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  1. Microglia are associated with neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD) and serve as a primary component of the innate immune response in the brain. Neuritic plaques are fibrous deposits composed of the amylo...

    Authors: Carol A Colton, Ryan T Mott, Hayley Sharpe, Qing Xu, William E Van Nostrand and Michael P Vitek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:27

    Content type: Research

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  2. There is increased interest in the contribution of the innate immune system to multiple sclerosis (MS), including the activity of acute inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to test the involve...

    Authors: Timothy J Cunningham, Lihua Yao, Michelle Oetinger, Laura Cort, Elizabeth P Blankenhorn and Jeffrey I Greenstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:26

    Content type: Research

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  3. The nonapeptide CHEC-9 (CHEASAAQC), a putative inhibitor of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), has been shown previously to inhibit neuron death and aspects of the inflammatory response following systemic trea...

    Authors: Timothy J Cunningham, Jaquie Maciejewski and Lihua Yao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:25

    Content type: Research

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  4. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of neuritic plaques, containing activated microglia and β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). Fibrillar Aβ can activate microglia, resulting in production of toxic a...

    Authors: Aiste Jekabsone, Palwinder K Mander, Anna Tickler, Martyn Sharpe and Guy C Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:24

    Content type: Research

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  5. A correlation between plasma CD31+ endothelial microparticles (CD31+EMP) levels and clinical, as well as brain MRI activity, in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients has been previously reported. However, the effec...

    Authors: William A Sheremata, Wenche Jy, Sylvia Delgado, Alireza Minagar, Jerry McLarty and Yeon Ahn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:23

    Content type: Research

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  6. In meningitis, the cerebrospinal fluid contains high levels of innate immune molecules (e.g. complement) which are essential to ward off the infectious challenge and to promote the infiltration of phagocytes (...

    Authors: Cecile Canova, Jim W Neal and Philippe Gasque

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:22

    Content type: Research

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  7. Innate immune activation, including a role for cluster of differentiation 14/toll-like receptor 4 co-receptors (CD14/TLR-4) co-receptors, has been implicated in paracrine damage to neurons in several neurodege...

    Authors: Izumi Maezawa, Snjezana Zaja-Milatovic, Dejan Milatovic, Christina Stephen, Izabela Sokal, Nobuyo Maeda, Thomas J Montine and Kathleen S Montine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:21

    Content type: Research

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  8. Treatment of susceptible rats with dopaminergic agonists that reduce prolactin release decreases both severity and duration of clinical signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). To assess to what...

    Authors: Ana I Esquifino, Pilar Cano, Agustín Zapata and Daniel P Cardinali

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:20

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is divided into two subgroups on the basis of their different biological activities. GDVII subgroup strains produce fatal poliomyelitis in mice without virus per...

    Authors: Masumi Takano-Maruyama, Yoshiro Ohara, Kunihiko Asakura and Takako Okuwa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:19

    Content type: Review

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  10. Cerebrovascular deposition of fibrillar amyloid β-protein (Aβ), a condition known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), is a prominent pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related disorders. Ac...

    Authors: Mary Lou Previti, Weibing Zhang and William E Van Nostrand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:18

    Content type: Research

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  11. Microglial activation has been proposed to facilitate clearance of amyloid β protein (Aβ) from the brain following Aβ immunotherapy in amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. Interleukin-1 receptor 1 ...

    Authors: Pritam Das, Lisa A Smithson, Robert W Price, Vallie M Holloway, Yona Levites, Paramita Chakrabarty and Todd E Golde

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:17

    Content type: Research

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  12. Based on their potent anti-inflammatory properties and a preliminary clinical trial, statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are being studied as possible candidates for multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy. The pat...

    Authors: Esther Zeinstra, Nadine Wilczak, Daniel Chesik, Lisa Glazenburg, Frans GM Kroese and Jacques De Keyser

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:16

    Content type: Short report

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  13. The cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β are induced rapidly after insults to the CNS, and their subsequent signaling through the type 1 IL-1 receptor (IL-1R1) has been regarded as essential for a normal astroglial and m...

    Authors: Hsiao-Wen Lin, Anirban Basu, Charles Druckman, Michael Cicchese, J Kyle Krady and Steven W Levison

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:15

    Content type: Research

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  14. Immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is emerging as a potential treatment. However, a clinical trial (AN1792) was halted after adverse effects occurred in a small subset of subjects, which may have been ...

    Authors: Timothy J Seabrook, Liying Jiang, Katelyn Thomas and Cynthia A Lemere

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:14

    Content type: Research

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  15. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system-specific autoimmune, demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Infiltration of lesions by autoaggressive, myelin-specific CD4+Th1 cells correlates with cl...

    Authors: Dusanka S Skundric, Juan Cai, William W Cruikshank and Djordje Gveric

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:13

    Content type: Research

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  16. Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States of America. Brain ischemia-reperfusion (IR) triggers a complex series of biochemical eve...

    Authors: Manu Jatana, Shailendra Giri, Mubeen A Ansari, Chinnasamy Elango, Avtar K Singh, Inderjit Singh and Mushfiquddin Khan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:12

    Content type: Research

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  17. Antibodies against the Aß peptide clear Aß deposits when injected intracranially. Deglycosylated antibodies have reduced effector functions compared to their intact counterparts, potentially avoiding immune ac...

    Authors: Niki C Carty, Donna M Wilcock, Arnon Rosenthal, Jan Grimm, Jaume Pons, Victoria Ronan, Paul E Gottschall, Marcia N Gordon and Dave Morgan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:11

    Content type: Research

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  18. Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. ApoE isoform-specific modulat...

    Authors: Izumi Maezawa, Nobuyo Maeda, Thomas J Montine and Kathleen S Montine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:10

    Content type: Research

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  19. C3a and C5a anaphylatoxins are proinflammatory polypeptides released during complement activation. They exert their biological activities through interaction with two G protein-coupled receptors named C3aR and...

    Authors: Anne-christine Jauneau, Alexander Ischenko, Alexandra Chatagner, Magalie Benard, Philippe Chan, Marie-therese Schouft, Christine Patte, Hubert Vaudry and Marc Fontaine

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:8

    Content type: Research

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  20. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive cognitive impairment, the consequence of neuronal dysfunction and ultimately the death of neurons. The amyloid hypothesis prop...

    Authors: Clive Bate, Sarah Kempster, Victoria Last and Alun Williams

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:7

    Content type: Research

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  21. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays an important role in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Among many inflammatory factors found in the PD brain, cyclooxygenase (COX), specificall...

    Authors: Rattanavijit Vijitruth, Mei Liu, Dong-Young Choi, Xuan V Nguyen, Randy L Hunter and Guoying Bing

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:6

    Content type: Research

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  22. Clinical and neuropathological overlap between Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is now well recognized. Such cases of concurrent AD and Lewy body disease (AD/LBD) show neuropathological changes th...

    Authors: W Sue T Griffin, Ling Liu, Yuekui Li, Robert E Mrak and Steven W Barger

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:5

    Content type: Research

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  23. Oxidative stress is believed to be an early event and a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and progression. In spite of an intensive search for surrogate markers to monitor changes related to ...

    Authors: Luisa Minghetti, Anita Greco, Maria Puopolo, Marc Combrinck, Donald Warden and A David Smith

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:4

    Content type: Research

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  24. We have previously shown that transgenic mice carrying a mutant human APP but deficient in CD40L, display a decrease in astrocytosis and microgliosis associated with a lower amount of deposited Aβ. Furthermore...

    Authors: Vincent Laporte, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Claude-Henry Volmar and Michael Mullan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:3

    Content type: Research

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  25. Detailed study of glial inflammation has been hindered by lack of cell culture systems that spontaneously demonstrate the "neuroinflammatory phenotype". Mice expressing a glycine → alanine substitution in cyto...

    Authors: Kenneth Hensley, Haitham Abdel-Moaty, Jerrod Hunter, Molina Mhatre, Shenyun Mou, Kim Nguyen, Tamara Potapova, Quentin N Pye, Min Qi, Heather Rice, Charles Stewart, Katharine Stroukoff and Melinda West

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:2

    Content type: Research

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  26. Evidence exists suggesting that the immune system may contribute to the severity of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The data presented here demonstrates that antibodies in the sera of patients with IPD h...

    Authors: Victor C Huber, Tapan Mondal, Stewart A Factor, Richard F Seegal and David A Lawrence

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:1

    Content type: Research

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  27. Activated microglial cells have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and HIV dementia. It is well known that inflammatory med...

    Authors: Jared Ehrhart, Demian Obregon, Takashi Mori, Huayan Hou, Nan Sun, Yun Bai, Thomas Klein, Francisco Fernandez, Jun Tan and R Douglas Shytle

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:29

    Content type: Research

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  28. Alzheimer's disease, a common dementia of the elder, is characterized by accumulation of protein amyloid deposits in the brain. Immunization to prevent this accumulation has been proposed as a therapeutic poss...

    Authors: Jun Zhou, Maria I Fonseca, Rakez Kayed, Irma Hernandez, Scott D Webster, Ozkan Yazan, David H Cribbs, Charles G Glabe and Andrea J Tenner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:28

    Content type: Research

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  29. Neuronal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell cycle proteins is suggested to contribute to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's disease (AD). The stimulus that induces COX-2 and cell cycle protein e...

    Authors: Jeroen JM Hoozemans, Elise S van Haastert, Robert Veerhuis, Thomas Arendt, Wiep Scheper, Piet Eikelenboom and Annemieke JM Rozemuller

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:27

    Content type: Short report

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  30. The aim of the present study was to examine inflammatory responses during Wallerian degeneration in rat peripheral nerve when the regrowth of axons was prevented by suturing.

    Authors: Saku Ruohonen, Mohsen Khademi, Maja Jagodic, Hanna-Stiina Taskinen, Tomas Olsson and Matias Röyttä

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:26

    Content type: Research

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  31. Propagated tissue degeneration, especially during aging, has been shown to be enhanced through potentiation of innate immune responses. Neurodegenerative diseases and a wide variety of inflammatory conditions ...

    Authors: Jari Huuskonen, Tiina Suuronen, Riitta Miettinen, Thomas van Groen and Antero Salminen

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:25

    Content type: Research

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  32. Alzheimer's disease is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by a temporal and spatial progression of beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and synaptic de...

    Authors: Michelle C Janelsins, Michael A Mastrangelo, Salvatore Oddo, Frank M LaFerla, Howard J Federoff and William J Bowers

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:23

    Content type: Research

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  33. Inflammation is suspected to contribute to the progression and severity of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Transgenic mice overexpressing the london mutant of amyloid precursor protein, APP [V71...

    Authors: Michael T Heneka, Magdalena Sastre, Lucia Dumitrescu-Ozimek, Ilse Dewachter, Jochen Walter, Thomas Klockgether and Fred Van Leuven

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:22

    Content type: Research

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  34. Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology shows characteristic 'plaques' rich in amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide deposits. Inflammatory process-related proteins such as pro-inflammatory cytokines have been detected in AD b...

    Authors: Kamesh R Ayasolla, Shailendra Giri, Avtar K Singh and Inderjit Singh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:21

    Content type: Research

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  35. Inflammation-activated glia are seen in many CNS pathologies and may kill neurons through the release of cytotoxic mediators, such as nitric oxide from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and possibly superoxide fro...

    Authors: Palwinder Mander and Guy C Brown

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:20

    Content type: Research

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  36. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a critical role in neurodegeneration associated with acute and chronic insults of the nervous system. Notably, affected neurons are often responsive to and dependent on t...

    Authors: Michael S Thomas, WenRu Zhang, Paivi M Jordan, H Uri Saragovi and Giulio Taglialatela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:19

    Content type: Research

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  37. Recent studies have suggested that passive or active immunization with anti-amyloid β peptide (Aβ) antibodies may enhance microglial clearance of Aβ deposits from the brain. However, in a human clinical trial,...

    Authors: Ronald Strohmeyer, Carl J Kovelowski, Diego Mastroeni, Brian Leonard, Andrew Grover and Joseph Rogers

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:18

    Content type: Research

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  38. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is associated with local activation of microglia and astroglia, infiltration of activated macrophages and T cel...

    Authors: Dan Sunnemark, Sana Eltayeb, Maria Nilsson, Erik Wallström, Hans Lassmann, Tomas Olsson, Anna-Lena Berg and Anders Ericsson-Dahlstrand

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:17

    Content type: Research

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  39. There is evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and particularly one of its end products, quinolinic acid (QUIN) play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammatory diseases, and more particu...

    Authors: Gilles J Guillemin, Lily Wang and Bruce J Brew

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:16

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  40. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a key mediator of immune responses in health and disease. Although classically the function of IL-1 has been studied in the systemic immune system, research in the past decade has revea...

    Authors: Jeffrey M Craft, D Martin Watterson, Emmet Hirsch and Linda J Van Eldik

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:15

    Content type: Research

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  41. The role of both microglial activation and alpha-synuclein deposition in Parkinson's disease remain unclear. We have tested the hypothesis that if microglia play a primary role in Parkinson's disease pathogene...

    Authors: Emilie Croisier, Linda B Moran, David T Dexter, Ronald KB Pearce and Manuel B Graeber

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Research to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2006 3:9

  42. In the nervous system, as in other organs, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) is a key antioxidant enzyme involved in superoxide detoxification in normal cellular metabolism and after cell injury. Although...

    Authors: Hugo Peluffo, Laia Acarin, Maryam Faiz, Bernardo Castellano and Berta Gonzalez

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Calcium-sensitive fluorescence microscopy and molecular biology analysis have been used to study the effects of platelet-activating factor (PAF) on intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i and IL-6 expression in human micro...

    Authors: Prasongchai Sattayaprasert, Hyun B Choi, Sukumal Chongthammakun and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Twitcher mouse (twi/twi) is an authentic murine model of Krabbe's disease. Accumulation of psychosine, resulting in apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and subsequent demyelination, is a cardinal event to the pathogene...

    Authors: Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Ikuko Mohri, Yasushi Fujitani, Kinuko Suzuki, Keiichi Ozono, Yoshihiro Urade and Masako Taniike

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cytokine production is a key pathologic event in the progression of inflammatory cascades. The current study ...

    Authors: Nikunj S Patel, Daniel Paris, Venkatarajan Mathura, Amita N Quadros, Fiona C Crawford and Michael J Mullan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:9

    Content type: Research

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  46. In neuropathological processes associated with neutrophilic infiltrates, such as experimental allergic encephalitis and traumatic injury of the brain, the CXC chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-...

    Authors: Michiyo Tomita, Brita J Holman, Christopher P Santoro and Thomas J Santoro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2005 2:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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