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  1. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) during the perinatal period is one of the most common causes of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidity. Hydrogen-rich saline (HS) treatment in neonatal mice has been reported to...

    Authors: Xili Chu, Lili Cao, Zhuoya Yu, Danqing Xin, Tingting Li, Weiwei Ma, Xin Zhou, Wenqiang Chen, Dexiang Liu and Zhen Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:104

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic dysfunction characterized by progressive insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia. Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability is a critical neurovascul...

    Authors: Qiuchen Zhao, Fang Zhang, Zhanyang Yu, Shuzhen Guo, Ning Liu, Yinghua Jiang, Eng H. Lo, Yun Xu and Xiaoying Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:103

    Content type: Research

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  3. Fatigue is a common and sometimes debilitating phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate how IL-1 β-related molecules and the neuropeptide ...

    Authors: Kjetil Bårdsen, Cato Brede, Ingeborg Kvivik, Jan Terje Kvaløy, Kristin Jonsdottir, Anne Bolette Tjensvoll, Peter Ruoff and Roald Omdal

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:102

    Content type: Research

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  4. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuroinflammation are considered key mechanisms of pathogenic Escherichia coli invasion of the brain. However, the specific molecules involved in meningitic E. coli-induce...

    Authors: Rui-Cheng Yang, Xin-Yi Qu, Si-Yu Xiao, Liang Li, Bo-Jie Xu, Ji-Yang Fu, Yu-Jin Lv, Nouman Amjad, Chen Tan, Kwang Sik Kim, Huan-Chun Chen and Xiang-Ru Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:101

    Content type: Research

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  5. Osteopontin (OPN, SPP1) is upregulated in response to acute brain injury, and based on its immunoreactivity, two distinct forms have been identified: intracellular OPN within brain macrophages and small granul...

    Authors: Tae-Ryong Riew, Soojin Kim, Xuyan Jin, Hong Lim Kim, Jeong-Hwa Lee and Mun-Yong Lee

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:99

    Content type: Research

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  6. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA and other developed countries worldwide. Following the initial mechanical insult, the brain’s primary innate immune eff...

    Authors: Josh M. Morganti, Danielle S. Goulding and Linda J. Van Eldik

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:98

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory gastrointestinal disease primarily affecting preterm neonates. Neonates with NEC suffer from a degree of neurodevelopmental delay that is not explained by pre...

    Authors: George Biouss, Lina Antounians, Bo Li, Joshua S. O’Connell, Shogo Seo, Vincenzo D. Catania, Jennifer Guadagno, Abidur Rahman, Elke Zani-Ruttenstock, Nataliia Svergun, Agostino Pierro and Augusto Zani

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:97

    Content type: Research

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  8. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating medical emergency with high mortality and severe neurological deficit. ICH-related poor outcomes are due to a combination of pathological processes that could be...

    Authors: Yongkang Fang, Yeye Tian, Qibao Huang, Yue Wan, Li Xu, Wei Wang, Dengji Pan, Suiqiang Zhu and Minjie Xie

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:96

    Content type: Research

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  9. Baicalin, which is isolated from Radix Scutellariae, possesses strong biological activities including an anti-inflammation property. Recent studies have shown that the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin is link...

    Authors: Li-Ting Guo, Si-Qi Wang, Jing Su, Li-Xing Xu, Zhou-Ye Ji, Ru-Yi Zhang, Qin-Wen Zhao, Zhan-Qiang Ma, Xue-Yang Deng and Shi-Ping Ma

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:95

    Content type: Research

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  10. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. There is increasing evidence that PD pathology is accompanied by an inflammatory response. Thi...

    Authors: Caroline Perner, Florian Perner, Nayana Gaur, Silke Zimmermann, Otto W. Witte, Florian H. Heidel, Julian Grosskreutz and Tino Prell

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:94

    Content type: Letter to the Editor

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  11. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been explored previously as a treatment method for spinal cord injury (SCI) due to its ability to attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduce apopt...

    Authors: Daniel J. Hellenbrand, Kaitlyn A. Reichl, Benjamin J. Travis, Mallory E. Filipp, Andrew S. Khalil, Domenic J. Pulito, Ashley V. Gavigan, Elizabeth R. Maginot, Mitchell T. Arnold, Alexander G. Adler, William L. Murphy and Amgad S. Hanna

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:93

    Content type: Research

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  12. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are considered the major central events in the process of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nrf2 is a key regulator of endogenous defense systems. New finds have contacted activa...

    Authors: Bei Zhang, Guoqing Wang, Jingyi He, Qiuyu Yang, Daidi Li, Jingjie Li and Feng Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:92

    Content type: Research

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  13. During excitotoxic damage, neuronal death results from the increase in intracellular calcium, the induction of oxidative stress, and a subsequent inflammatory response. NADPH oxidases (NOX) are relevant source...

    Authors: Diego Rolando Hernández-Espinosa, Lourdes Massieu, Teresa Montiel and Julio Morán

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:91

    Content type: Research

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  14. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. After the first episode, patients with remitted MDD have a 60% chance of experiencing a second episode. Consideration of therapy cont...

    Authors: Chun-Hong Liu, Guang-Zhong Zhang, Bin Li, Meng Li, Marie Woelfer, Martin Walter and Lihong Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:90

    Content type: Review

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  15. Neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not fully elucidated even if a contribution of neuroinflammation was sugg...

    Authors: Giorgia Moschetti, Giada Amodeo, Daniela Maftei, Roberta Lattanzi, Patrizia Procacci, Patrizia Sartori, Gianfranco Balboni, Valentina Onnis, Vincenzo Conte, Alberto Panerai, Paola Sacerdote and Silvia Franchi

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:89

    Content type: Research

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  16. In humans, a major component of natural killer (NK) and T cell target recognition depends on the surveillance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs).

    Authors: Antonino Tuttolomondo, Domenico Di Raimondo, Rosaria Pecoraro, Alessandra Casuccio, Danilo Di Bona, Anna Aiello, Giulia Accardi, Valentina Arnao, Giuseppe Clemente, Vittoriano Della Corte, Carlo Maida, Irene Simonetta, Calogero Caruso, Rosario Squatrito and Antonio Pinto

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:88

    Content type: Research

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  17. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the deposition of extracellular fibrillar amyloid β (fΑβ) and the intracellular accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles. ...

    Authors: Hassan El Hajj, Julie C. Savage, Kanchan Bisht, Martin Parent, Luc Vallières, Serge Rivest and Marie-Ève Tremblay

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:87

    Content type: Research

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  18. Impairment of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) has been associated with cognitive decline in many CNS diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Recent research suggests an important role...

    Authors: Diana G. Bohannon, Allen Ko, Adam R. Filipowicz, Marcelo J. Kuroda and Woong-Ki Kim

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:86

    Content type: Research

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  19. Astrocytes have been shown to produce several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to maintain homeostasis of microenvironment in response to vast array of CNS insults. Some inflammation-related cytokines are ...

    Authors: Yuxin Zhang, Yue Zhou, Shuxia Chen, Yuming Hu, Zhenjie Zhu, Yingjie Wang, Nan Du, Tiancheng Song, Yumin Yang, Aisong Guo and Yongjun Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:85

    Content type: Research

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  20. The G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40), broadly expressed in various tissues such as the spinal cord, exerts multiple physiological functions including pain regulation. This study aimed to elucidate the mec...

    Authors: Xiao-Fang Mao, Hai-Yun Wu, Xue-Qi Tang, Usman Ali, Hao Liu and Yong-Xiang Wang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:84

    Content type: Research

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  21. Neuropathic pain is a serious clinical problem that needs to be solved urgently. ASK1 is an upstream protein of p38 and JNK which plays important roles in neuroinflammation during the induction and maintenance...

    Authors: Danli Zhou, Siqi Zhang, Liang Hu, Yu-Feng Gu, Yimei Cai, Deqin Wu, Wen-Tao Liu, Chun-Yi Jiang, Xiangqing Kong and Guang-Qin Zhang

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:83

    Content type: Research

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  22. Neuropathic pain is caused by sensory nerve injury, but effective treatments are currently lacking. Microglia are activated in the spinal dorsal horn after sensory nerve injury and contribute to neuropathic pa...

    Authors: Akira Sayo, Hiroyuki Konishi, Masaaki Kobayashi, Kuniyuki Kano, Hiroki Kobayashi, Hideharu Hibi, Junken Aoki and Hiroshi Kiyama

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:82

    Content type: Research

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  23. Neuroinflammation is an essential player in many neurological diseases including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent studies have identified that inflammasome complexes are responsible for inflammatory respon...

    Authors: Ram Kuwar, Andrew Rolfe, Long Di, Hongyu Xu, Liu He, Yuqi Jiang, Shijun Zhang and Dong Sun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:81

    Content type: Research

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  24. Microglia play crucial roles in the maintenance of brain homeostasis. Activated microglia show a biphasic influence, promoting beneficial repair and causing harmful damage via M2 and M1 microglia, respectively...

    Authors: Takashi Koizumi, Katsutoshi Taguchi, Ikuko Mizuta, Hiroe Toba, Makoto Ohigashi, Okihiro Onishi, Kazuya Ikoma, Seiji Miyata, Tetsuo Nakata, Masaki Tanaka, Sébastien Foulquier, Harry W. M. Steinbusch and Toshiki Mizuno

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:79

    Content type: Research

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  25. Central sensitization is an important mechanism of chronic migraine (CM) and is related to the inflammatory response of microglia. The NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome may regulate the inflamma...

    Authors: Wei He, Ting Long, Qi Pan, Shanshan Zhang, Yixin Zhang, Dunke Zhang, Guangcheng Qin, Lixue Chen and Jiying Zhou

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:78

    Content type: Research

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  26. During the acute stroke phase, neutrophils from the peripheral blood are first to arrive in the ischemic brain, which then attracts other immune cells that exacerbate neuroinflammation in the ischemic tissue. ...

    Authors: Yan Wang, Haojie Jin, Weifang Wang, Feng Wang and Heng Zhao

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:77

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Viral encephalitis is still very prominent around the world, and traditional antiviral therapies still have shortcomings. Some patients cannot get effective relief or suffer from serious sequelae. At present, ...

    Authors: Zhuangzhuang Chen, Di Zhong and Guozhong Li

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:76

    Content type: Review

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  28. Activation of microglial cells plays an important role in neuroinflammation after ischemic stroke. Inhibiting the activation of microglial cells has been suggested as a potential therapeutic approach in the tr...

    Authors: Xi Zhang, Xiao-Lei Zhu, Bi-Ying Ji, Xiang Cao, Lin-Jie Yu, Yan Zhang, Xin-Yu Bao, Yun Xu and Jia-Li Jin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:75

    Content type: Research

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  29. Neuroinflammation is considered one of the cardinal features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuritic plaques composed of amyloid β and neurofibrillary tangle-laden neurons are surrounded by reactive astrocytes a...

    Authors: Dawling A. Dionisio-Santos, John A. Olschowka and M. Kerry O’Banion

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:74

    Content type: Review

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  30. Autoantibodies against the paranodal protein contactin-1 have recently been described in patients with severe acute-onset autoimmune neuropathies and mainly belong to the IgG4 subclass that does not activate c...

    Authors: Kathrin Doppler, Yasmin Schuster, Luise Appeltshauser, Lydia Biko, Carmen Villmann, Andreas Weishaupt, Christian Werner and Claudia Sommer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:73

    Content type: Research

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  31. Diabetes is known to be a main risk factor of post-stroke hemorrhagic transformation following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy. However, the mechanism through which diabetes exacerbate...

    Authors: Yanan Xie, Yingzhe Wang, Hongyan Ding, Min Guo, Xun Wang, Qiang Dong and Mei Cui

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:72

    Content type: Research

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  32. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) afflict more than half of HIV-1-positive individuals. The transactivator of transcription (Tat) produced by HIV virus elicits inflammatory process and is a major...

    Authors: Feng Zhou, Xiaomei Liu, Lin Gao, Xinxin Zhou, Qianwen Cao, Liping Niu, Jing Wang, Dongjiao Zuo, Xiangyang Li, Ying Yang, Minmin Hu, Yinghua Yu, Renxian Tang, Bong Ho Lee, Byoung Wook Choi, Yugang Wang…

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:71

    Content type: Research

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  33. Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in Figure 4 as the wrong figure was used.

    Authors: Marc A. Russo, Nathan T. Fiore, Caryn van Vreden, Dominic Bailey, Danielle M. Santarelli, Helen M. McGuire, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth and Paul J. Austin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:70

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:63

  34. Acute liver failure resulting from drug-induced liver injury can lead to the development of neurological complications called hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hepatic transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is u...

    Authors: Matthew McMillin, Stephanie Grant, Gabriel Frampton, Anca D. Petrescu, Elaina Williams, Brandi Jefferson, Alison Thomas, Ankita Brahmaroutu and Sharon DeMorrow

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:69

    Content type: Research

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  35. Immunity has been suggested to be important in the pathogenesis of dementia. However, the contribution of innate versus adaptive immunity in the development of dementia is not clear. In this study, we aimed to...

    Authors: Kimberly D. van der Willik, Lana Fani, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Silvan Licher, Jesse Fest, Sanne B. Schagen, M. Kamran Ikram and M. Arfan Ikram

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:68

    Content type: Research

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  36. Patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) or fibromyalgia experience chronic pain. Concomitantly, the rat model of CFS exhibits microglial activation in the lumbar spinal cord and pain behavior wi...

    Authors: Masaya Yasui, Yuki Menjyo, Kyohei Tokizane, Akiko Shiozawa, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue and Hiroshi Kiyama

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:67

    Content type: Research

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  37. Microglia are important for secreting chemical mediators of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1β secreted by glial cells support neuronal functions, but the relat...

    Authors: Yi Sun, Jiangjun Ma, Dongfang Li, Pinggan Li, Xiaolin Zhou, Yu Li, Zhanwen He, Lijun Qin, Liyang Liang and Xiangyang Luo

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:66

    Content type: Research

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  38. Neurokine signaling via the release of neurally active cytokines arises from glial reactivity and is mechanistically implicated in central nervous system (CNS) pathologies such as chronic pain, trauma, neurode...

    Authors: Lindsay M. Parker, Nima Sayyadi, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Ashish Shrestha, Mark R. Hutchinson and Nicolle H. Packer

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:65

    Content type: Research

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  39. Orexins (hypocretins, Hcrt) A and B are GPCR-binding hypothalamic neuropeptides known to regulate sleep/wake states and feeding behavior. A few studies have shown that orexin A exhibits anti-inflammatory and neur...

    Authors: Laurine Becquet, Catalina Abad, Mathilde Leclercq, Camille Miel, Laetitia Jean, Gaëtan Riou, Alain Couvineau, Olivier Boyer and Yossan-Var Tan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:64

    Content type: Research

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  40. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a debilitating condition where trauma to a limb results in devastating persistent pain that is disproportionate to the initial injury. The pathophysiology of CRPS remai...

    Authors: Marc A. Russo, Nathan T. Fiore, Caryn van Vreden, Dominic Bailey, Danielle M. Santarelli, Helen M. McGuire, Barbara Fazekas de St Groth and Paul J. Austin

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:70

  41. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neuroinflammation, and impaired neurogenesis. Urolithin A (UA), a gut-m...

    Authors: Zhuo Gong, Jingyi Huang, Biao Xu, Zhenri Ou, Le Zhang, Xiaohong Lin, Xiujuan Ye, Xuejian Kong, Dahong Long, Xiangdong Sun, Xiaosong He, Liping Xu, Qingqing Li and Aiguo Xuan

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:62

    Content type: Research

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  42. Microglia play a central role in most neurological disorders, but the impact of microgliosis on brain environment and clinical functions is not fully understood. Mice lacking multifunctional protein-2 (MFP2), ...

    Authors: Lien Beckers, Ivana Geric, Stijn Stroobants, Sander Beel, Philip Van Damme, Rudi D’Hooge and Myriam Baes

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:61

    Content type: Research

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  43. While NF-κB p50 function is impaired in central nervous system disease, aging in non-CNS tissues, and response to reactive oxygen species, the role of NF-κB p50 in aging-associated microglial pro-inflammatory ...

    Authors: Thomas Taetzsch, Savannah Benusa, Shannon Levesque, Christen L. Mumaw and Michelle L. Block

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Long-term outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) depends on early treatment. In patients with acute optic neuritis (ON), an early inflammatory event, we investigated markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which may...

    Authors: M. N. Olesen, K. Soelberg, B. Debrabant, A. C. Nilsson, S. T. Lillevang, J. Grauslund, I. Brandslund, J. S. Madsen, F. Paul, T. J. Smith, S. Jarius and N. Asgari

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:59

    Content type: Research

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  45. Corticosteroids dominate in the treatment of chronic autoimmune neuropathies although long-term use is characterized by devastating side effects.

    Authors: Kalliopi Pitarokoili, Melissa Sgodzai, Thomas Grüter, Hussein Bachir, Jeremias Motte, Björn Ambrosius, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Min-Suk Yoon and Ralf Gold

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:58

    Content type: Research

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  46. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (herein called NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that can be initiated by binding of immunoglobulin G autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG) to aquaporin-4 on astrocytes, ...

    Authors: Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Tianjiao Duan, Michael R. Yeaman and Alan S. Verkman

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:57

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a high morbidity and mortality. The peripheral immune system and cross-talk between peripheral blood and brain have been implicated in the ICH immune response. Thus, we delin...

    Authors: Marc Durocher, Bradley P. Ander, Glen Jickling, Farah Hamade, Heather Hull, Bodie Knepp, Da Zhi Liu, Xinhua Zhan, Anh Tran, Xiyuan Cheng, Kwan Ng, Alan Yee, Frank R. Sharp and Boryana Stamova

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:56

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Glia are key regulators of inflammatory responses within the central nervous system (CNS) following infection or trauma. We have previously demonstrated the ability of activated glia to rapidly produce pro-inf...

    Authors: Amanda R. Burmeister, M. Brittany Johnson, Jessica J. Yaemmongkol and Ian Marriott

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  49. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system characterized by a response directed against certain myelin prot...

    Authors: Laurent Kremer, Omar Taleb, Nelly Boehm, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Elisabeth Trifilieff, Jérôme de Seze and Susana Brun

    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2019 16:54

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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