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  1. The enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) has been implicated in the progression of cerebral injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Previous studies in rodents suggest that cPLA2α enhances delayed ...

    Authors: Koji Kishimoto, Rung-Chi Li, Jian Zhang, Judith A Klaus, Kathleen K Kibler, Sylvain Doré, Raymond C Koehler and Adam Sapirstein

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:42

    Content type: Research

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  2. We hypothesized that gp91phox (NOX2), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, generates superoxide anion (O2-) and has a major causative role in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To evaluate the functional role of gp91phox and r...

    Authors: Kenji Dohi, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Sachiko Yofu, Kazue Satoh, Kazuyuki Miyamoto, Dandan Song, Shohko Tsunawaki, Seiji Shioda and Tohru Aruga

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:41

    Content type: Research

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  3. Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD) induced status epilepticus (SE), and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known abo...

    Authors: Erik A Johnson and Robert K Kan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:40

    Content type: Research

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  4. Recently, using a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease with severe neurological deterioration, we showed that MPS IIIB neuropathology is accompanied by a robust neuroinf...

    Authors: Smruti Killedar, Julianne DiRosario, Erin Divers, Phillip G Popovich, Douglas M McCarty and Haiyan Fu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:39

    Content type: Research

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  5. A major site of initiation of inflammatory responses upon physical perturbation(s) and infection by invading organisms is the skin. Control of responses in this organ is, in part, modulated by the neuronal nic...

    Authors: Lorise C Gahring, Amber V Osborne, Michelle Reed and Scott W Rogers

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:38

    Content type: Research

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  6. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Gut inflammation causes significant changes in neurally controlled gut functions in...

    Authors: Shaheen E Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:37

    Content type: Review

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  7. The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Emna Chahmi, Jenny Pena Dias and Réjean Couture

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:36

    Content type: Research

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  8. Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-li...

    Authors: Scott J Schachtele, Shuxian Hu, Morgan R Little and James R Lokensgard

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:35

    Content type: Research

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  9. CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates w...

    Authors: Dafna Bonneh-Barkay, Guoji Wang, Adam Starkey, Ronald L Hamilton and Clayton A Wiley

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:34

    Content type: Research

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  10. During pathology of the nervous system, increased extracellular ATP acts both as a cytotoxic factor and pro-inflammatory mediator through P2X7 receptors. In animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a...

    Authors: Mandi Gandelman, Hugo Peluffo, Joseph S Beckman, Patricia Cassina and Luis Barbeito

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:33

    Content type: Research

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  11. Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of a...

    Authors: Charu Venkatesan, MaryAnn Chrzaszcz, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:32

    Content type: Research

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  12. Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spi...

    Authors: Amanda Emirandetti, Gustavo F Simões, Renata G Zanon and Alexandre LR Oliveira

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:31

    Content type: Research

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  13. Brain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, has ...

    Authors: Henrik Wilms, Jobst Sievers, Uta Rickert, Martin Rostami-Yazdi, Ulrich Mrowietz and Ralph Lucius

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:30

    Content type: Research

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  14. Overactivated microglia that cluster at neuritic plaques constantly release neurotoxins, which actively contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, attenuating microglia...

    Authors: Wei-Chao Huang, Feng-Chang Yen, Feng-Shiun Shie, Chih-Ming Pan, Young-Ji Shiao, Cheng-Ning Yang, Fong-Lee Huang, Yen-Jen Sung and Huey-Jen Tsay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:28

    Content type: Research

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  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was discovered more than a century ago, and its known roles have extended from within the immune system to include a neuro-inflammatory domain in the nervous system. Neuropa...

    Authors: Lawrence Leung and Catherine M Cahill

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:27

    Content type: Review

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  16. Previously, we found that interleukin (IL)-18 deficiency aggravates kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in young C57BL/6 mice due to an over-compensation by IL-12. Additionally, IL-18 partic...

    Authors: Xing-Mei Zhang, Tao Jin, Hernan Concha Quezada, Eilhard Mix, Bengt Winblad and Jie Zhu

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:26

    Content type: Research

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  17. We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) ...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, Jonathan W Redd, Philip Tang, Blair Wood, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:25

    Content type: Research

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  18. Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Yansong Li, Shawn L Dalle Lucca, Milomir Simovic, George C Tsokos and Jurandir J Dalle Lucca

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:24

    Content type: Research

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  19. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system leading to long-term disability. Recent studies indicate a close association between inflammation ...

    Authors: Jofre Tenorio-Laranga, Francisco Coret-Ferrer, Buenaventura Casanova-Estruch, María Burgal and J Arturo García-Horsman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:23

    Content type: Research

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  20. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface protein reported to be involved in mediating cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions. Prior work has demonstrated that APP co-localizes wi...

    Authors: Cindy M Sondag and Colin K Combs

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:22

    Content type: Research

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  21. We report on a newly discovered serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reactivity to Purkinje cells (PCs) associated with subacute inflammatory cerebellar ataxia. The patient, a previously healthy 33-year-old lad...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Klaus P Wandinger, Sigrun Horn, Heike Heuer and Brigitte Wildemann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:21

    Content type: Research

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  22. Mercury is known to be neurotoxic, but its effects on the immune system are less well known. Mast cells are involved in allergic reactions, but also in innate and acquired immunity, as well as in inflammation....

    Authors: Duraisamy Kempuraj, Shahrzad Asadi, Bodi Zhang, Akrivi Manola, Jennifer Hogan, Erika Peterson and Theoharis C Theoharides

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:20

    Content type: Research

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  23. Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is a serious, life-threatening, secondary event following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In many cases, ICP rises in a delayed fashion, reaching a maximal level 48-96 hours...

    Authors: Georgene W Hergenroeder, Anthony N Moore, J Philip McCoy Jr, Leigh Samsel, Norman H Ward III, Guy L Clifton and Pramod K Dash

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:19

    Content type: Research

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  24. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common but often asymptomatic disease, characterized by deposition of amyloid in cerebral blood vessels. We describe the successful treatment of CAA encephalopathy with d...

    Authors: Raoul P Kloppenborg, Edo Richard, Marieke ES Sprengers, Dirk Troost, Piet Eikelenboom and Paul J Nederkoorn

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:18

    Content type: Case report

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  25. Aβ deposits represent a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both soluble and insoluble Aβ species are considered to be responsible for initiating the pathological cascade that eventually le...

    Authors: Daniel Paris, Nowell J Ganey, Vincent Laporte, Nikunj S Patel, David Beaulieu-Abdelahad, Corbin Bachmeier, Amelia March, Ghania Ait-Ghezala and Michael J Mullan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:17

    Content type: Research

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  26. Interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal role in a variety of CNS functions such as the induction and modulation of reactive astrogliosis, pathological inflammatory responses and neuroprotection. Tumor necrosis fact...

    Authors: Kumiko Tanabe, Rie Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iida, Shuji Dohi and Osamu Kozawa

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:16

    Content type: Research

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  27. The complement system is a crucial mediator of inflammation and cell lysis after cerebral ischemia. However, there is little information about the exact contribution of the membrane attack complex (MAC) and it...

    Authors: Denise Harhausen, Uldus Khojasteh, Philip F Stahel, B Paul Morgan, Wilfried Nietfeld, Ulrich Dirnagl and George Trendelenburg

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:15

    Content type: Research

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  28. Cerebral ischemia from middle cerebral artery wall (MCA) occlusion results in increased expression of cerebrovascular endothelin and angiotensin receptors and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase...

    Authors: Aida Maddahi and Lars Edvinsson

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:14

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:18

  29. The long-term neurological consequences of HIV infection and treatment are not yet completely understood. In this study we examined the prevalence of cerebral metabolic abnormalities among a cohort of neurolog...

    Authors: Åse B Andersen, Ian Law, Karen S Krabbe, Helle Bruunsgaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Henrik Ullum, Liselotte Højgaard, Annemette Lebech, Jan Gerstoft and Andreas Kjær

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:13

    Content type: Research

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  30. Despite intensive studies focused on the pathophysiology of asthmatic inflammation, little is known about how cross-talk between neuroendocrine and immune systems regulates the inflammatory response during an ...

    Authors: Yi-Liang Zhu, Shui-Jun Zhang, Yang-Mei Deng, Xin-Wei Dong, Jun-Xia Jiang and Qiang-Min Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:12

    Content type: Research

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  31. There is a growing body of evidence that unilateral nerve injury induces bilateral response, the mechanism of which is not exactly known. Because cytokines act as crucial signaling molecules for response of pe...

    Authors: Radim Jančálek, Petr Dubový, Ivana Svíženská and Ilona Klusáková

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:11

    Content type: Research

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  32. This review summarizes recent developments in platelet biology relevant to neuroinflammatory disorders. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is taken as the "Poster Child" of these disorders but the implications are wide. ...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Yeon S Ahn, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:10

    Content type: Review

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  33. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a cytokine isolated as an important modulator of immune responses and subsequently shown to be pleiotropic. IL-18 and its receptors are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) wher...

    Authors: Silvia Alboni, Davide Cervia, Shuei Sugama and Bruno Conti

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:9

    Content type: Review

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  34. The role of neuroinflammation in motor neuron death of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is unclear. The human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (hmSOD1)-expressing murine transgenic model of ALS has provided so...

    Authors: David J Graber, William F Hickey and Brent T Harris

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:8

    Content type: Research

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  35. Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as...

    Authors: Sophie R Bader, Sonja Kothlow, Sascha Trapp, Susanne CN Schwarz, Hans-Christian Philipp, Steffen Weigend, Ahmad R Sharifi, Rudolf Preisinger, Wolfgang Schmahl, Bernd Kaspers and Kaspar Matiasek

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:7

    Content type: Research

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  36. Alzheimer's disease is the most common dementia in the elderly, and the potential of peripheral biochemical markers as complementary tools in the neuropsychiatric evaluation of these patients has claimed furth...

    Authors: Márcia L Chaves, Ana L Camozzato, Eduardo D Ferreira, Isabel Piazenski, Renata Kochhann, Oscar Dall'Igna, Guilherme S Mazzini, Diogo O Souza and Luis V Portela

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:6

    Content type: Research

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  37. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and re...

    Authors: Shawn G Rhind, Naomi T Crnko, Andrew J Baker, Laurie J Morrison, Pang N Shek, Sandro Scarpelini and Sandro B Rizoli

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:5

    Content type: Research

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  38. Small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels are expressed in the CNS, where KCNN2/SK2/KCa2.2 and KCNN3/SK3/KCa2.3 help shape the electrical activity of some neurons. The SK3 channel is considered a potential the...

    Authors: Lyanne C Schlichter, Vikas Kaushal, Iska Moxon-Emre, Vishanthan Sivagnanam and Catherine Vincent

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:4

    Content type: Research

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  39. Luteolin, a plant derived flavonoid, exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and anti-oxidant properties associated with its capacity to scavenge oxygen and nitrogen species. Luteolin also shows potent ...

    Authors: Konstantin Dirscherl, Marcus Karlstetter, Stefanie Ebert, Dominik Kraus, Julia Hlawatsch, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Rudolf Fuchshofer and Thomas Langmann

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:3

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:118

  40. Recent studies suggest an important role for neurotransmitters as modulators of inflammation. Neuroinflammatory mediators such as cytokines and molecules of the arachidonic acid pathway are generated and relea...

    Authors: Johannes CM Schlachetzki, Bernd L Fiebich, Elisabeth Haake, Antonio CP de Oliveira, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Michael T Heneka and Michael Hüll

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:2

    Content type: Research

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  41. The chemokine CXCL13 is known to dictate homing and motility of B cells in lymphoid tissue and has been implicated in the formation of ectopic lymphoid tissue in chronic inflammation. Whether it influences B c...

    Authors: Tobias A Rupprecht, Andreas Plate, Michaela Adam, Manfed Wick, Stefan Kastenbauer, Caroline Schmidt, Matthias Klein, Hans-Walter Pfister and Uwe Koedel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  42. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in several crucial cellular functions, e.g. protein folding and quality control, maintenance of Ca2+ balance, and cholesterol synthesis. Many genetic and environmental i...

    Authors: Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Tiina Suuronen, Kai Kaarniranta and Johanna Ojala

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:41

    Content type: Review

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  43. Neuroinflammation occurs after seizures and is implicated in epileptogenesis. CCR2 is a chemokine receptor for CCL2 and their interaction mediates monocyte infiltration in the neuroinflammatory cascade trigger...

    Authors: Maira L Foresti, Gabriel M Arisi, Khurshed Katki, Andres Montañez, Russell M Sanchez and Lee A Shapiro

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:40

    Content type: Research

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  44. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPC) constitutes a putative therapeutic maneuver for use in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, effects of NPC transplantation in Alzheimer's diseas...

    Authors: Jae K Ryu, Taesup Cho, Yu Tian Wang and James G McLarnon

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:39

    Content type: Short report

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  45. To elucidate the presence and potential involvement of brain inflammation and cell death in neurological morbidity and intractable seizures in childhood epilepsy, we quantified cell death, astrocyte proliferat...

    Authors: Jieun Choi, Douglas R Nordli Jr, Tord D Alden, Arthur DiPatri Jr, Linda Laux, Kent Kelley, Joshua Rosenow, Stephan U Schuele, Veena Rajaram and Sookyong Koh

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:38

    Content type: Research

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  46. Glucocorticoids have been shown to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases of the CNS such as multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the...

    Authors: Željka Miljković, Miljana Momčilović, Djordje Miljković and Marija Mostarica-Stojković

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:37

    Content type: Research

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  47. The excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) is synthesized through the kynurenine pathway (KP) by activated monocyte lineage cells. QUIN is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of several major neuroinflammato...

    Authors: Ka Ka Ting, Bruce J Brew and Gilles J Guillemin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  48. A causal role of the complement system in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis has been postulated based on the identification of different activated components up to the membrane attack complex at amyloid plaques...

    Authors: Julia Reichwald, Simone Danner, Karl-Heinz Wiederhold and Matthias Staufenbiel

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:35

    Content type: Research

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