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  1. Cerebral ischemia triggers acute inflammation, which has been associated with an increase in brain damage. The mechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response after cerebral ischemia are multifaceted. An im...

    Authors: Yan-Chun Wang, Sen Lin and Qing-Wu Yang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:134
  2. SB623 cells are expanded from marrow stromal cells (MSCs) transfected with a Notch intracellular domain (NICD)-expressing plasmid. In stroke-induced animals, these cells reduce infarct size and promote functio...

    Authors: Mo A Dao, Ciara C Tate, Irina Aizman, Michael McGrogan and Casey C Case
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:133
  3. Amyloidogenesis is linked to neuroinflammation. The tyrosine-fructose Maillard reaction product, 2,4-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butenal, possesses anti-inflammatory properties in cultured macrophages, and in an arthr...

    Authors: Young-Jung Lee, Dong-Young Choi, Im Seup Choi, Jin-Yi Han, Heon-Sang Jeong, Sang Bae Han, Ki-Wan Oh and Jin Tae Hong
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:132
  4. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) has become a powerful tool in the visualization of immune cell dynamics and cellular communication within the complex biological networks of the inflamed central ne...

    Authors: Josephine Herz, Magdalena Paterka, Raluca A Niesner, Alexander U Brandt, Volker Siffrin, Tina Leuenberger, Jerome Birkenstock, Agata Mossakowski, Robert Glumm, Frauke Zipp and Helena Radbruch
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:131
  5. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces secondary tissue damage that is associated with inflammation. We have previously demonstrated that inflammation-related gene expression after SCI occurs in two waves - an initi...

    Authors: Kimberly R Byrnes, Patricia M Washington, Susan M Knoblach, Eric Hoffman and Alan I Faden
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:130
  6. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are necessary for appropriate responses to immune challenges. In the brain, excess superoxide production predicts neuronal cell loss, sugges...

    Authors: W Michael Zawada, Gregg P Banninger, Jennifer Thornton, Beth Marriott, David Cantu, Angela L Rachubinski, Mita Das, W Sue T Griffin and Susan M Jones
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:129
  7. Inflammatory responses in brain are primarily mediated by microglia, but growing evidence suggests a crucial importance of astrocytes. S100B, a calcium-binding protein secreted by astrocytes, has properties of...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Guerra, Lucas S Tortorelli, Fabiana Galland, Carollina Da Ré, Elisa Negri, Douglas S Engelke, Letícia Rodrigues, Marina C Leite and Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:128
  8. The breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier vascular endothelium is critical for entry of immune cells into the MS brain. Vascular co-morbidities are associated with increased risk of progression. Dyslipidemia, e...

    Authors: Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Robert Zivadinov, Naeem Mahfooz, Ellen Carl, Allison Drake, Jaclyn Schneider, Barbara Teter, Sara Hussein, Bijal Mehta, Marc Weiskopf, Jacqueline Durfee, Niels Bergsland and Murali Ramanathan
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:127
  9. During inflammation, immune cells accumulate in damaged areas and release pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotrophins. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a neuromodulatory role in spinal cord dors...

    Authors: Ya-Tin Lin, Long-Sun Ro, Hung-Li Wang and Jin-Chung Chen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:126
  10. Microglial cells are important effectors of the neuronal innate immune system with a major role in chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Curcumin, a major component of tumeric, alleviates pro-inflammatory activi...

    Authors: Marcus Karlstetter, Elena Lippe, Yana Walczak, Christoph Moehle, Alexander Aslanidis, Myriam Mirza and Thomas Langmann
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:125
  11. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a bacteriostatic factor that may also modulate cellular function, however, little is known concerning the expression or role of Lcn2 in CNS inflammation. Therefore, here we investigated t...

    Authors: Jacque PK Ip, Aline L Noçon, Markus J Hofer, Sue Ling Lim, Marcus Müller and Iain L Campbell
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:124
  12. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and proinflammatory cytokines by microglial cells in response to viral brain infection contributes to both pathogen clearance and neuronal damage. In the present stu...

    Authors: Shuxian Hu, Wen S Sheng, Scott J Schachtele and James R Lokensgard
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:123
  13. While it is clear that inbred strains of mice have variations in immunological responsiveness, the influence of genetic background following tissue damage in the central nervous system is not fully understood....

    Authors: David J Graber, Brent T Harris and William F Hickey
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:122
  14. Activation of glial cells, including astrocytes and microglia, has been implicated in the inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's dis...

    Authors: Wenwen Sheng, Yijia Zong, Arwa Mohammad, Deepa Ajit, Jiankun Cui, Dongdong Han, Jennifer L Hamilton, Agnes Simonyi, Albert Y Sun, Zezong Gu, Jau-Shyong Hong, Gary A Weisman and Grace Y Sun
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:121
  15. Retinal neovascularization has been intensively investigated in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Here, we studied the contribution of microglial cells to vascular regression during the hype...

    Authors: Franziska Fischer, Gottfried Martin and Hansjürgen T Agostini
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:120
  16. Recent data indicate that inflammatory mechanisms contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR). We have determined that serine racemase (SR) expression is increased by inflammatory stimuli including liposaccharide ...

    Authors: Haiyan Jiang, Junxu Fang, Bo Wu, Guibin Yin, Lin Sun, Jia Qu, Steven W Barger and Shengzhou Wu
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:119
  17. Burn survivors develop long-term cognitive impairment with increased inflammation and apoptosis in the brain. Gelsolin, an actin-binding protein with capping and severing activities, plays a crucial role in th...

    Authors: Qing-Hong Zhang, Qi Chen, Jia-Rui Kang, Chen Liu, Ning Dong, Xiao-Mei Zhu, Zhi-Yong Sheng and Yong-Ming Yao
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:118
  18. A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accomp...

    Authors: Hideya Sakaguchi, Akihiko Ueda, Takayuki Kosaka, Satoshi Yamashita, En Kimura, Taro Yamashita, Yasushi Maeda, Teruyuki Hirano and Makoto Uchino
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:116
  19. Anti-Aβ immunotherapy is a promising approach to the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) currently in clinical trials. There is extensive evidence, both in mice and humans that a significant a...

    Authors: Donna M Wilcock, Dave Morgan, Marcia N Gordon, Tiffany L Taylor, Lisa A Ridnour, David A Wink and Carol A Colton
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:115
  20. We have earlier shown that protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) were elevated in Indian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Here, we report th...

    Authors: Pawan K Gupta, Sudesh Prabhakar, Chandrika Abburi, Neel K Sharma and Akshay Anand
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:114
  21. Nogo-66 receptor NgR1 and its structural homologue NgR2 are binding proteins for a number of myelin-associated inhibitory factors. After neuronal injury, these inhibitory factors are responsible for preventing...

    Authors: Claire L McDonald, Karin Steinbach, Florian Kern, Rüdiger Schweigreiter, Roland Martin, Christine E Bandtlow and Markus Reindl
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:113
  22. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether localized peripheral inflammation, such as osteoarthritis, contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease in vivo.

    Authors: Stephanos Kyrkanides, Ross H Tallents, Jen-nie H Miller, Mallory E Olschowka, Renee Johnson, Meixiang Yang, John A Olschowka, Sabine M Brouxhon and M Kerry O'Banion
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:112
  23. Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. L...

    Authors: Laila Y AL-Ayadhi and Gehan A Mostafa
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:111
  24. Oligodendrocyte (OL) death is important in focal cerebral ischemia. TIMP-3 promotes apoptosis in ischemic neurons by inhibiting proteolysis of TNF-α superfamily of death receptors. Since OLs undergo apoptosis ...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Fakhreya Y Jalal, Jeffrey F Thompson, Espen J Walker, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil, Lu Li, Ross R Reichard, Chi Ben, Qing-Xiang Sang, Lee Anna Cunningham and Gary A Rosenberg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:108
  25. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, which is rapidly upregulated in the brain after injury. TNF-α acts by binding to its receptors, TNF-R1 (p55) and TNF-R2 (p75), on th...

    Authors: Aida Maddahi, Lars S Kruse, Qing-Wen Chen and Lars Edvinsson
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:107
  26. Increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in the plasma and brain is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption through proteolytic activity in neuroinflammatory diseases. MMP-9 is present in the br...

    Authors: Fuyuko Takata, Shinya Dohgu, Junichi Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Takashi Machida, Tomoya Wakigawa, Eriko Harada, Haruki Miyaji, Mitsuhisa Koga, Tsuyoshi Nishioku, Atsushi Yamauchi and Yasufumi Kataoka
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:106
  27. Increasing evidence links diverse forms of air pollution to neuroinflammation and neuropathology in both human and animal models, but the effects of long-term exposures are poorly understood.

    Authors: Shannon Levesque, Michael J Surace, Jacob McDonald and Michelle L Block
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:105
  28. In the brain, the inducible form of heme oxygenase (HO-1) has been recently demonstrated to exacerbate early brain injury produced by intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke which incident rate has been correlated wi...

    Authors: Ruey-Horng Shih, Shin-Ei Cheng, Li-Der Hsiao, Yu Ru Kou and Chuen-Mao Yang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:104
  29. Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) elicits rapid pathological changes in the structure and function of parenchymal vessels (≤ 100 μm). The role of neutrophils in these changes has not been determined. This study i...

    Authors: Victor Friedrich, Rowena Flores, Artur Muller, Weina Bi, Ellinor IB Peerschke and Fatima A Sehba
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:103
  30. VCAM-1 represents one of the most important adhesion molecule involved in the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is an essential step in the pathogenesis of MS. Severa...

    Authors: Leyre Mestre, Paula M Iñigo, Miriam Mecha, Fernando G Correa, Miriam Hernangómez-Herrero, Frida Loría, Fabian Docagne, José Borrell and Carmen Guaza
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:102
  31. Cognitive impairment has been reported in human immune deficiency virus-1- (HIV-1-) infected patients as well as in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. This impairment has been linked to neuroinflammation, disturbed b...

    Authors: Jagadeesh Sridhara Rao, Hyung-Wook Kim, Matthew Kellom, Dede Greenstein, Mei Chen, Andrew David Kraft, Gaylia Jean Harry, Stanley Isaac Rapoport and Mireille Basselin
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:101

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2017 14:95

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2012 9:19

  32. The effectiveness of ginseng in preventing and treating various central nervous system (CNS) diseases has been widely confirmed. However, ginsenosides, the principal components of ginseng, are characterized by...

    Authors: An Kang, Haiping Hao, Xiao Zheng, Yan Liang, Yuan Xie, Tong Xie, Chen Dai, Qijin Zhao, Xiaolan Wu, Lin Xie and Guangji Wang
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:100
  33. The rapid onset of potentially lethal neuroinflammation is a defining feature of viral encephalitis. Microglia and astrocytes are likely to play a significant role in viral encephalitis pathophysiology as they...

    Authors: Samantha R Furr, Vinita S Chauhan, Megan J Moerdyk-Schauwecker and Ian Marriott
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:99
  34. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of microglia and astrocytes is a characteristic of brain inflammation. Epidemiological studi...

    Authors: Xi Lan, Rui Liu, Lan Sun, Tiantai Zhang and Guanhua Du
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:98
  35. Correction to Gupta P K, Prabhakar S, Sharma S, Anand A. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Journal of Neuroinflammation 8...

    Authors: Pawan K Gupta, Sudesh Prabhakar, Suresh Sharma and Akshay Anand
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:97

    The original article was published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:47

  36. We used the Tampere Autopsy Study (TASTY) series (n = 603, age 0-97 yrs), representing an unselected population outside institutions, to investigate the pathogenic involvement of inflammation in Alzheimer's di...

    Authors: Eloise Helena Kok, Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen, Karita Isotalo, Teemu Luoto, Satu Haikonen, Sirkka Goebeler, Markus Perola, Mikko A Hurme, Hannu Haapasalo and Pekka J Karhunen
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:96
  37. Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases through production of nitric oxide (NO) and several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lipoxins (LXs) and aspirin-triggered LXs (ATLs) are c...

    Authors: Yan-Ping Wang, Yan Wu, Long-Yan Li, Jin Zheng, Ren-Gang Liu, Jie-Ping Zhou, Shi-Ying Yuan, You Shang and Shang-Long Yao
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:95
  38. Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral i...

    Authors: Johann Steiner, Martin Walter, Tomasz Gos, Gilles J Guillemin, Hans-Gert Bernstein, Zoltán Sarnyai, Christian Mawrin, Ralf Brisch, Hendrik Bielau, Louise Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Bernhard Bogerts and Aye-Mu Myint
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:94

    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal of Neuroinflammation 2013 10:799

  39. The literature contains conflicting results regarding the status of serum anti-Aβ antibody concentrations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reduced levels of these antibodies have been suggested to contribute to th...

    Authors: Andrea C Klaver, Mary P Coffey, Lynnae M Smith, David A Bennett, John M Finke, Loan Dang and David A Loeffler
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:93
  40. Amyloid plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are accompanied by activated microglia. The role of activated microglia in the pathogenesis of AD remains controversial: either clearing Aβ...

    Authors: Min Song, JingJi Jin, Jeong-Eun Lim, Jinghong Kou, Abhinandan Pattanayak, Jamaal A Rehman, Hong-Duck Kim, Kazuki Tahara, Robert Lalonde and Ken-ichiro Fukuchi
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:92
  41. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) has been proposed as a possible neuroprotective strategy to slow down the progression of early Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we repo...

    Authors: Christine R Swanson, Valerie Joers, Viktoriya Bondarenko, Kevin Brunner, Heather A Simmons, Toni E Ziegler, Joseph W Kemnitz, Jeffrey A Johnson and Marina E Emborg
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:91
  42. We have established that activation of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) mediates the switch from cytokine-induced sickness behavior to depressive-like behavior. Because human i...

    Authors: Xin Fu, Marcus A Lawson, Keith W Kelley and Robert Dantzer
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:88
  43. Elevated brain levels of the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6, which is mainly secreted from activated local astrocytes, contribute to pathological events including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. T...

    Authors: Ingo Schulz, Claudia Engel, André J Niestroj, Ulrike Zeitschel, Katja Menge, Astrid Kehlen, Antje Meyer, Steffen Roßner and Hans-Ulrich Demuth
    Citation: Journal of Neuroinflammation 2011 8:86

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