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  1. Content type: Research

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor activated by environmental agonists and dietary tryptophan metabolites for the immune response and cell cycle regulation. Emerging...

    Authors: Wan-Ci Chen, Li-Hsin Chang, Shiang-Suo Huang, Yu-Jie Huang, Chun-Lien Chih, Hung-Chih Kuo, Yi-Hsuan Lee and I-Hui Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:187

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  2. Content type: Research

    Blood markers indicative of neurodegeneration (neurofilament light chain; NFL), Alzheimer’s disease amyloid pathology (amyloid-β; Aβ), and neuroinflammation (kynurenine pathway; KP metabolites) have been inves...

    Authors: Pratishtha Chatterjee, Henrik Zetterberg, Kathryn Goozee, Chai K. Lim, Kelly R. Jacobs, Nicholas J. Ashton, Abdul Hye, Steve Pedrini, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Tejal Shah, Prita R. Asih, Preeti Dave, Kaikai Shen, Kevin Taddei, David B. Lovejoy, Gilles J. Guillemin…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:186

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  3. Content type: Research

    Oxidative stress and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypic modulation influence intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation and progression. Oxidative stress plays an important role in phenotype switching, an...

    Authors: Yuan Shi, Sichen Li, Yaying Song, Peixi Liu, Zixiao Yang, Yingjun Liu, Kai Quan, Guo Yu, Zhiyuan Fan and Wei Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:185

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  4. Content type: Research

    Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previ...

    Authors: Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein and Meredith Gregory-Ksander

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:184

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  5. Content type: Research

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known for activating the innate immune system; however, it is also highly expressed in adaptive immune cells, such as CD4+ T-helper 17 (Th17) cells, which play a key role in mu...

    Authors: Xuebin Qu, Jingjing Han, Ying Zhang, Xingqi Wang, Hongbin Fan, Fang Hua and Ruiqin Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:183

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  6. Content type: Research

    Since HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) occur in up to half of HIV-positive individuals, even with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), adjunctive therapies are needed. Chronic CNS inflammatio...

    Authors: Christina Gavegnano, Woldeab B. Haile, Selwyn Hurwitz, Sijia Tao, Yong Jiang, Raymond F. Schinazi and William R. Tyor

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:182

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  7. Content type: Research

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) initiates endogenous protective pathways in the brain from a distance and represents a new, promising paradigm in neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I...

    Authors: Weidong Liang, Chunshui Lin, Liuqing Yuan, Li Chen, Peipei Guo, Ping Li, Wei Wang and Xin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:181

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  8. Content type: Review

    The endotoxin hypothesis of neurodegeneration is the hypothesis that endotoxin causes or contributes to neurodegeneration. Endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS), constituting much of the outer membrane of gr...

    Authors: Guy C. Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:180

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  9. Content type: Research

    We previously reported that Vδ2+Vγ9+ γδ T cells were significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients without disease-modifying therapies (untreated MS) and were negatively correlated with Expanded Dis...

    Authors: Guzailiayi Maimaitijiang, Mitsuru Watanabe, Koji Shinoda, Noriko Isobe, Yuri Nakamura, Katsuhisa Masaki, Takuya Matsushita, Yasunobu Yoshikai and Jun-ichi Kira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:179

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  10. Content type: Review

    Ischemic stroke is the third cause of death in the developed countries and the main reason of severe disability. Brain ischemia leads to the production of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by neuron...

    Authors: Sylwia Dabrowska, Anna Andrzejewska, Barbara Lukomska and Miroslaw Janowski

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:178

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  11. Content type: Research

    Until the end of the twentieth century, Zika virus (ZIKV) was thought to cause a mostly mild, self-limiting disease in humans. However, as the geographic distribution of ZIKV has shifted, so too has its pathog...

    Authors: Emina Hayashida, Zheng Lung Ling, Thomas M. Ashhurst, Barney Viengkhou, So Ri Jung, Pattama Songkhunawej, Phillip K. West, Nicholas J. C. King and Markus J. Hofer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:177

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  12. Content type: Correction

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors opted to correct the following mistakes. According to the title and our results, the conclusions in the abstract and at the end of the discussion ...

    Authors: Tobias J. Krämer, Nathalia Hack, Till J. Brühl, Lutz Menzel, Regina Hummel, Eva-Verena Griemert, Matthias Klein, Serge C. Thal, Tobias Bopp and Michael K. E. Schäfer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:176

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:163

  13. Content type: Research

    Regulation of neural inflammation is considered as a vital therapeutic target in ischemic stroke. All-trans retinoic acid (atRA), a potent immune modulator, has raised interest in the field of stroke therapy. ...

    Authors: Wei Cai, Julie Wang, Mengyan Hu, Xiao Chen, Zhengqi Lu, Joseph A. Bellanti and Song Guo Zheng

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:175

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  14. Content type: Research

    Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. ER stress results in the accumulation of unfolded proteins ...

    Authors: Desislava Doycheva, Ningbo Xu, Jiping Tang and John Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:174

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  15. Content type: Research

    Disturbances in clock genes affect almost all patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as evidenced by their altered sleep/wake cycle, thermoregulation, and exacerbation of cognitive impairment. As microglia-me...

    Authors: Junjun Ni, Zhou Wu, Jie Meng, Takashi Saito, Takaomi C. Saido, Hong Qing and Hiroshi Nakanishi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:173

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  16. Content type: Research

    Systemic inflammation has been implicated in the progression of many neurodegenerative diseases and may be an important driver of the disease. Dementia and cognitive decline progress more rapidly following acu...

    Authors: Sarah K. Baker, Zu-Lin Chen, Erin H. Norris and Sidney Strickland

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:172

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  17. Content type: Research

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial chronic disease of the eye. Several candidate pathways have been hypothesized to play a role in AMD pathogenesis. Our work and those of others suggest...

    Authors: Jiangyuan Gao, Jing Z. Cui, Aikun Wang, Hao Hang Rachel Chen, Alison Fong and Joanne A. Matsubara

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:171

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  18. Content type: Research

    Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPA1) is in the spotlight because its synthetic antagonist has been under clinical trials for lung fibrosis and psoriasis. Targeting LPA1 might also be a therapeutic strategy for...

    Authors: Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Arjun Sapkota, Mi-Ryoung Song and Ji Woong Choi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:170

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  19. Content type: Research

    Environmental factors are critical in the development of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. A western diet (WD) can cause nutrient deficiency and inflammation that could impact cognition directly. It ...

    Authors: Hongtian Yang, Leah C. Graham, Alaina M. Reagan, Weronika A. Grabowska, William H. Schott and Gareth R. Howell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:169

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  20. Content type: Research

    Functions of astrocytes in the rehabilitation after ischemic stroke, especially their impacts on inflammatory processes, remain controversial. This study uncovered two phenotypes of astrocytes, of which one wa...

    Authors: Nan Zhao, Xiaomeng Xu, Yongjun Jiang, Jie Gao, Fang Wang, Xiaohui Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Yi Xie, Juanji Li, Rongrong Li, Qiushi Lv, Qian Liu, Qiliang Dai, Xinfeng Liu and Gelin Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:168

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  21. Content type: Research

    Although effective in reducing relapse rate and delaying progression, current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) do not completely halt disease progression. T cell autoimmunity to myelin antigens is conside...

    Authors: Judith Derdelinckx, María José Mansilla, Maxime De Laere, Wai-Ping Lee, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Inez Wens, Irene Nkansah, Jasmijn Daans, Hans De Reu, Aneta Jolanta Keliris, Johan Van Audekerke, Verdi Vanreusel, Zoë Pieters, Annemie Van der Linden, Marleen Verhoye, Geert Molenberghs…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:167

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  22. Content type: Research

    Currently, there are no effective therapeutic options for Alzheimer’s disease, the most common, multifactorial form of dementia, characterized by anomalous amyloid accumulation in the brain. Growing evidence p...

    Authors: Giulia Di Benedetto, Chiara Burgaletto, Anna R. Carta, Salvatore Saccone, Laurence Lempereur, Giovanna Mulas, Carla Loreto, Renato Bernardini and Giuseppina Cantarella

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:166

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  23. Content type: Research

    The association of gut microbiota and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis (MS), has attracted much attention. Although a previous analysis of MS gut microbiota revealed a...

    Authors: Tong Chen, Daisuke Noto, Yasunobu Hoshino, Miho Mizuno and Sachiko Miyake

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:165

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  24. Content type: Research

    Astrocytes respond to central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease by transforming to a reactive astrogliosis cell state that can contribute to either CNS dysfunction or repair. Neuroinflammation is a power...

    Authors: Qiong Zhou, Coralie Viollet, Anastasia Efthymiou, Guzal Khayrullina, Kasey E. Moritz, Matthew D. Wilkerson, Gauthaman Sukumar, Clifton L. Dalgard and Martin L. Doughty

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:164

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  25. Content type: Research

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. T cells were shown to infiltrate the brain during the first days after injury and to exacerbate tissue damage. The objective of this study...

    Authors: Tobias J. Krämer, Nathalia Hack, Till J. Brühl, Lutz Menzel, Regina Hummel, Eva-Verena Griemert, Matthias Klein, Serge C. Thal, Tobias Bopp and Michael K. E. Schäfer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:163

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:176

  26. Content type: Research

    The spectrum of classical and non-classical HLA genes related to the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) in the Japanese population has not been studied in detail...

    Authors: Kotaro Ogawa, Tatsusada Okuno, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Akiko Hosokawa, Jun Hirata, Ken Suzuki, Saori Sakaue, Makoto Kinoshita, Yoshihiro Asano, Katsuichi Miyamoto, Ituro Inoue, Susumu Kusunoki, Yukinori Okada and Hideki Mochizuki

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:162

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  27. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is firmly established that overactivation of the p65 (RelA) nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription f...

    Authors: Angela S. Gupta, Debolina D. Biswas, La Shardai N. Brown, Karli Mockenhaupt, Michael Marone, Andrew Hoskins, Ulrich Siebenlist and Tomasz Kordula

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:161

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  28. Content type: Research

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic trauma accompanied by intralesional bleeding and neuroinflammation. Recently, there is increasing interest in tranexamic acid (TXA), an anti-fibrinolytic drug, which ...

    Authors: Shingo Yoshizaki, Ken Kijima, Masamitsu Hara, Takeyuki Saito, Tetsuya Tamaru, Masatake Tanaka, Dai-jiro Konno, Yasuharu Nakashima and Seiji Okada

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:160

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  29. Content type: Research

    It has become increasingly evident that the immune and nervous systems are closely intertwined, relying on one another during regular homeostatic conditions. Prolonged states of imbalance between neural and im...

    Authors: Timothy French, Henning Peter Düsedau, Johannes Steffen, Aindrila Biswas, Norus Ahmed, Susanne Hartmann, Thomas Schüler, Björn H. Schott and Ildiko Rita Dunay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:159

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  30. Content type: Research

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease characterized by both inflammatory demyelination and impaired remyelination. Studies indicate that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signa...

    Authors: Nicholas J. Wasko, Meghan Horne Kulak, Debayon Paul, Alexandra M. Nicaise, Stephen T. Yeung, Frank C. Nichols, Kamal M. Khanna, Stephen Crocker, Joel S. Pachter and Robert B. Clark

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:158

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  31. Content type: Research

    To decipher the role of monocyte-derived macrophages (Mφs) in vascular remodeling of the occluded vein following experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).

    Authors: Christophe Roubeix, Elisa Dominguez, William Raoul, Xavier Guillonneau, Michel Paques, José-Alain Sahel and Florian Sennlaub

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:157

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  32. Content type: Research

    Pneumococcal meningitis is associated with high risk of neurological sequelae such as cognitive impairment and hearing loss. These sequelae are due to parenchymal brain and inner ear damage primarily induced b...

    Authors: Lukas Muri, Ngoc Dung Le, Jonas Zemp, Denis Grandgirard and Stephen L. Leib

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:156

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  33. Content type: Research

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound combined with the infusion of microbubbles (pFUS+MB) induces transient blood-brain barrier opening (BBBO) in targeted regions. pFUS+MB, through...

    Authors: Sanhita Sinharay, Tsang-Wei Tu, Zsofia I. Kovacs, William Schreiber-Stainthorp, Maggie Sundby, Xiang Zhang, Georgios Z. Papadakis, William C. Reid, Joseph A. Frank and Dima A. Hammoud

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:155

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  34. Content type: Research

    Serum antibodies against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) are detectable in a proportion of patients with acute or relapsing neuroinflammation. It is unclear, if neuro-axonal damage occurs only in...

    Authors: Frederike C. Oertel, Olivier Outteryck, Benjamin Knier, Hanna Zimmermann, Nadja Borisow, Judith Bellmann-Strobl, Astrid Blaschek, Sven Jarius, Markus Reindl, Klemens Ruprecht, Edgar Meinl, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Friedemann Paul, Alexander U. Brandt, Tania Kümpfel and Joachim Havla

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:154

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  35. Content type: Research

    In the healthy central nervous system (CNS), microglia are found in a homeostatic state and peripheral macrophages are absent from the brain. Microglia play key roles in maintaining CNS homeostasis and acting ...

    Authors: Ana Beatriz DePaula-Silva, Carlos Gorbea, Daniel J. Doty, Jane E. Libbey, John Michael S. Sanchez, Tyler J. Hanak, Demián Cazalla and Robert S. Fujinami

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:152

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  36. Content type: Research

    Microglia are essential to the development of the CNS and its homeostasis. Our prior findings suggested a niche model to describe the behaviors of retinal microglia. Here, we ask whether new myeloid cells recr...

    Authors: Scott W. McPherson, Neal D. Heuss, Ute Lehmann, Heidi Roehrich, Md. Abedin and Dale S. Gregerson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:151

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  37. Content type: Research

    Determining the etiology and possible treatment strategies for numerous diseases requires a comprehensive understanding of compensatory mechanisms in physiological systems. The vagus nerve acts as a key interf...

    Authors: Anna Kobrzycka, Paweł Napora, Brandon L. Pearson, Krystyna Pierzchała-Koziec, Rafał Szewczyk and Marek Wieczorek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:150

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  38. Content type: Research

    Unrestrained activation of Th1 and Th17 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). While inactivation of dynamin-rela...

    Authors: Yan-Hua Li, Fang Xu, Rodolfo Thome, Min-Fang Guo, Man-Luan Sun, Guo-Bin Song, Rui-lan Li, Zhi Chai, Bogoljub Ciric, A. M. Rostami, Mark Curtis, Cun-Gen Ma and Guang-Xian Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:149

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  39. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation is the response of the central nervous system to events that interfere with tissue homeostasis and represents a common denominator in virtually all neurological diseases. Activation of microg...

    Authors: Morena Zusso, Valentina Lunardi, Davide Franceschini, Andrea Pagetta, Rita Lo, Stefano Stifani, Anna Chiara Frigo, Pietro Giusti and Stefano Moro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:148

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  40. Content type: Research

    Neurotoxocarosis (NT) is induced by larvae of the dog or cat roundworm (Toxocara canis or T. cati) migrating and persisting in the central nervous system of paratenic hosts, including humans, and may be accompani...

    Authors: Patrick Waindok and Christina Strube

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:147

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  41. Content type: Research

    The small population of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) contributes to tumor initiation, malignancy, and recurrence in glioblastoma. However, the maintenance of GSC properties in the tumor microenvironment remai...

    Authors: Shao-Ming Wang, Hong-Yi Lin, Yen-Lin Chen, Tsung-I Hsu, Jian-Ying Chuang, Tzu-Jen Kao and Chiung-Yuan Ko

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:146

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  42. Content type: Short report

    Increased plasma YKL-40 has been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but its levels in other neurodegenerative diseases are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate plasma YKL-40 in the spectrum of neurodegene...

    Authors: Anna Villar-Piqué, Matthias Schmitz, Peter Hermann, Stefan Goebel, Timothy Bunck, Daniela Varges, Isidre Ferrer, Joachim Riggert, Franc Llorens and Inga Zerr

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:145

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  43. Content type: Research

    Cardiovascular exercise (CVE) has been shown to be protective against cognitive decline in aging and the risk for dementias, including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). CVE has also been shown to have several benefici...

    Authors: Lisa S. Robison, Dominique L. Popescu, Maria E. Anderson, Nikita Francis, Joshua Hatfield, Joseph K. Sullivan, Steven I. Beigelman, Feng Xu, Brenda J. Anderson, William E. Van Nostrand and John K. Robinson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:144

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  44. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neuropathology strongly associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Accordingly, inflammation resulting from obesity exacerbates learning and memory deficits in human...

    Authors: Elisa Medrano-Jiménez, Itzia Jiménez-Ferrer Carrillo, Martha Pedraza-Escalona, Cristina E. Ramírez-Serrano, Lourdes Álvarez-Arellano, Javier Cortés-Mendoza, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Alejandro Zamilpa, Jaime Tortoriello, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva and Leonor Pérez-Martínez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:143

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  45. Content type: Review

    Stroke, the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is undergoing a change in perspective with the emergence of new ideas on neurodegeneration. The concept that stroke is a disorder solely of bl...

    Authors: Richard L. Jayaraj, Sheikh Azimullah, Rami Beiram, Fakhreya Y. Jalal and Gary A. Rosenberg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:142

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  46. Content type: Research

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition with few effective treatment options. The blood-spinal cord barrier consists of pericytes, astrocytes, and endothelial cells, which are collectively termed the neurovasc...

    Authors: Jonathon Chon Teng Chio, Jian Wang, Anna Badner, James Hong, Vithushan Surendran and Michael G. Fehlings

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:141

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  47. Content type: Review

    Chronic pain is a critical clinical problem with an increasing prevalence. However, there are limited effective prevention measures and treatments for chronic pain. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cells...

    Authors: Ting Li, Xuhui Chen, Chuanhan Zhang, Yue Zhang and Wenlong Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:140

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  48. Content type: Research

    Sympathetic overactivation and inflammation are two major mediators to post-myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmia (VA). The vicious cycle between microglia and sympathetic activa...

    Authors: Songyun Wang, Lin Wu, Xuemeng Li, Binxun Li, Yi Zhai, Dongdong Zhao and Hong Jiang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:139

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  49. Content type: Research

    Leukostasis is a key patho-physiological event responsible for capillary occlusion in diabetic retinopathy. Circulating monocytes are the main cell type entrapped in retinal vessels in diabetes. In this study,...

    Authors: Mei Chen, Gideon Obasanmi, David Armstrong, Nuala-Jane Lavery, Adrien Kissenpfennig, Noemi Lois and Heping Xu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:138

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