- Open Access
In vivo CHI3L1 (YKL-40) expression in astrocytes in acute and chronic neurological diseases
© Bonneh-Barkay et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
- Received: 5 April 2010
- Accepted: 11 June 2010
- Published: 11 June 2010
CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates with lentiviral encephalitis and using immunohistochemistry showed that CHI3L1 was associated with astrocytes.
In the current study CHI3L1 transcription and expression were evaluated in a variety of acute and chronic human neurological diseases.
ELISA revealed significant elevation of CHI3L1 in the CSF of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients as well as mild elevation with aging. In situ hybridization (ISH) showed CHI3L1 transcription mostly associated with reactive astrocytes, that was more pronounced in inflammatory conditions like lentiviral encephalitis and MS. Comparison of CHI3L1 expression in different stages of brain infarction showed that YKL40 was abundantly expressed in astrocytes during acute phases and diminished to low levels in chronic infarcts.
Taken together, these findings demonstrate that CHI3L1 is induced in astrocytes in a variety of neurological diseases but that it is most abundantly associated with astrocytes in regions of inflammatory cells.
- Multiple Sclerosis
- Reactive Astrocyte
- Reactive Gliosis
CHI3L1 (chitinase 3-like protein 1, human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC-gp39), YKL-40, gp38k, chondrex, breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)) is up-regulated in inflamed tissues in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis, as well as in solid cancers [1–10]. Recently, we have shown that CHI3L1 expression is induced in the CNS of human and non-human primates with lentiviral encephalitis (HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and SIVE) . The physiological role of CHI3L1 is not known, however, it has been hypothesized to be involved with tissue remodeling during inflammation. In a recent study, BRP-39 (the mouse homologue of human CHI3L1) knockout mice showed a blunted immune response to allergic sensitization (e.g. decreased accumulation of dendritic cells in the lungs, decreased IgE production, increased percentage of apoptotic T-cells and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage) accompanied by reduced peribronchial fibrosis and collagen content .
Previous studies have reported altered expression of CHI3L1 in CNS disorders. Brain tissue homogenate studies have found increased CHI3L1 mRNA in schizophrenia, autism and Alzheimer's disease [13–15]. CSF studies have also found elevated CHI3L1 in patients with purulent meningitis and encephalitis . In our previous study, longitudinal analysis of CSF of SIV-infected macaques showed that CHI3L1 concentrations in the CSF increased between 2 to 8 weeks before terminal encephalitis. Additionally, CSF levels were found to be 10-fold higher than plasma levels. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CHI3L1 was associated with astrocytes around microglial nodules in SIVE and occasional activated macrophages/microglia. We have shown that CHI3L1 can inhibit bFGF signaling through FGFR1 and inhibit bFGF-induced axonal branching in hippocampal neurons . Thus, CHI3L1 potentially has the capacity to modulate neurotrophic factor associated changes in the functionality, plasticity or regenerative ability of neurons.
The current study was carried out to identify the spectrum of CHI3L1 expression in a variety of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, the cellular origin of CNS CHI3L1, and in the case of brain infarction a comparison between acute and chronic expression. We show that CHI3L1 is elevated in CSF from patients with MS and to a lesser extent with aging. CHI3L1 transcription is induced in reactive astrocytes and is associated with local neuroinflammation in acute and chronic diseases.
Ten de-identified CSF samples from each of AD, MS, ALS, stroke and normal control patients were obtained from the Human Brain and Spinal Fluid Resource Center (UCLA, CA) and the Center for ALS Research at the University of Pittsburgh. Cortical tissue samples from three cases of AD and schizophrenia, two cases of infarct and Pick's disease and one case of MS and ALS were obtained from the Human Brain and Spinal Fluid Resource Center (UCLA, CA) and used for ISH and immunohistochemical analyses. All human studies were approved by the corresponding institutional review boards.
Pigtailed macaque tissues
Previously banked brains from four pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) infected with SIVDeltaB670 viral swarm (SIVdB670) that developed encephalitis and three macaques that did not develop encephalitis were used for in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry.
In situ hybridization
Sense and antisense CHI3L1 DNA templates containing the T7 promoter were generated by PCR from the pUC57 vector (GenScript, Piscataway, NJ) containing the full length YKL40 cDNA (NCBI Reference Sequence: NM_001276.2). 35S-labeled RNA probes were generated using MAXIscript in vitro transcription kit (Ambion, Austin, TX). After removal of paraffin, cortical tissue sections from patients with MS, AD, Pick's disease, ALS, stroke and schizophrenia and SIV-infected pigtailed macaques were processed for in situ hybridization (ISH) and then for immunohistochemistry. For ISH, tissue sections were microwave oven treated and then incubated in hybridization buffer (1× HYB buffer, 0.6 M NaCl, 10% dextran, 50 μg/ml tRNA, 0.1 M DTT) containing radiolabeled CHI3L1 probe (50,000 cpm/μl) in 50°C over night. The following day the tissue sections were washed and processed for immunofluorescence. Tissue sections were exposed to emulsion (Eastman Kodak company, Rochester, NY) for 10 days in 4°C and then ISH signal was visualized using D19 (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and then fixed in Rapid fix (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO).
Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, 6-micrometer thick tissue sections were deparaffinized in Histoclear (National Diagnostics, Atlanta, GA) and rehydrated for 3 minutes in 100%, 95%, and 70% alcohol followed by PBS. Endogenous peroxidase activity was inactivated by immersing the section in 3% H2O2 for 20 minutes. Antigen unmasking was performed using antigen retrieval Citra® solution (BioGenex, San Ramon, CA). Tissue sections were blocked with protein blocking agent (Thermo, Pittsburgh, PA) for 20 minutes. GFAP staining was performed using polyclonal rabbit anti-human GFAP (1:500; DAKO, Carpinteria, CA). Iba1 staining was performed using rabbit anti-human Iba1 (1:500; Waco Chemicals, Richmond, VA) and CHI3L1 staining was performed using goat anti-human chitinase 3-like 1 (1:1000; R&D systems, Minneapolis, MN). These staining were followed by goat anti-rabbit Dylight 488 antibody (1:200; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA) or mouse anti-goat biotin-conjugated antibody (1:200; Jackson ImmunoResearch Laboratories, West Grove, PA).
Quantitation of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence
Five fields from each case were captured by confocal microscopy and analyzed for the number of ISH-positive cells or ISH/IHC pixels per field (LSM 510, Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Inc., Thornwood, NY). Illumination was provided by Argon (458, 477, 488, 514 nm, 30 mW), HeNe (543 nm, 1 mW) lasers. Digital images were captured with LSM 510 version 4.2 (Zeiss).
Semi-quantitation of CHI3L1 in situ hybridization in infarct cases
Infarct presence or absence was established by a neuropathologist (RLH), then infarct age was charachterized as acute, subacute, or chronic based upon neuropathological features seen on hematoxylin staining as previously described . Due to the focal nature of infarct pathology a semi-quantitative scoring was performed by a neuropathologist (CAW) blinded to clinical characteristics in 4 cases of acute infarct, 5 cases of subacute infarcts and 5 cases of chronic infarct. ISH scoring of CHI3L1 was assigned a score from 0 to (++++) based on ISH intensity: no siganl = 0, occasional positive cells = (+/-), weak signal = (+), moderate signal = (++), strong signal = (+++) and intense signal = (++++).
CHI3L1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
CHI3L1 levels were determined, in duplicate, for all of the CSF samples using the MicroVue CHI3L1 ELISA kit from Quidel Corporation (San Diego, CA) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Absorbance was measured using a microplate reader (BioTek Instruments, Inc., Winooski, VT).
Average ± standard error (SEM) of CSF CHI3L1 concentrations from MS, AD, ALS, stroke patients and healthy young and aged controls were graphed. The Mann-Whitney test was used to computes the statistical difference between disease groups and control patients. CHI3L1 ISH and GFAP imuunohistochemistry pixels were captured by confocal microscopy from 5 random fields of each of the SIVE, SIV, infarct, MS, AD, Pick's disease and schizophrenia cases. Average pixels per filed were calculated and a linear regression was used to determine a correlation between CHI3L1 pixel count and GFAP pixel count.
CSF YKL40 elevation with aging and acute and chronic neurological diseases
CSF CHI3L1 levels in neurodegenerative diseases.
Age range (median)
CHI3L1 concentration (range, ng/ml)
CHI3L1 concentration (median, ng/ml)
Healthy young controls (n = 12)
MS (n = 10)
Aged healthy controls (n = 7)
AD (n = 10)
ALS (n = 10)
Stroke (n = 10)
CHI3L1 transcript is found predominantly in astrocytes in neurological diseases
In summary, CHI3L1 expression in MS, aging and other neurological diseases is mostly associated with astrocytes. There is a correlation between CHI3L1 transcription and GFAP staining which is indicative of reactive gliosis. CHI3L1 transcription was more pronounced in diseases with a more pronounced inflammatory nature like encephalitis and MS.
YKL40 in acute and chronic stroke
CHI3L1 ISH in acute, subacute and chronic infarcts.
Age and sex
CHI3L1 ISH signal intensity
In this study we found that CHI3L1 is expressed in astrocytes and is associated with reactive gliosis in different neuropathological conditions particularly those associated with neuroinflammation. Therefore CHI3L1 could potentially be explored as a biomarker for neuroinflammation.
CHI3L1 expression in the neuroinflammatory model of SIVE
We have previously reported that CHI3L1 serves as a CSF biomarker for the development of encephalitis after SIV or HIV infection . Our data showed a correlation between the time-course of CHI3L1 concentration and viral load in the CSF. In addition, we found a paradox that CHI3L1 is released from macrophages in vitro but in vivo CHI3L1 protein was in the soma of astrocytes in the vicinity of microglial nodules. In this study we show that CHI3L1 mRNA is expressed by reactive astrocytes surrounding microglial nodules suggesting that macrophages possibly through released inflammatory mediators, can induce CHI3L1 expression in surrounding astrocytes but not neurons. These findings suggest that CHI3L1 found in the CSF in SIVE/HIVE could be derived from reactive astrocytes. It has been shown by others that differentiated macrophages do express CHI3L1 in vitro and in vivo in peritumoral macrophages in small cell lung cancer, in atherosclerotic plaques or in an asthma model in mice [12, 18, 19]. Therefore, it is not clear why CHI3L1 transcription in the brain is less evident in activated tissue macrophages/microglia. We hypothesize that YKL40 transcription by macrophages is inhibited soon after they enter the brain and this may account for the differences seen in other tissue pathologies. We are attempting to further dissect this paradox with in vitro studies.
CHI3L1 expression in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases
Previously, CHI3L1 expression was shown to be up-regulated in inflammatory conditions, but apart from one report of increased CHI3L1 mRNA in AD brain, there were no data in the literature characterizing the cellular source of CHI3L1 in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found high CHI3L1 transcription in two highly inflammatory diseases SIVE and MS. MS is a demyelinating disease associated with waxing and waning inflammation, gliosis and variable axon loss. CSF CHI3L1 levels were significantly elevated in MS patients, however, HIV-infected individual with high viral load showed higher CSF concentration consistent with the observation that neuroinflammation in encephalitis is more robust than in unselected MS. Comparing CSF concentration of CHI3L1 in patients at different stages of MS might be helpful in distinguishing active disease.
CHI3L1 transcript was also found in other neurodegenerative diseases like AD, ALS and Pick's disease as well as stroke, although to a lesser extent than SIVE and MS. In all cases, CHI3L1 was localized to astrocytes from which we would conclude that CHI3L1 expression is a general phenomena of reactive gliosis in response to neuroinflammation. Neuropathological astrocytosis not associated with neuroinflammation (e.g. spontaneous spongiform encephalopathy in rodents) is not associated with YKL40 expression (data not shown). This further emphasizes the use of CHI3L1 as a potential marker for CNS inflammatory conditions with its concentration reflecting a process of reactive gliosis. CSF samples from these diseases show increased CHI3L1 CSF levels compared to healthy young adults. Perhaps not surprisingly, older healthy adults have a very modest but significant elevation in CHI3L1 levels consistent with the hypothesis that low-grade inflammatory processes are induced in the aging brain.
CHI3L1 expression in schizophrenia
Recent studies showed increased CHI3L1 mRNA in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients [13, 18]. Moreover, two genetic studies claimed that variants in the promoter of CHI3L1 are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia [19, 20]. However, a more recent study failed to confirm a genetic association between CHI3L1 and schizophrenia in Japanese and Chinese populations . Overall, our results showed only occasional CHI3L1 positive cells in schizophrenia. That the younger schizophrenic case (age 32) had almost no CHI3L1 positive astrocytes while the other two cases (ages 52 and 56) had more CHI3L1 positive astrocytes raises the question whether there is a relationship between CHI3L1 expression and schizophrenia or it is just age-related reactive gliosis.
CHI3L1 expression in acute, subacute and chronic human brain infarction
Comparison of CHI3L1 transcription in acute, subacute and chronic infarcts showed that there is focal and temporal expression of CHI3L1 in astrocytes at the site of injury. Maximal CHI3L1 induction starts at the acute stages (3-5 days; ischemic changes in neurons visible, prominent endothelium and early neutrophilic infiltrate; no reactive astrocytes, no macrophages), continues at the subacute stages (between 5 days to 4 weeks; numerous foamy macrophages, some reactive astrocytes) and then diminished at the chronic stages (more than 4 weeks; few or no macrophages, abundant reactive astrocytes). These differences in YKL-40 transcription in different stages of pathology implies that acute inflammation induces CHI3L1 expression in astrocytes proximal to the lesion and as inflammation resolves CHI3L1 expression is diminished.
In summary, while the biological functions of CHI3L1 are unclear, its expression is related to inflammation in a variety of diseases, and in this study we show this is true also in the brain. Paradoxically in the brain CHI3L1 synthesis appears to be more astrocytic than macrophage based. The role of CHI3L1 in reactive astrogliosis is still obscure, but from our previous study, it could potentially be involved in growth factor mobilization from the extracellular matrix and attenuation of their biological activities. Alternatively, a recent study by Shao et al showed that CHI3L1 can directly induce cell signaling through syndecan 1 and integrin ανβ3 and induce focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation . The BRP-39 knockout mice showed reduced inflammation and fibrosis and therefore one might speculate that the expression of CHI3L1 could contribute to the survival of infiltrating inflammatory cells thus prolonging their deleterious effects. This model could be a valuable model to explore the role of CHI3L1 in neuroinflammation.
We thank Arlene Carbone-Wiley, Jonette Werley and Mark Stauffer for valuable technical assistance; Dr. Robert Bowser and UCLA-HBSFRC for providing us with CSF and tissue samples. This work was supported by K24 MH01717 and RO1 MH071151 to CAW, Pittsburgh ADRC P50-AG05133 to RLH and Emmerling funds to DB-B.
- Johansen JS: Studies on serum YKL-40 as a biomarker in diseases with inflammation, tissue remodelling, fibroses and cancer. Dan Med Bull. 2006, 53: 172-209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jensen BV, Johansen JS, Price PA: High levels of serum HER-2/neu and YKL-40 independently reflect aggressiveness of metastatic breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003, 9: 4423-4434.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cintin C, Johansen JS, Christensen IJ, Price PA, Sorensen S, Nielsen HJ: High serum YKL-40 level after surgery for colorectal carcinoma is related to short survival. Cancer. 2002, 95: 267-274. 10.1002/cncr.10644.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brasso K, Christensen IJ, Johansen JS, Teisner B, Garnero P, Price PA, Iversen P: Prognostic value of PINP, bone alkaline phosphatase, CTX-I, and YKL-40 in patients with metastatic prostate carcinoma. Prostate. 2006, 66: 503-513. 10.1002/pros.20311.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hormigo A, Gu B, Karimi S, Riedel E, Panageas KS, Edgar MA, Tanwar MK, Rao JS, Fleisher M, DeAngelis LM, Holland EC: YKL-40 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 as potential serum biomarkers for patients with high-grade gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2006, 12: 5698-5704. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-0181.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rand V, Prebble E, Ridley L, Howard M, Wei W, Brundler MA, Fee BE, Riggins GJ, Coyle B, Grundy RG: Investigation of chromosome 1q reveals differential expression of members of the S100 family in clinical subgroups of intracranial paediatric ependymoma. Br J Cancer. 2008, 99: 1136-1143. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6604651.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Letuve S, Kozhich A, Arouche N, Grandsaigne M, Reed J, Dombret MC, Kiener PA, Aubier M, Coyle AJ, Pretolani M: YKL-40 is elevated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and activates alveolar macrophages. J Immunol. 2008, 181: 5167-5173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chupp GL, Lee CG, Jarjour N, Shim YM, Holm CT, He S, Dziura JD, Reed J, Coyle AJ, Kiener P, Cullen M, Grandsaigne M, Dombret MC, Aubier M, Pretolani M, Elias JA: A chitinase-like protein in the lung and circulation of patients with severe asthma. N Engl J Med. 2007, 357: 2016-2027. 10.1056/NEJMoa073600.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ober C, Tan Z, Sun Y, Possick JD, Pan L, Nicolae R, Radford S, Parry RR, Heinzmann A, Deichmann KA, Lester LA, Gern JE, Lemanske RF, Nicolae DL, Elias JA, Chupp GL: Effect of variation in CHI3L1 on serum YKL-40 level, risk of asthma, and lung function. N Engl J Med. 2008, 358: 1682-1691. 10.1056/NEJMoa0708801.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuepper M, Bratke K, Virchow JC: Chitinase-like protein and asthma. N Engl J Med. 2008, 358: 1073-1075. 10.1056/NEJMc073406. author reply 1075View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bonneh-Barkay D, Bissel SJ, Wang G, Fish KN, Nicholl GC, Darko SW, Medina-Flores R, Murphey-Corb M, Rajakumar PA, Nyaundi J, Mellors JW, Bowser R, Wiley CA: YKL-40, a marker of simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis, modulates the biological activity of basic fibroblast growth factor. Am J Pathol. 2008, 173: 130-143. 10.2353/ajpath.2008.080045.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee CG, Hartl D, Lee GR, Koller B, Matsuura H, Da Silva CA, Sohn MH, Cohn L, Homer RJ, Kozhich AA, Humbles A, Kearley J, Coyle A, Chupp G, Reed J, Flavell RA, Elias JA: Role of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)/chitinase 3-like-1 in Th2 and IL-13-induced tissue responses and apoptosis. J Exp Med. 2009, 206: 1149-1166. 10.1084/jem.20081271.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chung C, Tallerico T, Seeman P: Schizophrenia hippocampus has elevated expression of chondrex glycoprotein gene. Synapse. 2003, 50: 29-34. 10.1002/syn.10228.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garbett K, Ebert PJ, Mitchell A, Lintas C, Manzi B, Mirnics K, Persico AM: Immune transcriptome alterations in the temporal cortex of subjects with autism. Neurobiol Dis. 2008, 30: 303-311. 10.1016/j.nbd.2008.01.012.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colton CA, Mott RT, Sharpe H, Xu Q, Van Nostrand WE, Vitek MP: Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD. J Neuroinflammation. 2006, 3: 27-10.1186/1742-2094-3-27.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ostergaard C, Johansen JS, Benfield T, Price PA, Lundgren JD: YKL-40 is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with purulent meningitis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002, 9: 598-604.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mullett SJ, Hamilton RL, Hinkle DA: DJ-1 immunoreactivity in human brain astrocytes is dependent on infarct presence and infarct age. Neuropathology. 2009, 29: 125-131. 10.1111/j.1440-1789.2008.00955.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arion D, Unger T, Lewis DA, Levitt P, Mirnics K: Molecular evidence for increased expression of genes related to immune and chaperone function in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2007, 62: 711-721. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.12.021.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang MS, Morris DW, Donohoe G, Kenny E, O'Dushalaine CT, Schwaiger S, Nangle JM, Clarke S, Scully P, Quinn J, Meagher D, Baldwin P, Crumlish N, O'Callaghan E, Waddington JL, Gill M, Corvin A: Chitinase-3-like 1 (CHI3L1) gene and schizophrenia: genetic association and a potential functional mechanism. Biol Psychiatry. 2008, 64: 98-103. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.12.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao X, Tang R, Gao B, Shi Y, Zhou J, Guo S, Zhang J, Wang Y, Tang W, Meng J, Li S, Wang H, Ma G, Lin C, Xiao Y, Feng G, Lin Z, Zhu S, Xing Y, Sang H, St Clair D, He L: Functional variants in the promoter region of Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007, 80: 12-18. 10.1086/510438.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada K, Hattori E, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Ohnishi T, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Kikuchi M, Okazaki Y, Yoshikawa T: Failure to confirm genetic association of the CHI3L1 gene with schizophrenia in Japanese and Chinese populations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008, 150B (4): 508-14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shao R, Hamel K, Petersen L, Cao QJ, Arenas RB, Bigelow C, Bentley B, Yan W: YKL-40, a secreted glycoprotein, promotes tumor angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2009, 17: 4456-68. 10.1038/onc.2009.292.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.