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains, reactive astrocytes have been found surrounding amyloid plaques, forming an astrocytic s...

    Authors: Nicola Davis, Bibiana C. Mota, Larissa Stead, Emily O. C. Palmer, Laura Lombardero, Rafael Rodríguez-Puertas, Vincenzo de Paola, Samuel J. Barnes and Magdalena Sastre

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:73

    Content type: Research

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  33. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of disability in young children, yet the factors contributing to poor outcomes in this population are not well understood. TBI patients are highly susceptible to n...

    Authors: Rishabh Sharma, Akram Zamani, Larissa K. Dill, Mujun Sun, Erskine Chu, Marcus J. Robinson, Terence J. O’Brien, Sandy R. Shultz and Bridgette D. Semple

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:72

    Content type: Research

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  34. Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease. Previous studies have found that young females are protected against ischemia compared to males, partially due to the protective effect of ovarian hormones, particularly...

    Authors: Shaohua Qi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Conelius Ngwa, Sharmeen Romana, Rodney Ritzel, Arthur P. Arnold, Louise D. McCullough and Fudong Liu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:70

    Content type: Research

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  35. Infants born preterm due to chorioamnionitis are frequently affected by a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) and then by subsequent postnatal infections. FIRS and postnatal systemic inflammatory event...

    Authors: Garima Singh, Bradley J. Segura, Michael K. Georgieff and Tate Gisslen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:69

    Content type: Research

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  36. Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in central nervous system diseases. Exosomal miRNAs released from various cells are implicated in cell-to-cell communication. Prior studies have placed substantial empha...

    Authors: Liuqing Hu, Linjie Si, Xiaonan Dai, Hongquan Dong, Zijian Ma, Zhaochu Sun, Nana Li, Huanhuan Sha, Yinan Chen, Yanning Qian and Zhiyuan Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

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  37. Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by dominant mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament that is primarily express...

    Authors: Michelle M. Boyd, Suzanne J. Litscher, Laura L. Seitz, Albee Messing, Tracy L. Hagemann and Lara S. Collier

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research

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  38. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory gastrointestinal disease in premature neonates with high mortality and morbidity, while the underlining mechanism of intestinal injury and profound neurologic...

    Authors: Fangxinxing Zhu, Lingyu Wang, Zizhen Gong, Yanyan Wang, Yanhong Gao, Wei Cai and Jin Wu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:66

    Content type: Research

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  39. As a classic innate immunity pathway, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has been intensively investigated for its function of pathogen recognition. The receptor is located not only on immune cells but also...

    Authors: Wenliang Su, Huan Cui, Danning Wu, Jiawen Yu, Lulu Ma, Xiuhua Zhang, Yuguang Huang and Chao Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research

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  40. Immune cell infiltration and neuroinflammation are heavily associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCL2/CCR2) axis has been identified as a critica...

    Authors: Ping Xu, Feng Zhang, Min-min Chang, Cheng Zhong, Cheng-Hong Sun, Hao-Ran Zhu, Jing-Chun Yao, Zhi-Zhong Li, Si-Tao Li, Wen-Cai Zhang and Guo-Dong Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

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  41. Synthetic cathinones are a category of psychostimulants belonging to the growing number of designer drugs also known as “Novel Psychoactive Substances” (NPS). In recent years, NPS have gained popularity in the...

    Authors: Tetyana P. Buzhdygan, Cassidy R. Rodrigues, Hannah M. McGary, Jana A. Khan, Allison M. Andrews, Scott M. Rawls and Servio H. Ramirez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  42. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating subtype of stroke, is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Neuroinflammation is an important factor leading to ICH-induced neurological injuries. C-C Chem...

    Authors: Shuixiang Deng, Peng Jin, Prativa Sherchan, Shengpeng Liu, Yuhui Cui, Lei Huang, John H. Zhang, Ye Gong and Jiping Tang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  43. Cerebral arterio venous malformations (AVM) are a major causal factor for intracranial hemorrhage, which result in permanent disability or death. The molecular mechanisms of AVM are complex, and their pathogen...

    Authors: Jaya Mary Thomas, Dhakshmi Sasankan, Sumi Surendran, Mathew Abraham, Arumugam Rajavelu and Chandrasekharan C. Kartha

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:61

    Content type: Short report

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  44. The term sepsis is used to designate a systemic condition of infection and inflammation associated with hemodynamic changes that result in organic dysfunction. Gestational sepsis can impair the development of ...

    Authors: Marcelo Gomes Granja, Letícia Pires Alves, Marina Leardini-Tristão, Michelle Edelman Saul, Letícia Coelho Bortoni, Flávia Maciel de Moraes, Erica Camila Ferreira, Bianca Portugal Tavares de Moraes, Victória Zerboni da Silva, Adrielle Ferreira Ribeiro dos Santos, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Victorio Bambini-Junior, Andrew S. Weyrich, Matthew T. Rondina, Guy A. Zimmerman…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

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  45. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Marion Clé, Orianne Constant, Jonathan Barthelemy, Caroline Desmetz, Marie France Martin, Lina Lapeyre, Daniel Cadar, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Federica Monaco, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Gaëlle Gonzales, Sylvie Lecollinet, Cécile Beck, Fabien Gosselet…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:59

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:11

  46. An innate immune memory response can manifest in two ways: immune training and immune tolerance, which refers to an enhanced or suppressed immune response to a second challenge, respectively. Exposing monocyte...

    Authors: Yang Heng, Xiaoming Zhang, Malte Borggrewe, Hilmar R. J. van Weering, Maaike L. Brummer, Tjalling W. Nijboer, Leo A. B. Joosten, Mihai G. Netea, Erik W. G. M. Boddeke, Jon D. Laman and Bart J. L. Eggen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:57

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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