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  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) upregulation and activation...

    Authors: Yafa Fetfet Malada Edelstein, Yulia Solomonov, Nurit Hadad, Leenor Alfahel, Adrian Israelson and Rachel Levy
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:274
  2. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes substantial medical and societal burden with no therapies ameliorating cognitive deficits. Centralized pathologies involving amyloids, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflamma...

    Authors: Avijit Banik, Radhika Amaradhi, Daniel Lee, Michael Sau, Wenyi Wang, Raymond Dingledine and Thota Ganesh
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:273
  3. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by pathological deposition of misfolded self-protein amyloid beta (Aβ) which in kind facilitates tau aggregation and neurodege...

    Authors: Jatin Machhi, Pravin Yeapuri, Yaman Lu, Emma Foster, Rupesh Chikhale, Jonathan Herskovitz, Krista L. Namminga, Katherine E. Olson, Mai Mohamed Abdelmoaty, Ju Gao, Rolen M. Quadros, Tomomi Kiyota, Liang Jingjing, Bhavesh D. Kevadiya, Xinglong Wang, Yutong Liu…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:272
  4. Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, is a type of retinal disease characterized by the selective death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the pathogenesis of glaucoma has no...

    Authors: Qian Li, Yun Cheng, Shenghai Zhang, Xinghuai Sun and Jihong Wu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:271
  5. Predisposition to autoimmunity and inflammatory disorders is observed in patients with fragile X-associated syndromes. These patients have increased numbers of CGG triplets in the 5’ UTR region of FMR1 (Fragile X...

    Authors: Scott Thomas, Odessa-Maud Fayet, Frédérique Truffault, Elie Fadel, Bastien Provost, Abderaouf Hamza, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Jean-Paul Bonnefont and Rozen Le Panse
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:270
  6. Authors: Jia-Liang Chen, Xin Zhou, Bo-Long Liu, Xu-Hong Wei, Hong-Lu Ding, Zhi-Jun Lin, Hai-Lun Zhan, Fei Yang, Wen-Biao Li, Jun-Cong Xie, Min-Zhi Su, Xian-Guo Liu and Xiang-Fu Zhou
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:269

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020 17:99

  7. Microglial polarization toward pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype are major contributors to the development of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PNDs). Metabolic reprogramming plays an important role in regul...

    Authors: Gang Luo, Xiaofeng Wang, Yongchen Cui, Yue Cao, Zhe Zhao and Junfeng Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:267
  8. Neonatal encephalopathy due to hypoxia–ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of death and disability in term newborns. Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is the only recommended therapy. However, 30% still suffer from ne...

    Authors: Marina Seitz, Christian Köster, Mark Dzietko, Hemmen Sabir, Meray Serdar, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser, Ivo Bendix and Josephine Herz
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:266
  9. Lymphocytes have dichotomous functions in ischemic stroke. Regulatory T cells are protective, while IL-17A from innate lymphocytes promotes the infarct growth. With recent advances of T cell-subtype specific t...

    Authors: Marius Piepke, Bettina H. Clausen, Peter Ludewig, Jonas H. Vienhues, Tanja Bedke, Ehsan Javidi, Björn Rissiek, Larissa Jank, Leonie Brockmann, Inga Sandrock, Karoline Degenhardt, Alina Jander, Vanessa Roth, Ines S. Schädlich, Immo Prinz, Richard A. Flavell…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:265
  10. This article presents the first detailed analysis of the prevalence and disability burden of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) from 1990 to 2019 by cause, age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) in 204 countri...

    Authors: Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Ali-Asghar Kolahi, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Piergiorgio Lochner, Francesco Brigo, Andrea Naldi, Paola Lanteri, Sergio Garbarino, Mark J. M. Sullman, Haijiang Dai, Jianhong Wu, Jude Dzevela Kong, Haitham Jahrami, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi and Saeid Safiri
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:264
  11. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is established to drive pathological sequelae in organ systems outside the intestine, including the central nervous system (CNS). Many patients exhibit cognitive deficits, part...

    Authors: Sarah Talley, Rasa Valiauga, Lillian Anderson, Abigail R. Cannon, Mashkoor A. Choudhry and Edward M. Campbell
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:263
  12. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, (NCLs or Batten disease) are a group of inherited, early onset, fatal neurodegenerative diseases associated with mutations in 13 genes. All forms of the disease are characterize...

    Authors: Miriam S. Domowicz, Wen-Ching Chan, Patricia Claudio-Vázquez, Tatiana Gonzalez and Nancy B. Schwartz
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:262
  13. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of macrophage polarization on the expression of oxytocin (OT) and the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in enteric neurons.

    Authors: Yao Shi, Shuang Li, Haojie Zhang, Jianchun Zhu, Tongtong Che, Bing Yan, Jingxin Li and Chuanyong Liu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:261
  14. Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) is an inflammatory brain disease which is frequently associated with antibodies (Abs) against cell-surface, synaptic or intracellular neuronal proteins. There is increasing evidenc...

    Authors: Fatme Seval Ismail, Sven G. Meuth and Nico Melzer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:260
  15. Several lines of evidence support a role of the immune system in headache pathogenesis, with particular regard to migraine. Firstly, alterations in cytokine profile and in lymphocyte subsets have been reported...

    Authors: Leonardo Biscetti, Gioacchino De Vanna, Elena Cresta, Ilenia Corbelli, Lorenzo Gaetani, Letizia Cupini, Paolo Calabresi and Paola Sarchielli
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:259
  16. Activation of the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome and impaired autophagosome clearance in neurons contribute significantly to cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation (CA-ROSC) injury, whi...

    Authors: Rongjiao Shao, Xintao Wang, Tianhua Xu, Yiyang Xia and Derong Cui
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:257
  17. Neurotoxic microglia and astrocytes begin to activate and participate in pathological processes after spinal cord injury (SCI), subsequently causing severe secondary damage and affecting tissue repair. We have...

    Authors: Xuankang Wang, Xin Li, Xiaoshuang Zuo, Zhuowen Liang, Tan Ding, Kun Li, Yangguang Ma, Penghui Li, Zhijie Zhu, Cheng Ju, Zhihao Zhang, Zhiwen Song, Huilin Quan, Jiawei Zhang, Xueyu Hu and Zhe Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:256
  18. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease driven by sustained inflammation in the central nervous system. One of the pathological hallmarks of MS is extensive free radical production. However, th...

    Authors: Jan Spaas, Wouter M. A. Franssen, Charly Keytsman, Laura Blancquaert, Tim Vanmierlo, Jeroen Bogie, Bieke Broux, Niels Hellings, Jack van Horssen, Dheeraj Kumar Posa, David Hoetker, Shahid P. Baba, Wim Derave and Bert O. Eijnde
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:255
  19. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) can not only lead to depression-like behavior but also change the composition of the gut microbiome. Regulating the gut microbiome can have an antidepressant effect, bu...

    Authors: Haonan Li, Yujiao Xiang, Zemeng Zhu, Wei Wang, Zhijun Jiang, Mingyue Zhao, Shuyue Cheng, Fang Pan, Dexiang Liu, Roger C. M. Ho and Cyrus S. H. Ho
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:254
  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is a destructive central nervous system (CNS) infection with acute and long-term neurological disorders. Previous studies suggest that p75NTR signaling influences cell survival...

    Authors: Dandan Zhang, Shengnan Zhao, Zhijie Zhang, Danfeng Xu, Di Lian, Jing Wu, Dake He, Kun Sun and Ling Li
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:253
  21. Astrocytes participate in the local innate immune response of the central nervous system. In response to stress such as ischemia, activated cells release endogenous factors known as damage-associated molecular...

    Authors: Silvia Fischer, Emil Nasyrov, Monika Brosien, Klaus T. Preissner, Hugo H. Marti and Reiner Kunze
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:252
  22. Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory neuropathy with a heterogeneous presentation. Although some evidences support the role of autoantibodies in its pathogenesis, the target antigens remain u...

    Authors: Cinta Lleixà, Lorena Martín-Aguilar, Elba Pascual-Goñi, Teresa Franco, Marta Caballero, Noemí de Luna, Eduard Gallardo, Xavier Suárez-Calvet, Laura Martínez-Martínez, Jordi Diaz-Manera, Ricard Rojas-García, Elena Cortés-Vicente, Joana Turón, Carlos Casasnovas, Christian Homedes, Gerardo Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez…
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:251
  23. The dysregulation of peripheral immunity in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) includes changes in both the relative numbers and gene expression of T cells. The presence of peripheral T-cell abnormalities in PD is well-...

    Authors: Divisha Bhatia, Veselin Grozdanov, Wolfgang P. Ruf, Jan Kassubek, Albert C. Ludolph, Jochen H. Weishaupt and Karin M. Danzer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:250
  24. Many neurological diseases involve neuroinflammation, during which overproduction of cytokines by immune cells, especially microglia, can aggregate neuronal death. Ferroptosis is a recently discovered cell met...

    Authors: Yu Cui, Zhaolong Zhang, Xin Zhou, Zhiyuan Zhao, Rui Zhao, Xiangyu Xu, Xiangyi Kong, Jinyang Ren, Xujin Yao, Qian Wen, Feifei Guo, Shengli Gao, Jiangdong Sun and Qi Wan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:249
  25. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), are relatively common and devastating neurological disorders. For example, there are 6 ...

    Authors: Nicholas R. W. Cleland, Saif I. Al-Juboori, Evgenia Dobrinskikh and Kimberley D. Bruce
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:248
  26. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently implicated as a precipitant of delirium, which refers to an acute confusional state that is associated with high mortality, increased length of stay, and long-term c...

    Authors: Mohammad Harun Rashid, Nicklaus A. Sparrow, Faizan Anwar, Gena Guidry, Ambart E. Covarrubias, Haoming Pang, Chandrakumar Bogguri, S. Ananth Karumanchi and Shouri Lahiri
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:247
  27. Cognitive deficits are common in patients with sepsis. Previous studies in sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) implicated the C-X-C chemokine receptor type (CXCR) 5. The present study used a mouse model of ...

    Authors: Yanan Shen, Yuan Zhang, Jiayue Du, Baochun Jiang, Tao Shan, Haojia Li, Hongguang Bao and Yanna Si
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:246
  28. Approximately 30% of individuals with severe SARS-CoV-2 infections also develop neurological and psychiatric complaints. In rare cases, the occurrence of autoimmune encephalitis has been reported after SARS-Co...

    Authors: Veronika Vasilevska, Paul C. Guest, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Matthias L. Schroeter, Christian Geis and Johann Steiner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:245
  29. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common concomitant disease of late-onset myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the impacts of DM on the progression of late-onset MG were unclear.

    Authors: Peng Zhang, Chun-Lin Yang, Tong Du, Yu-Dong Liu, Meng-Ru Ge, Heng Li, Ru-Tao Liu, Cong-Cong Wang, Ying-Chun Dou and Rui-Sheng Duan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:244

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:311

  30. Neuroinflammation occupies a pivotal position in the pathogenesis of most nervous system diseases, including depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation associated with neuron...

    Authors: Tian Lan, Ye Li, Cuiqin Fan, Liyan Wang, Wenjing Wang, Shihong Chen and Shu Yan Yu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:243
  31. Chorioamnionitis (CHORIO) is a principal risk factor for preterm birth and is the most common pathological abnormality found in the placentae of preterm infants. CHORIO has a multitude of effects on the matern...

    Authors: Yuma Kitase, Eric M. Chin, Sindhu Ramachandra, Christopher Burkhardt, Nethra K. Madurai, Colleen Lenz, Alexander H. Hoon Jr, Shenandoah Robinson and Lauren L. Jantzie
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:242
  32. Cognitive impairment in the late stage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with the NOD-, LRR and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which plays an important role in neuroinflamm...

    Authors: Si-Wei Tan, Yan Zhao, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Zhi-Zhong Huang, Nan Yang, Dong Liu and Yuan-Guo Zhou
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:241
  33. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors involved in many physiological functions in the central nervous system. However, the role of the LPARs in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not...

    Authors: Jong Hee Choi, Jinhee Oh, Min Jung Lee, Hyunsu Bae, Seong-Gyu Ko, Seung-Yeol Nah and Ik-Hyun Cho
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:240
  34. Multiple studies have revealed that repeated or long-term exposure to ketamine causes neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction. Pyroptosis is an inflammatory form of programmed cell death that has been link...

    Authors: Zhiheng Zhang, Hui Bai, Xiangying Ma, Meilun Shen, Rouqian Li, Di Qiu, Siyao Li and Li Gao
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:239
  35. Epigenetic regulation by histone deacetylases (HDACs) in Schwann cells (SCs) after injury facilitates them to undergo de- and redifferentiation processes necessary to support various stages of nerve repair. Al...

    Authors: Anjali Yadav, Tzu-Chieh Huang, Szu-Han Chen, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Yuan-Yu Hsueh, Shau-Ping Lin, Fu-I Lu, Ya-Hsin Liu and Chia-Ching Wu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:238
  36. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are key responders to central nervous system infection and injury and are also increased in common neurodegenerative diseases. Their effects are primarily mediated via transcriptiona...

    Authors: Barney Viengkhou, Melanie Y. White, Stuart J. Cordwell, Iain L. Campbell and Markus J. Hofer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:237
  37. Decreased cerebral blood flow and systemic inflammation during heart failure (HF) increase the risk for vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer disease-related dementia...

    Authors: Christina Hoyer-Kimura, John P. Konhilas, Heidi M. Mansour, Robin Polt, Kristian P. Doyle, Dean Billheimer and Meredith Hay
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:236
  38. The ability to track individual immune cells within the central nervous system has revolutionized our understanding of the roles that microglia and monocytes play in synaptic maintenance, plasticity, and neuro...

    Authors: Eric B. Miller, Sarah J. Karlen, Kaitryn E. Ronning and Marie E. Burns
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:235
  39. Plenty of macrophages are recruited to the injured nerve to play key roles in the immunoreaction and engulf the debris of degenerated axons and myelin during Wallerian degeneration, thus creating a conducive m...

    Authors: Jiawei Xu, Jinkun Wen, Lanya Fu, Liqiang Liao, Ying Zou, Jiaqi Zhang, Junyao Deng, Haowen Zhang, Jingmin Liu, Xianghai Wang, Daming Zuo and Jiasong Guo
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:234
  40. Changes in dopaminergic neural function can be induced by an acute inflammatory state that, by altering the integrity of the neurovasculature, induces neuronal stress, cell death and causes functional deficits...

    Authors: Serena Becchi, Alberto Buson and Bernard W. Balleine
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:233
  41. Brain-resident microglia have a distinct origin compared to macrophages in other organs. Under physiological conditions, microglia are maintained by self-renewal from the local pool, independent of hematopoiet...

    Authors: Xi Feng, Elma S. Frias, Maria S. Paladini, David Chen, Zoe Boosalis, McKenna Becker, Sonali Gupta, Sharon Liu, Nalin Gupta and Susanna Rosi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:232
  42. It is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one’s life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) fu...

    Authors: Shawn Hayley and Hongyu Sun
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:231
  43. Astrocytic glycogen works as an essential energy reserve for surrounding neurons and is reported to accumulate excessively during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our previous study found that accum...

    Authors: Haiyun Guo, Ze Fan, Shiquan Wang, Lina Ma, Jin Wang, Doutong Yu, Zhen Zhang, Lin Wu, Zhengwu Peng, Wenming Liu, Wugang Hou and Yanhui Cai
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:230
  44. Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a severe complication, which involves pathological damage to the brain and cognitive function. However, its exact mechanism of action still remains uncl...

    Authors: Li Lu, Hailin Wang, Xuan Liu, Liping Tan, Xiaoyue Qiao, Jiali Ni, Yang Sun, Jun Liang, Yayi Hou and Huan Dou
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:229
  45. Immune involvement is well-described in Parkinson’s disease (PD), including an adaptive T lymphocyte response. Given the increasing prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in older age, age-related dysregulation of ...

    Authors: Antonina Kouli, Melanie Jensen, Vanesa Papastavrou, Kirsten M. Scott, Claire Kolenda, Craig Parker, Imtiaz H. Solim, Marta Camacho, Carmen Martin-Ruiz and Caroline H. Williams-Gray
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:228
  46. Macrophages in the peripheral nervous system are key players in the repair of nerve tissue and the development of neuropathic pain due to peripheral nerve injury. However, there is a lack of information on the...

    Authors: Haruki Iwai, Koji Ataka, Hajime Suzuki, Ashis Dhar, Eriko Kuramoto, Atsushi Yamanaka and Tetsuya Goto
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:227
  47. Hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a severe anoxic brain injury that leads to premature mortality or long-term disabilities in infants. Neuroinflammation is a vital contributor to the pathogenic cascade ...

    Authors: Shucai Xie, Xili Jiang, Desislava Met Doycheva, Hui Shi, Peng Jin, Ling Gao, Rui Liu, Jie Xiao, Xiao Hu, Jiping Tang, Lina Zhang and John H. Zhang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:226
  48. Inflammation may contribute to multiple brain pathologies. One cause of inflammation is lipopolysaccharide/endotoxin (LPS), the levels of which are elevated in blood and/or brain during bacterial infections, g...

    Authors: Stefan Milde, Francesca W. van Tartwijk, Anna Vilalta, Tamara C. Hornik, Jacob M. Dundee, Mar Puigdellívol and Guy C. Brown
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2021 18:225

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