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  1. WNV-associated encephalitis (WNVE) is characterized by increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators, glial cells activation and eventual loss of neurons. WNV infection of neurons is rapidly progressive a...

    Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Saguna Verma and Vivek R Nerurkar
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:73
  2. This study compared the level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N-(Carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N-(Carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs), correl...

    Authors: Zohara Sternberg, Cassandra Hennies, Daniel Sternberg, Ping Wang, Peter Kinkel, David Hojnacki, Bianca Weinstock-Guttmann and Frederick Munschauer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:72
  3. Vascular dysfunction and brain inflammation are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of cerebral injury in acute stroke. However acute inflammation and vascular dysfunction may simply be markers of an ...

    Authors: Christopher Beer, David Blacker, Michael Bynevelt, Graeme J Hankey and Ian B Puddey
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:71
  4. Circumventricular organs (CVO) are cerebral areas with incomplete endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and therefore regarded as "gates to the brain". During inflammation, they may exert an active role in det...

    Authors: Eva Wuerfel, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Robert Glumm and Jens T Wuerfel
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:70
  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease affecting the central nervous system that is either sporadic or familial origin and causing the death of motor neurons. One of the genetic factors contributing ...

    Authors: Eun Jin Yang, Jing Hua Jiang, Sang Min Lee, Sun Choel Yang, Hye Suk Hwang, Myeong Soo Lee and Sun-Mi Choi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:69
  6. Activation of microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), is the hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases and other pathological conditions associated with CNS i...

    Authors: Deepak K Kaushik, Malvika Gupta, Sulagna Das and Anirban Basu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:68
  7. The chemokine CCL2 (also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, or MCP-1) is upregulated in patients and rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to post-traumatic neuroinflammation an...

    Authors: Bridgette D Semple, Tony Frugier and M Cristina Morganti-Kossmann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:67
  8. Brain edema leading to high intracranial pressure is a lethal complication of acute liver failure (ALF), which is believed to be cytotoxic due to swelling of astrocytes. In addition to the traditional view tha...

    Authors: Kakulavarapu V Rama Rao, Arumugam R Jayakumar, Xiaoying Tong, Veronica M Alvarez and Michael D Norenberg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:66
  9. Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that genetic background modifies the onset and the progression of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The efficacious influence of genetic ...

    Authors: Zuzana Stozicka, Norbert Zilka, Petr Novak, Branislav Kovacech, Ondrej Bugos and Michal Novak
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:64
  10. Most neurodegenerative diseases are age-related disorders; however, how aging predisposes the brain to disease has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study is to determine whether expression ...

    Authors: Debjani Tripathy, Xiangling Yin, Alma Sanchez, Jinhua Luo, Joseph Martinez and Paula Grammas
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:63
  11. TGFβ is both neuroprotective and a key immune system modulator and is likely to be an important target for future stroke therapy. The precise function of increased TGF-β1 after stroke is unknown and its pleiot...

    Authors: Kristian P Doyle, Egle Cekanaviciute, Lauren E Mamer and Marion S Buckwalter
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:62
  12. Microglial activation plays an integral role in the development and course of neurodegeneration. Although neuropeptides such as bradykinin (BK), somatostatin (SST), and endothelin (ET) are known to be importan...

    Authors: Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich, Talia Filipovich-Rimon, Sarit Ben-Shmuel, Claudia Hülsmann, Markus P Kummer and Michael T Heneka
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:61
  13. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the endpoint of a complex and still poorly understood process which results in inflammation, demyelination and axonal and neuronal degeneration. Since the first description of MS, ps...

    Authors: Beatriz G Pérez-Nievas, Borja García-Bueno, José LM Madrigal and Juan C Leza
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:60
  14. The classic neuritic β-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits are surrounded by pe...

    Authors: Philipp Spitzer, Martin Herrmann, Hans-Wolfgang Klafki, Alexander Smirnov, Piotr Lewczuk, Johannes Kornhuber, Jens Wiltfang and Juan Manuel Maler
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:59
  15. Passive immunization with antibodies directed to Aβ decreases brain Aβ/amyloid burden and preserves memory in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This therapeutic strategy is under intense scr...

    Authors: S Sakura Minami, Elkhansa Sidahmed, Saba Aid, Mika Shimoji, Takako Niikura, Italo Mocchetti, G William Rebeck, Jay S Prendergast, Chris Dealwis, Ronald Wetzel, Francesca Bosetti, Yasuji Matsuoka, Hyang-Sook Hoe and R Scott Turner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:57
  16. Inflammation and microglial activation are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Somewhat surprisingly, injection of a prototypical inflammatory agent, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into brains of amy...

    Authors: Daniel C Lee, Justin Rizer, Maj-Linda B Selenica, Patrick Reid, Clara Kraft, Amelia Johnson, Laura Blair, Marcia N Gordon, Chad A Dickey and Dave Morgan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:56
  17. Recent studies have demonstrated an inflammatory response associated with the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in cerebral ischemia have been documented. ...

    Authors: Wanglin Jiang, Shuping Zhang, Fenghua Fu, Haibo Zhu and Jian Hou
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:55
  18. In several neuropathological conditions, microglia can become overactivated and cause neurotoxicity by initiating neuronal damage in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. Our previous studies have shown that e...

    Authors: Xuesen Yang, Genlin He, Yutong Hao, Chunhai Chen, Maoquan Li, Yuan Wang, Guangbin Zhang and Zhengping Yu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:54
  19. Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving cells from the immune system and the central nerve system (CNS). Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant class of white blood cells, and typic...

    Authors: Luokun Xie, Ethan C Poteet, Wenjun Li, Amanda E Scott, Ran Liu, Yi Wen, Anuja Ghorpade, James W Simpkins and Shao-Hua Yang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:53
  20. In 70-80% of cases, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is associated with highly specific serum auto-antibodies to aquaporin-4 (termed AQP4-Ab or NMO-IgG). Recent evidence strongly suggests that AQP4-Ab are directly i...

    Authors: Sven Jarius, Diego Franciotta, Friedemann Paul, Klemens Ruprecht, Roberto Bergamaschi, Paulus S Rommer, Reinhard Reuss, Christian Probst, Wolfgang Kristoferitsch, Klaus Peter Wandinger and Brigitte Wildemann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:52
  21. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to attenuate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis. HO-1 can be induced by various stimuli released during cellular injury, such as heme. Deleterious free heme is degraded ...

    Authors: Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Adam R Nettles, James R Lokensgard, Gregory M Vercellotti and R Bryan Rock
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:51
  22. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are severe central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CNS IDD) characterized by monophasic or relapsing, longitudinally extensive transverse my...

    Authors: Koon H Chan, Jason SC Kwan, Philip WL Ho, Jessica WM Ho, Andrew CY Chu and David B Ramsden
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:50
  23. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interac...

    Authors: Asimenia Angelidou, Konstantinos Francis, Magdalini Vasiadi, Konstantinos-Dionysios Alysandratos, Bodi Zhang, Athanasios Theoharides, Lefteris Lykouras, Kyriaki Sideri, Dimitrios Kalogeromitros and Theoharis C Theoharides
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:48
  24. Inflammatory responses in the CNS mediated by activated glial cells play an important role in host-defense but are also involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Resveratrol is a natural polyp...

    Authors: Xiaofeng Lu, Lili Ma, Lingfei Ruan, Yan Kong, Haiwei Mou, Zhijie Zhang, Zhijun Wang, Ji Ming Wang and Yingying Le
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:46
  25. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by both mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of microglia, the macrophages of the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of mitochondrial dysfunction on the ac...

    Authors: Annette I Ferger, Loretta Campanelli, Valentina Reimer, Katharina N Muth, Irma Merdian, Albert C Ludolph and Anke Witting
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:45
  26. Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 diox...

    Authors: Xin Fu, Samantha M Zunich, Jason C O'Connor, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer and Keith W Kelley
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:43
  27. The enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) has been implicated in the progression of cerebral injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Previous studies in rodents suggest that cPLA2α enhances delayed ...

    Authors: Koji Kishimoto, Rung-Chi Li, Jian Zhang, Judith A Klaus, Kathleen K Kibler, Sylvain Doré, Raymond C Koehler and Adam Sapirstein
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:42
  28. We hypothesized that gp91phox (NOX2), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, generates superoxide anion (O2-) and has a major causative role in traumatic brain injury (TBI). To evaluate the functional role of gp91phox and r...

    Authors: Kenji Dohi, Hirokazu Ohtaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Sachiko Yofu, Kazue Satoh, Kazuyuki Miyamoto, Dandan Song, Shohko Tsunawaki, Seiji Shioda and Tohru Aruga
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:41
  29. Neuroinflammation occurs following brain injury, including soman (GD) induced status epilepticus (SE), and may contribute to loss of neural tissue and declined behavioral function. However, little is known abo...

    Authors: Erik A Johnson and Robert K Kan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:40
  30. Recently, using a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IIIB, a lysosomal storage disease with severe neurological deterioration, we showed that MPS IIIB neuropathology is accompanied by a robust neuroinf...

    Authors: Smruti Killedar, Julianne DiRosario, Erin Divers, Phillip G Popovich, Douglas M McCarty and Haiyan Fu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:39
  31. A major site of initiation of inflammatory responses upon physical perturbation(s) and infection by invading organisms is the skin. Control of responses in this organ is, in part, modulated by the neuronal nic...

    Authors: Lorise C Gahring, Amber V Osborne, Michelle Reed and Scott W Rogers
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:38
  32. Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition, the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Gut inflammation causes significant changes in neurally controlled gut functions in...

    Authors: Shaheen E Lakhan and Annette Kirchgessner
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:37
  33. The pro-nociceptive kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is upregulated on sensory C-fibres, astrocytes and microglia in the spinal cord of streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rat. This study aims at defining the role of microglial...

    Authors: Sébastien Talbot, Emna Chahmi, Jenny Pena Dias and Réjean Couture
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:36
  34. Using a murine model of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 encephalitis, our laboratory has determined that induction of proinflammatory mediators in response to viral infection is largely mediated through a Toll-li...

    Authors: Scott J Schachtele, Shuxian Hu, Morgan R Little and James R Lokensgard
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:35
  35. CHI3L1 (YKL-40) is up-regulated in a variety of inflammatory conditions and cancers. We have previously reported elevated CHI3L1 concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of human and non-human primates w...

    Authors: Dafna Bonneh-Barkay, Guoji Wang, Adam Starkey, Ronald L Hamilton and Clayton A Wiley
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:34
  36. During pathology of the nervous system, increased extracellular ATP acts both as a cytotoxic factor and pro-inflammatory mediator through P2X7 receptors. In animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a...

    Authors: Mandi Gandelman, Hugo Peluffo, Joseph S Beckman, Patricia Cassina and Luis Barbeito
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:33
  37. Diffuse axonal injury in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be associated with morbidity ranging from cognitive difficulties to coma. Magnetic resonance imaging scans now allow early detection of a...

    Authors: Charu Venkatesan, MaryAnn Chrzaszcz, Nicole Choi and Mark S Wainwright
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:32
  38. Astrocytes play a major role in preserving and restoring structural and physiological integrity following injury to the nervous system. After peripheral axotomy, reactive gliosis propagates within adjacent spi...

    Authors: Amanda Emirandetti, Gustavo F Simões, Renata G Zanon and Alexandre LR Oliveira
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:31
  39. Brain inflammation plays a central role in multiple sclerosis (MS). Dimethylfumarate (DMF), the main ingredient of an oral formulation of fumaric acid esters with proven therapeutic efficacy in psoriasis, has ...

    Authors: Henrik Wilms, Jobst Sievers, Uta Rickert, Martin Rostami-Yazdi, Ulrich Mrowietz and Ralph Lucius
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:30
  40. Overactivated microglia that cluster at neuritic plaques constantly release neurotoxins, which actively contribute to progressive neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, attenuating microglia...

    Authors: Wei-Chao Huang, Feng-Chang Yen, Feng-Shiun Shie, Chih-Ming Pan, Young-Ji Shiao, Cheng-Ning Yang, Fong-Lee Huang, Yen-Jen Sung and Huey-Jen Tsay
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:28
  41. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was discovered more than a century ago, and its known roles have extended from within the immune system to include a neuro-inflammatory domain in the nervous system. Neuropa...

    Authors: Lawrence Leung and Catherine M Cahill
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:27
  42. Previously, we found that interleukin (IL)-18 deficiency aggravates kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration in young C57BL/6 mice due to an over-compensation by IL-12. Additionally, IL-18 partic...

    Authors: Xing-Mei Zhang, Tao Jin, Hernan Concha Quezada, Eilhard Mix, Bengt Winblad and Jie Zhu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:26
  43. We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) ...

    Authors: Noel G Carlson, Monica A Rojas, Jonathan W Redd, Philip Tang, Blair Wood, Kenneth E Hill and John W Rose
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:25
  44. Activated complement system is known to mediate neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration following exposure to hypoxic-ischemic insults. Therefore, inhibition of the complement activation cascade may represent ...

    Authors: Ying Wang, Yansong Li, Shawn L Dalle Lucca, Milomir Simovic, George C Tsokos and Jurandir J Dalle Lucca
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2010 7:24

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