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  1. Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Microglial cells and astrocytes are the effector cells of neuroinflammation. They can be activated also...

    Authors: Antoinette Defaux, Marie-Gabrielle Zurich, Olivier Braissant, Paul Honegger and Florianne Monnet-Tschudi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:15
  2. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is the founding member of a novel family of inflammatory cytokines that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and its...

    Authors: Jayasri Das Sarma, Bogoljub Ciric, Ryan Marek, Sanjoy Sadhukhan, Michael L Caruso, Jasmine Shafagh, Denise C Fitzgerald, Kenneth S Shindler and AM Rostami
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:14
  3. The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, bacterial endotoxins and hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. In animal models of diabetes, it contributes to pain polyneuropathy. Thi...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Patrick Théberge-Turmel, Dalinda Liazoghli, Jacques Sénécal, Pierrette Gaudreau and Réjean Couture
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:11
  4. Septic shock is a prevalent condition that, when not lethal, often causes disturbances in cognition, mood, and behavior, particularly due to central actions of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). T...

    Authors: Eléonore Beurel and Richard S Jope
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:9
  5. The CD133(+) stem cell population in recurrent gliomas is associated with clinical features such as therapy resistance, blood-brain barrier disruption and, hence, tumor infiltration. Screening of a large panel...

    Authors: Borhane Annabi, Carl Laflamme, Asmaa Sina, Marie-Paule Lachambre and Richard Béliveau
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:8
  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been regarded as a potent trophic factor for motor neurons. However, recent studies have shown that CNTF exerts effects on glial cells as well as neurons. For instance, C...

    Authors: Hsiao-Wen Lin, Mohit Raja Jain, Hong Li and Steven W Levison
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:7
  7. Polymorphisms in the MHC class 1-like gene known as HFE have been proposed as genetic modifiers of neurodegenerative diseases that include neuroinflammation as part of the disease process. Variants of HFE are rel...

    Authors: Ryan M Mitchell, Sang Y Lee, William T Randazzo, Zachary Simmons and James R Connor
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:6
  8. The EP1 receptor for the prostanoid PGE2 is a G-protein coupled receptor that has been shown to contribute to excitotoxic neuronal death. In this study we examined the influence of non-neuronal cells on neurop...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, John-David Black, Jonathan W Redd, John Hille, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:5
  9. Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Authors: Robert P Lisak, Joyce A Benjamins, Beverly Bealmear, Liljana Nedelkoska, Diane Studzinski, Ernest Retland, Bin Yao and Susan Land
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:4
  10. This is a critical review of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL). Most prior reviews focus on the aPL syndrome (APS), a thrombotic condition often marked by neurological disturbance. We bring to attention recen...

    Authors: Lawrence L Horstman, Wenche Jy, Carlos J Bidot, Yeon S Ahn, Roger E Kelley, Robert Zivadinov, Amir H Maghzi, Masoud Etemadifar, Seyed Ali Mousavi and Alireza Minagar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:3
  11. Complement represents a crucial mediator of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury. The role of the terminal complement activation pathway, leading to generation of the membrane a...

    Authors: Philip F Stahel, Michael A Flierl, B Paul Morgan, Ivonne Persigehl, Christiane Stoll, Claudia Conrad, Basel M Touban, Wade R Smith, Kathryn Beauchamp, Oliver I Schmidt, Wolfgang Ertel and Iris Leinhase
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2009 6:2
  12. The functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 11–13 in central nervous system (CNS) infections are currently unknown. Using a murine model of neurocysticercosis, we investigated the expression and distribution o...

    Authors: Bibhuti B Mishra, Uma Mahesh Gundra and Judy M Teale
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:53
  13. Among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) evaluated in our clinic, there appears to be a subset that can be clinically distinguished from other ASD children because of frequent infections (usually vi...

    Authors: Harumi Jyonouchi, Lee Geng, Agnes Cushing-Ruby and Huma Quraishi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:52
  14. Recently, the term "inflammaging" was coined by Franceshci and colleagues to characterize a widely accepted paradigm that ageing is accompanied by a low-grade chronic up-regulation of certain pro-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Brian Giunta, Francisco Fernandez, William V Nikolic, Demian Obregon, Elona Rrapo, Terrence Town and Jun Tan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:51
  15. Neonatal Borna disease virus (BDV) infection of the rat brain is associated with microglial activation and damage to certain neuronal populations. Since persistent BDV infection of neurons is nonlytic in vitro, a...

    Authors: Mikhail V Ovanesov, Yavuz Ayhan, Candie Wolbert, Krisztina Moldovan, Christian Sauder and Mikhail V Pletnikov
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:50
  16. Kinins are important mediators of inflammation and act through stimulation of two receptor subtypes, B1 and B2. Leukocyte infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation in the central ner...

    Authors: Adriana C Dos Santos, Ester Roffê, Rosa ME Arantes, Luiz Juliano, Jorge L Pesquero, João B Pesquero, Michael Bader, Mauro M Teixeira and Juliana Carvalho-Tavares
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:49
  17. Worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii with largely unknown consequences.

    Authors: Gretchen Hermes, James W Ajioka, Krystyna A Kelly, Ernest Mui, Fiona Roberts, Kristen Kasza, Thomas Mayr, Michael J Kirisits, Robert Wollmann, David JP Ferguson, Craig W Roberts, Jong-Hee Hwang, Toria Trendler, Richard P Kennan, Yasuhiro Suzuki, Catherine Reardon…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:48
  18. To determine if chronic elevation of the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), will affect infarct volume or cortical perfusion after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Authors: L Creed Pettigrew, Mark S Kindy, Stephen Scheff, Joe E Springer, Richard J Kryscio, Yizhao Li and David S Grass
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:47
  19. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1β is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-α may...

    Authors: Bettina H Clausen, Kate L Lambertsen, Alicia A Babcock, Thomas H Holm, Frederik Dagnaes-Hansen and Bente Finsen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:46
  20. The periventricular subventricular zone (SVZ) contains stem cells and is an area of active neurogenesis and migration. Since inflammation can reduce neurogenesis, we tested whether Theiler's murine encephalomy...

    Authors: Gwendolyn E Goings, Adriana Greisman, Rachel E James, Leanne KF Abram, Wendy Smith Begolka, Stephen D Miller and Francis G Szele
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:44
  21. Microglia are macrophage-like cells that constantly sense the microenvironment within the central nervous system (CNS). In the event of neuronal stress or injury, microglial cells rapidly react and change thei...

    Authors: Teresa F Pais, Catarina Figueiredo, Rui Peixoto, Maria H Braz and Sukalyan Chatterjee
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:43
  22. New pre-clinical trials in AD mouse models may help to develop novel immunogen-adjuvant configurations with the potential to avoid the adverse responses that occurred during the clinical trials with AN-1792 va...

    Authors: Irina Petrushina, Anahit Ghochikyan, Mikayel Mkrtichyan, Grigor Mamikonyan, Nina Movsesyan, Rodmehr Ajdari, Vitaly Vasilevko, Adrine Karapetyan, Andrew Lees, Michael G Agadjanyan and David H Cribbs
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:42
  23. It is well known that most neurodegenerative diseases are associated with microglia-mediated inflammation. Our previous research demonstrates that the CD40 signaling is critically involved in microglia-related...

    Authors: Kavon Rezai-Zadeh, Jared Ehrhart, Yun Bai, Paul R Sanberg, Paula Bickford, Jun Tan and R Douglas Shytle
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:41
  24. The long latent stage seen in syphilis, followed by chronic central nervous system infection and inflammation, can be explained by the persistence of atypical cystic and granular forms of Treponema pallidum. We i...

    Authors: Judith Miklossy, Sandor Kasas, Anne D Zurn, Sherman McCall, Sheng Yu and Patrick L McGeer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:40
  25. Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a frequent complication of preterm delivery. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) released from astrocytes and micro...

    Authors: Stefan A Mann, Beatrix Versmold, Romy Marx, Sabine Stahlhofen, Irmgard D Dietzel, Rolf Heumann and Richard Berger
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:39
  26. Septic encephalopathy is a severe brain dysfunction caused by systemic inflammation in the absence of direct brain infection. Changes in cerebral blood flow, release of inflammatory molecules and metabolic alt...

    Authors: Alexander Semmler, Sven Hermann, Florian Mormann, Marc Weberpals, Stephan A Paxian, Thorsten Okulla, Michael Schäfers, Markus P Kummer, Thomas Klockgether and Michael T Heneka
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:38
  27. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive loss of neurons in the brain of AD patients. Intracellular accumulation of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) has also shown to occur in AD. Neuro-inflammation has...

    Authors: Jae Woong Lee, Yong Kyung Lee, Dong Yeon Yuk, Dong Young Choi, Sang Bae Ban, Ki Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:37
  28. Inflammatory changes are a prominent feature of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activated glial cells release inflammatory cytokines which modulate the neurodegenerative process. These cytokines a...

    Authors: Anastazija Gnjec, Katarzyna J D'Costa, Simon M Laws, Ross Hedley, Kelvin Balakrishnan, Kevin Taddei, Georgia Martins, Athena Paton, Giuseppe Verdile, Samuel E Gandy, G Anthony Broe, William S Brooks, Hayley Bennett, Olivier Piguet, Patricia Price, Judith Miklossy…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:36
  29. An endotoxin insult mimics a severe peripheral infection and recent evidence suggests that a single exposure can cause long-term cognitive deficits. A peripheral injection of LPS results in production of pro-i...

    Authors: Wendy L Thompson, William J Karpus and Linda J Van Eldik
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:35
  30. Hypoxia-ischemia (H-I) can produce widespread neurodegeneration and deep cerebral white matter injury in the neonate. Resident microglia and invading leukocytes promote lesion progression by releasing reactive...

    Authors: Christopher C Leonardo, Autumn K Eakin, Joanne M Ajmo, Lisa A Collier, Keith R Pennypacker, Alex Y Strongin and Paul E Gottschall
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:34
  31. The purinergic receptor P2x7 is expressed on myeloid cells as well as on CNS glial cells, and P2x7 activation has been shown to increase both glial and T-cell activation. These properties suggest a role in the...

    Authors: Anthony J Sharp, Paul E Polak, Vittoria Simonini, Shao X Lin, Jill C Richardson, Ernesto R Bongarzone and Douglas L Feinstein
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:33
  32. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system with a pronounced neurodegenerative component. It has been suggested that novel treatment options are needed that target both ...

    Authors: Stefan M Gold, Sara Chalifoux, Barbara S Giesser and Rhonda R Voskuhl
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:32
  33. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalomyelitis (AHLE) is a rare neurological condition characterized by the development of acute hemorrhagic demyelination and high mortality. The pathomechanism of AHLE, as well as p...

    Authors: Istvan Pirko, Georgette L Suidan, Moses Rodriguez and Aaron J Johnson
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:31
  34. Histoplasma capsulatum is a common cause of fungal infection in certain geographic areas, and although most infections are asymptomatic, it is capable of causing histoplasmosis, a disseminated, life-threatening d...

    Authors: Rajagopal N Aravalli, Shuxian Hu, Jon P Woods and James R Lokensgard
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:30
  35. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in mice results in a brain infarct, the volume of which depends on the length of occlusion. Following permanent occlusion, neuropathological changes – including a robust...

    Authors: Katie Moisse, Ian Welch, Tracy Hill, Kathryn Volkening and Michael J Strong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:29
  36. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with its associated morbidity is a major area of unmet medical need that lacks effective therapies. TBI initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade characterized by activation of astrocy...

    Authors: Eric Lloyd, Kathleen Somera-Molina, Linda J Van Eldik, D Martin Watterson and Mark S Wainwright
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:28
  37. A fatality in one multiple sclerosis (MS) patient due to acute idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and a near fatality in another stimulated our interest in platelet function abnormalities in MS. Previou...

    Authors: William A Sheremata, Wenche Jy, Lawrence L Horstman, Yeon S Ahn, J Steven Alexander and Alireza Minagar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:27
  38. The complement system has been suggested to affect injury or disease of the central nervous system (CNS) by regulating numerous physiological events and pathways. The activation of complement following traumat...

    Authors: Hal X Nguyen, Manuel D Galvan and Aileen J Anderson
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:26
  39. There is now a large body of evidence linking inflammation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This association manifests itself neuropathologically in the presence of activated microglia and astrocytes around neurit...

    Authors: Magdalena Sastre, Jochen Walter and Steve M Gentleman
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:25
  40. Deficiency of membrane G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase-5 (GRK5) recently has been linked to early AD pathogenesis, and has been suggested to contribute to augmented microglial activation in vitro by sens...

    Authors: Longxuan Li, Jun Liu and William Z Suo
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:24
  41. Aβ deposits in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are closely associated with innate immune responses such as activated microglia and increased cytokines. Accumulating evidence supports the h...

    Authors: Jing-Ji Jin, Hong-Duck Kim, J Adam Maxwell, Ling Li and Ken-ichiro Fukuchi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:23
  42. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe, debilitating human disease that predominantly features immunopathology in the optic nerves and the spinal cord. An IgG1 autoantibody (NMO-IgG) that binds aquaporin 4 (AQ...

    Authors: David J Graber, Michael Levy, Douglas Kerr and William F Wade
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:22
  43. Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) through over-activation of microglia, which consequently causes the excessive production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic f...

    Authors: Dan Zhang, Xiaoming Hu, Sung-Jen Wei, Jie Liu, Huiming Gao, Li Qian, Belinda Wilson, Gengtao Liu and Jau-Shyong Hong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:21
  44. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin oligodendrocyte protein (MOG) in female Dark Agouti (DA) rats is a chronic demyelinating animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). To identify new ...

    Authors: Andre M Mueller, Xiomara Pedré, Thomas Stempfl, Ingo Kleiter, Sebastien Couillard-Despres, Ludwig Aigner, Gerhard Giegerich and Andreas Steinbrecher
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:20
  45. It has recently become apparent that neuroinflammation may play a significant role in Parkinson's disease (PD). This is also the case in animal paradigms of the disease. The potential neuroprotective action of...

    Authors: Alexander Harkavyi, Amjad Abuirmeileh, Rebecca Lever, Ann E Kingsbury, Christopher S Biggs and Peter S Whitton
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2008 5:19

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